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Marcian

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Marcian
Augustus of the Eastern Roman Empire
An ink illustration of Marcian, mostly in black and brown.
Illustration of Marcian, based upon coins minted bearing his image.
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Reign 450–457
Coronation 25 August 450
Predecessor Theodosius II
Successor Leo I
Co-emperors Valentinian III (Western Emperor, 450–455)
Petronius Maximus (Western Emperor, 455)
Avitus (Western Emperor, 455–456)
Born c.392
Died 26 January 457 (aged 65)
Burial Church of the Holy Apostles, Constantinople
Wife
Issue Marcia Euphemia
Full name
Flavius Marcianus
Regnal name
Imperator Caesar Flavius Marcianus Augustus
Dynasty Theodosian dynasty

Marcian (/ˈmɑːrʃən/; Latin: Flavius Marcianus Augustus; Greek: Μαρκιανός; c. 392 – 26 January 457) was the Eastern Roman Emperor from 450 to 457. He was the last emperor of the Theodosian dynasty. Marcian also convened the Council of Chalcedon.

Before becoming emperor, Marcian served as a domesticus (personal assistant) under Ardabur and his son Aspar. After Emperor Theodosius II died without an heir on 28 July 450, Aspar nominated Marcian for the throne due to his position as consul and master of soldiers. Flavius Zeno, another powerful general, supported Marcian. Flavius would gain the rank of patrician in exchange for his support. After a month of negotiation, Pulcheria, the sister of Theodosius, agreed to marry Marcian as a part of an agreement to put Marcian on the throne.

After being elected on 25 August 450, Marcian reversed many of the policies of his predecessor, including those regarding the Eastern Roman Empire's relationship with the Huns, and those regarding religious doctrine. Marcian revoked all treaties with Atilla, ending all tributes from Eastern Rome to the Huns, helping his economic policies. Marcian would launch expeditions into the Hungarian plain while Atilla raided Italy in 452. After the fragmentation of the Hunnic confederation, Marcian settled numerous tribes as foderati (subject tribes which gave military support in exchange for benefits).

Marcian also convened the Council of Chalcedon, which declared Jesus had two natures, one divine and one human, reversing the Second Council of Ephesus. Marcian died on 26 January 457, leaving the Eastern Roman Empire with a treasury surplus of seven million solidi. Marcian was the last emperor of the Theodosian dynasty.

Early life[edit]

Marcian was born in c. 392,[1][2] in either Thrace[3] or Illyria.[2] Little of Marcian's early life is known. Marcian's father had served in the military and at a young age Marcian enlisted at Philippopolis in Thrace. By the time of the Roman–Sasanian War of 421–422, Marcian had reached the rank of tribune but did not see action in the war itself due to becoming ill in Lycia, where was cared for by Tatianus and his brother Iulius, the governor of Cilicia.[2][4][5][6] He eventually rose to become the domesticus (personal assistant) of Aspar,[2][5][6] the magister utriusque militiae (commander in chief) of the Eastern Roman Empire. Despite being Alanic, Aspar held massive influence in the Eastern Roman Empire, comparable to that of Stilicho in the Western Roman Empire.[2][5][6] In the early 430s, Marcian served under Aspar in Roman north Africa, where he was captured by the Vandals. Some sources give a likely false account of Marcian, while in captivity, meeting the Vandal King Genseric who predicted he would later become emperor. After his capture, he is not mentioned again until the death of Eastern Emperor Theodosius II.[2]

Reign[edit]

Rise to throne[edit]

After Eastern Emperor Theodosius II died unexpectedly in a riding accident on 28 July 450 the Empire was faced with its first succession crisis in 60 years, as Theodosius did not have any sons, nor had he designated any successor.[2][7] Some later sources state that Theodosius willed the Eastern Empire to Marcian on his deathbed, but this is thought to merely be propaganda created by Marcian's supporters after his election.[2]

Marcian had loyally served Aspar's father Ardabur for fifteen years and had served Aspar for some time, and thus Aspar decided to have Marcian elected, and was able to negotiate with other powerful figures to have Marcian made emperor, despite Marcian's relative obscurity.[6] There was a one-month delay between the death of Theodosius and the election of Marcian, possibly due to negotiations between Aspar and Pulcheria, the sister of Theodosius II, who agreed to marry Marcian, although she kept her vow of virginity, which she had taken in 413, aged 14, during her three years of marriage to him.[6] The marriage of Pulcheria and Marcian helped to legitimize Marcian's rule, as her family, the Theodosian dynasty, had direct ties to the throne.[6] It is possible negotiations were also needed between Flavius Zeno, who was similarly in a position of military power, and Aspar. Flavius Zeno was given the prestigious rank of patrician upon the ascension of Marcian in 450, which has led many historians to suggest a deal was made whereby Zeno would be rewarded for supporting Marcian.[6]

