Mardan

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Mardan

مردان
City
Mardan's Guides Memorial was built in 1892 to honour fallen soldiers who fought during the 1879 Siege of the British Residency in Kabul
Mardan's Guides Memorial was built in 1892 to honour fallen soldiers who fought during the 1879 Siege of the British Residency in Kabul
Mardan is located in Gandhara
Mardan
Mardan
Location within Pakistan
Mardan is located in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Mardan
Mardan
Mardan (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa)
Mardan is located in Pakistan
Mardan
Mardan
Mardan (Pakistan)
Mardan is located in Asia
Mardan
Mardan
Mardan (Asia)
Mardan is located in Earth
Mardan
Mardan
Mardan (Earth)
Coordinates: 34°12′4.4″N 72°01′33″E / 34.201222°N 72.02583°E / 34.201222; 72.02583
Country Pakistan
Province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
DistrictMardan
TehsilMardan
Government
 • CommissionerZakir Hussain Afridi
 • Deputy Inspector General of PoliceAalam Shinwari
Elevation
310 m (1,020 ft)
Population
 • City358,604
 • Rank23rd, Pakistan
2nd, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
 Mardan Municipal Committee: 351,733
Mardan Cantonment: 6,871
Time zoneUTC+5 (PST)
Calling code+92 937

Mardān (Pashto, Urdu: مردان‎; Urdu About this soundpronunciation ; Pashto: About this soundpronunciation ) is a city in the Mardan District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan.[2] Located in the Valley of Peshawar, Mardan is the second-largest city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (after Peshawar).[3][4] It is a fast-growing city that experienced a population boom in the latter half of the twentieth century.

Around 1800 BCE, the area around Mardan was part of the homeland of the Gandhara grave culture. Rock edicts of the ancient Indian King Ashoka in the nearby Shahbaz Garhi, written in the right-to-left Kharosthi script, date from the Mauryan period (mid-200s BCE) and represent the earliest irrefutable evidence of writing in South Asia.[5] The nearby Takht-i-Bahi which has remains of an ancient Buddhist monastery was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980.[6]

History[edit]

Historical Population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1951 48,827—    
1961 77,932+4.79%
1972 115,194+3.62%
1981 147,977+2.82%
1998 245,926+3.03%
2017 358,604+2.01%
Source: [7][1]

Mardan is located in a region rich in archaeological sites. In 1962, the Sanghao Caves were discovered outside of Mardan, which yielded artefacts from the Middle Paleolithic period,[8] over 30,000 years ago. Other sites in the immediate area have yielded evidence of human activity from the Upper Paleolithic period.[8] Further excavations from the area around Jamal Garhi near Mardan recovered artefacts from the Mesolithic period.[8]

The Edicts of Ashoka were carved on a massive boulder near Mardan around 250 BCE.
The Takht-i-Bahi complex near Mardan dates from the first century CE.

The area around Mardan then formed part of the homeland of the Gandhara grave culture around 1800 BCE. The Gandharan grave culture appears to have been a Central Asian group that may represent part of the Indo-Aryan invasion into the subcontinent.[9] Mardan then formed part of the ancient Buddhist kingdom of Gandhara. Rock edicts of Ashoka in nearby Shahbaz Garhi date from the Mauryan period in the mid-200s BCE, and are written in the ancient Kharosthi script.[5]

The Seated Buddha, dating from 300 to 500 CE, was found near Mardan, and is now on display at the Asian Art Museum in San Francisco.

The nearby UNESCO World Heritage Site of Takht-i-Bahi was established as a monastery around 46 CE. The Bakhshali manuscript, which contains the earliest record of the use of the number 0 in the Indian subcontinent,[10] was found near Mardan in 1891, and dates from the 3rd or 4th century CE. It is the oldest extant manuscript in Indian mathematics. The nearby Kashmir Smast caves served Buddhist hermit monks, and dates from the 4th to 9th century CE.

Guides Memorial

During the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, Mardan was not a scene of heavy fighting as many of the native troops had been disarmed by British forces.[11] Mardan's famous Guides' Memorial was established in 1892 to honour fallen soldiers who fought during the 1879 Siege of the British Residency in Kabul. The city's Women's Hospital was established in 1906.[12] In 1920, Mardan was visited by Sir Charles Monro, head of British armed forces in British India.[13] Until 1937, Mardan District was a part of Peshawar District, when it was elevated to the status of its own independent district.[14] During the Viceroy's visit in 1946, large numbers of Mardan residents travelled to Peshawar to participate in a Muslim League rally in favour of Pakistan's establishment.[15] The Mardan Museum was established in 1991 to showcase the region's rich ancient history.

