Marcos Cipac de Aquino
Marcos Cipac de Aquino (?–1572), informally known as Marcos the Indian, was a Roman Catholic Nahuatl artist in sixteenth-century Mexico, who may have been the painter of the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe. Art historian Jeanette Favrot Peterson has ventured "Marcos Cipac (de Aquino) was the artist of the Mexican Guadalupe, capable of executing a large Marian painting on cloth within a professional milieu that was abundantly stock to stimulate his innate artistry.". The basis of her conjecture is evidence in the Anales de Juan Bautista, a manuscript housed in the Biblioteca Boturini of the Basilica of Guadalupe and translated and published in 2001. Mexican scholars of the nineteenth century posited the painting's artist as Marcos Cipac de Aquino, including Joaquín García Icazbalceta in his "Carta acerca del Origen ce la Imagen de Nuestra Sra. de Guadalupe" (1883) and Francisco del Paso y Troncoso's "Noticia del indio Marcos y de otros pintores del siglo XVI" (1891). There is some skepticism about the identification of the painting with Cipac Aquino. He is identified a 1556 sermon, but referred to him only as Marcos. This sermon came to light only in 1888. Marcos de Aquino is credited with the painting also by Leoncio Garza-Valdés on the basis of a scientific investigation.
- Peterson, Jeanette Favrot. Visualizing Guadalupe: From Black Madonna to Queen of the Americas. Austin: University of Texas Press 2014.
- Poole, Stafford. Our Lady of Guadalupe: The Origins and Sources of a Mexican National Symbol, 1531-1797. Tucson: University of Arizona Press 1995
- Reyes García, Luis Reyes. Anales de Juan Bautista. Mexico City: Biblioteca Lorenzo Boturini, Insigne y Nacional Bacilica de Guadalupe 2001.
- Jeanette Favrot Peterson, Visualizing Guadalupe: From Black Madonna to Queen of the Americas. Austin: University of Texas Press 2014, pp. 115-16, 118.
- Peterson, Visualizing Guadalupe, p. 287, fn. 25.
- Luis Reyes García, Anales de Juan Bautista. Mexico City: Biblioteca Lorenzo Boturini, Insigne y Nacional Bacilica de Guadalupe 2001.
- Peterson, Visualizing Guadalupe, p. 289, fn. 73.
- Stafford Poole, Our Lady of Guadalupe: The Origins and Sources of a Mexican National Symbol, 1531-1797. Tucson: University of Arizona Press 1995, p. 63.
- Mariano Cuevas, S.J., Historia de la iglesia en México, Mexico City: Patria S.A., vol. 4, p.21.
- Primo Feliciano Velázquez, La aparición de Sta. Ma. de Guadalupe. Mexico City: Patricio Sanz 1931, pp. 51-55m 402, 109.
- Dunning, Brian. "Skeptoid #201: The Virgin of Guadalupe". Skeptoid. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2016-03-04.
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