Marcian was elected on 25 August 450, with Pulcheria herself crowning him emperor, a unique event symbolizing that the imperial power was shared, likely to further boost Marcian's legitimacy.[2][8][9][10] Marcian was elected without consultation with the Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian III, which has been viewed as an indication of further separation between the Eastern and Western Roman Empires.[8][9][10] Valentinian III would not recognize Marcian as Eastern Roman Emperor until March 452.[11][a] Marcian had his daughter Marcia Euphemia, who came from a previous marriage, marry Anthemius, future Western Roman Emperor, in 453.[2][13]

The election of Marcian in 450 resulted in significant changes to eastern imperial policy. The eunuch and spatharios (military attendant) Chrysaphius, who had exercised huge influence over the young Theodosius, was killed, either by murder or execution. Marcian took a much tougher stance against the Huns and a more direct role in ecclesiastical affairs. For these reasons, some historians consider him the strongest, or at least most independent, Eastern Roman Emperor, although the fact that both Pulcheria and Flavius Zeno were opposed to Chrysaphius' influence may have influenced Marcian's actions.[2][8]

Conflict with the Huns[edit]

A colored drawing of Europe, showing the states at the time of Attila by different colors, with the Roman Empire in yellow, the Hunnic Confederation in orange, the Vandal Kingdom in blue, the Franks in green, the Goths in pink, the Sueves in purple, the Saxons in light pink, the Burgundians in brown, the Lombards in bright yellow, and the Alans in light blue.
A map of Europe showing the Hunnic confederation under Attila in orange, and the Roman Empire in yellow

Almost immediately after becoming emperor, Marcian reversed the policies of his predecessor Theodosius, revoking all treaties with Attila. He proclaimed the end of tribute, saying he may grant gifts if Attila was friendly, but if he attempted to raid the Eastern Roman Empire, he would be repelled. At this time Attila was preparing to invade the Western Roman Empire, under the guise of helping Valentinian III against the Visigoths. Attila reacted angrily, demanding tribute, but did not alter his invasion plans. He led his horde west from Pannonia in spring 451, into the Western Roman Empire.[5] Flavius Aetius, the comes et magister utriusque militiae of the Western Roman Empire, organized a defense and called upon the Visigoths, Franks, Burgundians, Alans, Saxons, Celtic Armoricans, and other tribal groups to aid him, numbering about 60,000. Attila's forces were made up of Gepids, Alans, Sciri, Heruli, Rugians, some Franks, Burgundians, and Ostrogoths.[14]

Attila sacked Metz, and attempted a siege of Orleans, before meeting Aetius' forces at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains, in northeast Gaul. This battle involved around 100,000 men in total, and there were heavy losses on both sides. After the battle, Attila retreated to the Hungarian plain, and Aetius dismissed his coalition of barbarians, sending them back to their own territories. In spring 452, Attila again launched a raid, this time into Italy, which was almost entirely undefended. He was likely motivated by a desire for revenge, along with a need to raid to keep his tribal-state together. Attila captured the city of Aquileia after a long and difficult siege,[15] and ransacked it. Attila then raided across northern Italy, taking Milan and other important cities. There was much fear that Attila would attack Rome itself, whose walls were weaker than some of the cities Attila had already captured. During this period, Aetius was unable to launch an attack on Attila, other than cutting his lines of communication and harassing his outlying forces.[16]