In July 2020, life-size statues of the Buddha was found during construction activity in the Mardan area. However, locals destroyed these findings, posted their vandalism on social media, which resulted on their arrest by the Pakistani authorities.[16]

Demographics[edit]

Gulbahar Village Mardan

Mardan is the de facto headquarters of the Yousafzai tribe of Pashtuns. A significant number of Mohmand and Utmankhel tribe members have settled in the city over the years. The population of the city over the years is shown in the table below.[17][1]

According to the 2017 Census of Pakistan, the city of Mardan had 358,604 inhabitants, making it the second-largest city in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. These inhabitants were spread out among 45,429 households, making the average household size in Mardan 7.89.[1] Mardan experienced explosive growth throughout the latter half of the twentieth century, as the population of Mardan grew fivefold in just 50 years. The city's growth has, though, over time, slowed down by quite a bit, and between the years of 1998 and 2017, its population only grew at about 2% every year.

Education[edit]

There was no public or private sector university in Mardan till 2009. The first public sector university, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan was established in 2009.[18] In 2016, a public sector women university Women University Mardan[19][20] started functioning while in 2017, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar Mardan campus was upgraded to full-fledge university and named University of Engineering and Technology Madan.[21][22][23]

Bacha Khan Medical College, Mardan, which was established in 2010, is the city only medical college.[24] There is also a campus of University of Agriculture, Peshawar, which is named as Agriculture university Ameer Mohammad Khan Campus Mardan.[25]

There are also two Postgraduate colleges in Mardan, one each for boys and girls. Government Post Graduate College Mardan, which was established in 1952[26] while Government Post Graduate College for women Mardan was established in 1963.[27]

There are numerous public and private Schools and colleges for Boys and Girls in Mardan. Among them, the most renowned and famous is Fazal e Haq Mardan.[28]

Geography[edit]

Mardan is located in the south west of the district at 34°12'0N 72°1'60E and an altitude of 283 metres (928 ft).[29] Mardan is a district headquarter of Mardan District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Risalpur is located to the south, Charsadda is located to the west, Yar Hussain to the east and Takht Bahi & Katlang to the north. It is the 2nd largest city in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa[30][31][2] while 19th largest city of Pakistan.[32]

Climate[edit]

With an influence from the local steppe climate, Mardan features a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh). The average temperature in Mardan is 22.2 °C, while the annual precipitation averages 559 mm. October is the driest month with an average rainfall of 12 mm, while the wettest month is August, with an average 122 mm of precipitation.

June is the hottest month of the year with an average temperature of 33.2 °C. The coldest month January has an average temperature of 10.0 °C.

Climate data for Mardan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 17.7
(63.9)
19.0
(66.2)
24.0
(75.2)
30.1
(86.2)
36.3
(97.3)
41.4
(106.5)
38.5
(101.3)
36.5
(97.7)
35.3
(95.5)
31.6
(88.9)
25.1
(77.2)
19.4
(66.9)
29.6
(85.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 10.0
(50.0)
12.2
(54.0)
17.2
(63.0)
22.7
(72.9)
28.2
(82.8)
33.2
(91.8)
32.3
(90.1)
31.0
(87.8)
28.8
(83.8)
23.2
(73.8)
16.2
(61.2)
11.0
(51.8)
22.2
(71.9)
Average low °C (°F) 2.3
(36.1)
5.5
(41.9)
10.4
(50.7)
15.3
(59.5)
20.2
(68.4)
25.1
(77.2)
26.2
(79.2)
25.5
(77.9)
22.3
(72.1)
14.9
(58.8)
7.4
(45.3)
2.7
(36.9)
14.8
(58.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 47
(1.9)
53
(2.1)
67
(2.6)
44
(1.7)
20
(0.8)
17
(0.7)
88
(3.5)
122
(4.8)
45
(1.8)
12
(0.5)
14
(0.6)
30
(1.2)
559
(22.2)
Source: Climate-Data.org[33]

Economy[edit]

Mardan is part of a growing industrial centre,[34] and is home to textile and edible oil mills, as well as one of the largest sugar mills in South Asia.[34] An economic zone is planned as a part of the multi-billion dollar China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) near Rashakai. Although Rashakai is part of Nowshera District, its proximity with Mardan is expected to directly benefit the city[35][36]

Sports[edit]