Despite having the rich plunder from capturing Aquileia, Milan, and other cities, Attila was quickly placed in a precarious situation, due to the actions of both Eastern and Western Rome. In Italy, he was seriously lacking in funds, due to the lack of subsidies from either Eastern or Western Rome for two years, and his forces were depleted from the constant warfare. Additionally, his homeland was threatened by the Eastern Empire which, despite punitive raids ordered by Attila, took the offensive against the Hungarian plain, attacking across the Danube and inflicting a defeat upon the Huns. Italy was at this time suffering from famine, which along with a plague that followed it, placed yet more strain upon Attila, and allowed the Western Roman Empire to bribe him into retreating to his homeland. After returning to the Hungarian plain, he threatened to invade the Eastern Empire in the next spring, and enslave the entirety of it.[16] Marcian and Aspar ignored his threats, as they reasoned, based upon the previous treaties which Attila had made and then broken, that Attila could not be permanently deterred by gold, of which the Eastern Empire had already given approximately six tons to appease him. They reasoned that this gold would be better spent building up armies, than appeasing threats, and that the rich Asiatic and Oriental provinces, which were protected behind Constantinople, were secure enough to allow the Eastern Empire to retake any European provinces it might lose. This campaign never came to fruition, as Attila died unexpectedly in 453, either from hemorrhaging or alcoholic suffocation, after celebrating a marriage to one of his many wives. After the death of Attila, his tribal confederation rapidly fell apart, starting first with the rebellions of the Ostrogoths, but within a year escalating to full-blown fragmentation.[17]

This fragmentation allowed the Eastern Empire to resume its policy of playing off barbarians against each other, to stop any one tribe from becoming too powerful. Quickly, many tribes began to request settlement within the Eastern Empire in exchange for military service, as had happened before Attila. It is almost certain that the Gepid king, Ardaric, came to an agreement with Marcian. Ardaric had formed a coalition of the Rugians, Sciri, Heruli, and his own Gepids, which he led against the remaining Hunnic confederation. Ardaric, alongside the Ostrogoth leaders Theodemir, Valamir, and Videmir, decisively defeated Attila's oldest son, Ellac, at the Battle of Nedao in 455, in which Ellac was slain. After this battle, the Hunnic confederation fell apart entirely. Marcian forcibly settled numerous tribes in the recovered European provinces as foederati: Rugians in eastern Thrace, Sciri in Lower Moesia and Scythia, Gepids in Dacia, and others. This marked the official abandonment of a rigid Danube barrier, manned by Roman Laeti; it was replaced by barbarian foederati. Marcian also accepted the Ostrogoths, who had established themselves in Pannonia, the heartland of the former Hunnic confederation, as nominal subjects, to prevent their re-emergence as a powerful group. This network of subject peoples, which was overall reliable, and overall manageable, was beneficial to the Eastern Empire. The various tribal people generally kept each other's power in check without East Roman intervention, and could be induced to serve the Eastern Empire against its enemies by gifts, subsidies, and treaties.[2][18][19] After the death of Attila, Marcian enjoyed a relatively peaceful reign, although he won some small campaigns against the Saracens in Syria and against the Blemmyes in Egypt.[2][12]

Religious policy[edit]

A wall painting of the Council of Chalcedon.
Fourth Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon, 1876 painting by Vasily Surikov

Shortly before Marcian became emperor, the Second Council of Ephesus was held in 449. The council, despite the intention that it be an ecumenical council, was marred by what both the Eastern and Western Roman Churches saw as heretical beliefs, and as such both refused to accept the results of the council.[20][21] The decision considered the most objectionable by the Eastern and Western Roman Churches was on the matter of Christology, where the council stated that Jesus had one divine united nature, called miaphysis, which went against both churches' belief in the hypostatic union.[21][22]

To repudiate the Second Council of Ephesus, Marcian convened the Council of Chalcedon, the fourth ecumenical council of the early church, in 451. Pulcheria may have influenced this decision, or even made the convention of a council a requirement during her negotiations with Aspar to marry Marcian. The council was to take place near Constantinople so that Marcian and Pulcheria could monitor the proceedings closely. Initially, it was to be held at the city of Nicaea, which held enormous religious importance to the early church, as it was the site of their first council, the First Council of Nicaea in 325. However, Marcian successfully arranged to transfer the venue to Chalcedon, because it was closer to Constantinople, and would thus allow him to respond quickly to any events along the Danube, which was being raided by the Huns under Attila. The council met in October 451, and was attended by about 370 bishops, most of them Eastern Roman, although four representatives were sent by Pope Leo I. This council reversed the decision of the Second Council of Ephesus that Jesus had one divine united nature, [22] and instead agreed that Jesus had "a divine nature (physis) and a human nature, united in one person (hypostasis), with neither division nor confusion".[23]

The council also agreed to condemn Pope Dioscorus I of Alexandria, who had overseen the Second Council of Ephesus and to revoke the condemnations of Ibas of Edessa and Theodoret, which had taken place during that council. The council also reiterated the importance of the See of Constantinople, placing it firmly in second place behind the See of Rome, and giving it the right to appoint bishops in the Eastern Roman Empire, over the objection of Pope Leo I. The council finished in November 451, after which Marcian issued numerous edicts confirming its outcomes.[2][24] One such edict ordered the repression of Eutychianists, barring them from holding state offices, forbidding them from criticizing the Council of Chalcedon, and ordering their literature, alongside that of the Nestorians, to be burned.[25] Marcian suppressed multiple violent religious revolts through military force, sending the military to suppress monks in Palestine and placing troops in Alexandria to ensure the installation of Proterius of Alexandria, who was to replace the deposed Pope Dioscorus I.[2] As a result of the council and the subsequent edicts, a large number of Christians who disagreed with the council, including many Nestorians, migrated to the Sassanid Empire.[26]

Marcian also funded Pulcheria's extensive building projects until her death in July 453, all of which focused on the construction of religious buildings,[2] including the Church of St. Mary of Blachernae, and the Hodegon Monastery.[27] Due to his piety, Marcian was compared to both Paul the Apostle and King David.[28]

Economic and legal policy[edit]

At the beginning of Marcian's reign, the Eastern Roman treasury was almost bankrupt, due to the huge tributes paid to Attila by Theodosius. Marcian reversed this near bankruptcy not by levying new taxes, but by cutting expenditure.[29] Upon his accession, he declared a remission of all debts owed to the state.[2] He attempted to improve the efficiency of the state in multiple ways, such as mandating that the praetorship must be given to senators residing in Constantinople, attempting to curb the practice of selling administrative offices, and decreeing that consuls should be responsible the maintenance of Constantinople's aqueducts. He repealed the Follis, a tax on senators' property which amounted to seven pounds of gold per annum.[29] Marcian removed the financial responsibilities of the consuls and praetors, who had since the time of the Roman Republic been responsible for funding public games and donating money to the citizens of Constantinople, respectively. Additionally, he made it such that only the vir illustris (highest ranks in the senate) could hold either office.[2] He also partially repealed a marriage law enacted by Constantine I, which decreed that a man of senatorial status could not marry a slave, freedwoman, actress, or woman of no social status (humilis), in an attempt to preserve the purity of the senatorial class. Marcian adjusted this law by declaring that it should not exclude a woman of good character, regardless of her social status or wealth.[29] By the time of his death, Marcian's shrewd cutting of expenditures and avoidance of large-scale wars left the Eastern Roman treasury with a surplus of 100,000 pounds (45,000 kg) of gold.[2]

Marcian laid out numerous legal reforms in his five novels, or codes of law, many of which were targeted at reducing the corruption and abuses of office that existed during the reign of Theodosius.[30] Marcian decreed in 451 that anyone who performed pagan rites would lose their property and be condemned to death, and that no pagan temples which had previously been closed could be re-opened. In order to ensure his law was implemented, he set a penalty of 50 pounds (23 kg) of gold for any judge, governor, or official who did not enforce it.[31]

Politics[edit]

When Marcian became emperor, he was influenced by Flavius Zeno, Pulcheria, and Aspar. However, Flavius Zeno died soon after Marcian ascended the throne, possibly as early as the end of 451,[2][8] and Pulcheria died in July 453, leaving Aspar as the only major influence in the court of the Eastern Roman Empire. This influence was enhanced by the promotion of his son Ardabur to magister militum per Orientem.[2][32] Marcian's principal advisors were: Pulcheria; Euphemius the magister officiorum (senior administrative officer) ; Palladius the praetor; and Anatolius of Constantinople.[33]

It is not known if Aspar and Ardabur directly dictated policy, but if so they were careful to avoid upsetting the ruling elites of Constantinople; despite Aspar's large influence, the Eastern Roman elites retained much of their anti-German sentiment. Marcian patronized the Blues, who were one of the, originally four, circus teams. The two teams which remained had become more like political parties than sports teams by his time, wielding large influence in the empire; the other surviving team was the Greens. After the Greens responded angrily to his patronage, Marcus censured them, forbidding any of them to hold public office for three years. Marcian's patronage of the Blues may have had dynastic motivations, as Chrysaphius had been favorable to the Greens.[2]