In 2006, Mardan District government with the help of Government of Pakistan created a sports complex in Mardan city.[37] The complex, Mardan Sports Complex, has facilities for all major sports such as cricket, football, field hockey, swimming, and basketball. The swimming pool facility was built in 2011[38] while an international standard hockey turf was constructed at the sports complex at the cost Rs. 67.69 million in 2016.[39][40] Pakistan international football player Mansoor Khan is from Mardan.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "POPULATION AND HOUSEHOLD DETAIL FROM BLOCK TO DISTRICT LEVEL KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA (MARDAN DISTRICT)" (PDF). MARDAN_BLOCKWISE.pdf. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. 3 January 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
  2. ^ a b Tehsils & Unions in the District of Mardan – Government of Pakistan
  3. ^ "Pakistan City & Town Population List". Tageo.com website. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  4. ^ Rammohan, E. N. (8 February 2010). The Implacable Taliban, Repeating History in Afghanistan. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. ISBN 9789380177182.
  5. ^ a b Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Shahbazgarhi Rock Edicts – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". UNESCO. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
  6. ^ Khaliq, Fazal (1 June 2015). "Takht-i-Bhai: A Buddhist monastery in Mardan". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 8 November 2015.
  7. ^ "TABLE-1: AREA & POPULATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS BY RURAL/URBAN: 1951-1998 CENSUSES" (PDF). Administrative Units.pdf. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 June 2020. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  8. ^ a b c Ahmed, Mukhtar (29 May 2014). Ancient Pakistan – An Archaeological History: Volume I: The Stone Age. Amazon. ISBN 9781495490477.
  9. ^ P., Mallory, J. (1991). In search of the Indo-Europeans : language, archaeology and myth. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0500276161. OCLC 24710469.
  10. ^ "Bodleian Library | Carbon dating finds Bakhshali manuscript contains oldest recorded origins of the symbol 'zero'". University of Oxford. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
  11. ^ Wynbrandt, James (2009). A Brief History of Pakistan. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 9780816061846.
  12. ^ "Zanana Hospital". Mardan. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
  13. ^ Weekes, Colonel H. E. (19 December 2011). History of the 5th Royal Gurkha Rifles: 1858 to 1928. Andrews UK Limited. ISBN 9781781493335.
  14. ^ General Description Of The District Mardan Archived 14 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Pakistan Journal of History and Culture. National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research. 2007.
  16. ^ Desk, News (18 July 2020). "4 Arrested For Destroying Ancient Buddha Statue In Mardan". Naya Daur. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  17. ^ "AREA & POPULATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS BY RURAL/URBAN: 1951–1998 CENSUSES (PDF)" (PDF). pbs.gov.pk. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
  18. ^ Newspaper, From the (3 May 2011). "Wali Khan varsity's first convocation held". Dawn. Pakistan. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  19. ^ Correspondent, The Newspaper's (27 February 2014). "Mardan to have women university". Dawn. Pakistan. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  20. ^ waqar (21 January 2015). "CM Pervez Khattak announces Women University in Mardan". Pakhtunkwa – Find News, Books, Poetry and Places in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  21. ^ "UET Mardan campus upgraded to a university – The Express Tribune". The Express Tribune. 24 June 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  22. ^ "K-P govt plans to set up three universities – The Express Tribune". The Express Tribune. 28 October 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  23. ^ "UET Mardan campus to be upgraded into full fledge varsity, Atif". radiotnn.com. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  24. ^ "RECOGNIZED MEDICAL COLLEGES IN PAKISTAN". pmdc.org.pk. Archived from the original on 19 August 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  25. ^ Newspaper, From the (1 June 2012). "NEWS IN BRIEF". Dawn. Pakistan. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  26. ^ "Government Post Graduate College Mardan – Online College Admission System, Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa". admission.hed.gkp.pk. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  27. ^ "GOVT. Post Graduate College for women Mardan – Online College Admission System, Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa". admission.hed.gkp.pk. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  28. ^ "Khattak says will revive lost fame of Fazal e Haq College Mardan". Pakistan Today. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  29. ^ Location of Mardan – Falling Rain Genomics
  30. ^ "26 killed in blast outside Nadra office in Mardan". The News International. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  31. ^ Sarwar, Beena. "University Student the Latest Victim of Pakistan's 'Blasphemy' Vigilantism". thewire.in. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  32. ^ "POPULATION SIZE AND GROWTH OF MAJOR CITIES (PDF)" (PDF). pbs.gov.pk. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  33. ^ "Climate: Mardan - Climate-Data.org". Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  34. ^ a b "Mardan | Pakistan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
  35. ^ "Rashakai Economic Zone, China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) Official Website". cpec.gov.pk. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  36. ^ "Rashakai Economic Zone – Technology City".
  37. ^ "Work on Mardan projects in progress". Dawn. Pakistan. 8 February 2006. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
  38. ^ "Still afloat: Swimming pool in Mardan takes no divers – The Express Tribune". The Express Tribune. 5 February 2015. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
  39. ^ "KP govt enlists steps taken for promotion of sports". The News International. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
  40. ^ "Imran inaugurates Hayatabad Sports Complex". The Nation. Retrieved 18 December 2017.

External links[edit]