Foreign relations[edit]

Vardan II Mamikonian, who was leading a revolt against the Sassanian Empire, sent an embassy to Theodosius in 450, composed of his brother Hmayeak Mamikonian, Atom Gnuni, Vardan Amatuni, and Meruzhan Artsruni, to ask for assistance. This request was received favorably by Theodosius; however, any practical response was cut short by the death of Theodosius and the accession of Marcian. Marcian was counseled by Anatolius and Florentius not to make war with the Sassanians, and so declined to help the rebals.[34] Later on, in c. 456, Marcian risked the anger of the Sassanids to strike against Gubazes I, the king of Lazica, who was nominally a vassal of the Eastern Roman Empire. Gubazes was attempting to form an alliance with the Sassanians to break free of Eastern Roman control. Marcian launched a military campaign against him in 456, forcing him to acknowledge Eastern Roman rule. Marcian also demanded that Gubazes either abdicate or depose his son and co-ruler, Damnazes, as having joint rulers was against Roman client state traditions. Gubazes chose to abdicate.[35] In 455 Marcian banned the export of weapons, and tools used to manufacture them, to barbarian tribes.[36]

Relationship with the Western Roman Empire[edit]

Marcian came to the throne during a time when the Eastern Roman Empire and Western Roman Empire were increasingly divided from each other, with both effectively acting as independent states. When Marcian was elected in 450, it was done without consultation with the Western Emperor, Valentinian III,[8][9][10] who would not recognize him until March 452.[11][a] Valentinian also did not recognize the Eastern Roman consul for 451, Marcian, or 452, Sporacius.[37] Marcian also radically changed Eastern Roman policies, especially in relation to the Huns,[8] without consulting the Western Roman Empire, which infuriated Valentinian.[38] Hydatius suggests that Marcian made Eastern Roman troops available to Valentinian to repel the Huns, confusingly led by a man named Aetius, but this may be a muddling of Aetius' campaign against Attila and Marcian's campaign against the Huns across the Danube.[39]

When Marcian settled the Ostrogoths in Pannonia and the Gepids in Tisza, he was accused of encroaching upon Western Roman land.[40] Marcian avoided involving himself with the affairs of the Western Roman Empire when possible. In 455 the Vandals under King Gaiseric attacked the Western Roman Empire and sacked Rome, after western emperor Petronius Maximus assassinated Valentinian III and broke an engagement treaty with the Vandals. Marcian did not respond violently; possibly due to the influence of Aspar, he merely sent an envoy requesting that the Vandals return the Eastern Roman Empress Licinia Eudoxia, and her daughters, Placidia and Eudocia.[2][40] Marcian did not recognize any Western Emperor after Valentinian, denying Maximus when he sent an embassy requesting it, and similarly refusing to recognize Avitus, who succeeded Maximus.[12][41]

Death[edit]

Marcian's reign ended in 26 January 457, when he died, possibly of gangrene;[32][42] according to some legends while attending a long religious procession.[2] He was buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople, next to his wife Pulcheria.[2][42] He left the Eastern Empire with a treasury holding seven million solidi, an impressive achievement considering the economic ruin inflicted upon Eastern Rome by the Huns, both through warfare and the massive subsidies they received under Theodosius.[43] Although Marcian had a son-in-law, Anthemius, he did not have any connection to the Theodosians, and thus was not considered a legitimate heir to the throne, so Aspar was once again left to play the role of emperor-maker. Aspar selected Leo I, a fifty-year-old officer commanding a unit in the praesental army. A later source claims that the Eastern Roman Senate offered to elect Aspar himself, but he declined, with the cryptic comment "I fear that a tradition in ruling might be initiated through me". This comment has often been interpreted to be a reference to the fact that he was an Arian,[2][32][42] or else to his Alanic heritage.[44]

Legacy[edit]

Colour photograph of an ancient stone column set in front of a modern building and parked cars. The bottom and top of the column are engraved, and several metal bands placed at regular intervals encircle the central section of the column.
The Column of Marcian in 2011

Marcian was recorded favorably by Eastern Roman and Byzantine sources, and often compared to Emperors Constantine I and Theodosius I.[45] Marcian's reign was seen by many later Byzantine writers, such as Theophanes the Confessor, as a golden age: Marcian secured the Eastern Empire both politically and financially; set an orthodox religious line that future emperors would follow; and stabilized the capital city politically. Some later scholars attribute his success not merely to his skill, but also to a large degree of luck: he was fortunate enough to have Pulcheria, a marriageable member of the Theodosian dynasty, to legitimize his rule; for much of his rule the two greatest external threats to Rome, the Persians and the Huns, were absorbed with their own problems; and there were no natural disasters during his reign.[2][27][45] He was remembered fondly by the people of Constantinople, who would shout "Reign like Marcian!" at the installation of future emperors.[40]

Buildings[edit]

The Column of Marcian, built by the praefectus urbi Tatianus, who had taken care of Marcian when he had become ill in Lycia in his early life, was dedicated to Marcian.[46] It still stands in modern Istanbul, though the statue of Marcian which originally topped it has been lost.[47] Marcian also had a statue in the Forum of Arcadius, which contained the statues of several of the Eastern Emperor Arcadius's successors.[48] Marcian may have been the sponsor of the Chrysotriklinos of the Great Palace of Constantinople; the Patria of Constantinople states that Marcian constructed it, whereas the Suda states that Eastern Emperor Justin II built it. Most historians believe it is more likely that Justin II built it. The Byzantine historian Joannes Zonaras states that Justin II actually rebuilt an older construction, which some historians identify as the Heptaconch Hall of Eastern Emperor Justinian.[49]

Ancient sources[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Timothy E. Gegory states that Marcian was recognized by Valentinian III on 30 March 451.[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Meijer 2004, p. 153.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Nathan.
  3. ^ Vasiliev 1980, p. 104.
  4. ^ Jones, Martindale & Morris 1980, pp. 714–715.
  5. ^ a b c d Friell & Williams 2005, p. 84.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Lee 2013, p. 96.
  7. ^ Lee 2013, p. 94.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Lee 2013, p. 97.
  9. ^ a b c Jeffreys, Haldon & Cormack 2008, p. 243.
  10. ^ a b c Cameron, Ward-Perkins & Whitby 2001, p. 42.
  11. ^ a b Cameron, Ward-Perkins & Whitby 2001, p. 43.
  12. ^ a b c Gregory 1991, p. 1296.
  13. ^ Dzino & Parry 2017, p. 258.
  14. ^ Friell & Williams 2005, p. 85.
  15. ^ Friell & Williams 2005, p. 86.
  16. ^ a b Friell & Williams 2005, p. 87.
  17. ^ Friell & Williams 2005, p. 88.
  18. ^ Friell & Williams 2005, p. 89.
  19. ^ Jones, Martindale & Morris 1980, p. 138.
  20. ^ Vasiliev 1980, p. 105.
  21. ^ a b Vasiliev 1980, p. 99.
  22. ^ a b Lee 2013, p. 145.
  23. ^ Lee 2013, p. 146.
  24. ^ Lee 2013, p. 147.
  25. ^ Bury 2012, p. 380.
  26. ^ Bauer 2010, pp. 122–123.
  27. ^ a b Grant 1985, p. 306.
  28. ^ Herrin 2009, p. 11.
  29. ^ a b c Bury 2012, pp. 236–237.
  30. ^ Pharr, Davidson & Pharr 2001, p. 562.
  31. ^ Evans 2002, p. 66.
  32. ^ a b c Lee 2013, p. 98.
  33. ^ Grant 1985, p. 305.
  34. ^ Jones, Martindale & Morris 1980, pp. 85–86.
  35. ^ Dawes 1948, p. 79.
  36. ^ Holmes, Singleton & Jones 2001.
  37. ^ McEvoy 2013, p. 290, note 84.
  38. ^ Potter 2008, p. 302.
  39. ^ McEvoy 2013, p. 294.
  40. ^ a b c Grant 1985, p. 307.
  41. ^ Kazhdan 1991, p. 704.
  42. ^ a b c Meijer 2004, p. 154.
  43. ^ Friell & Williams 2005, p. 127.
  44. ^ Norwich 1998, p. 51.
  45. ^ a b Gregory 1991, p. 1297.
  46. ^ Jones, Martindale & Morris 1980, pp. 1053–1054.
  47. ^ Freely & Çakmak 2004, p. 63.
  48. ^ Kazhdan 1991a, p. 1347.
  49. ^ Kostenec 2008.

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External links[edit]

Preceded by
Theodosius II
Eastern Roman Emperor
450–457
Succeeded by
Leo I