Mardin

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Mardin
ܡܪܕܝܢ
Metropolitan municipality
The old city of Mardin
The old city of Mardin
Mardin is located in Turkey
Mardin
Mardin
Location of Mardin within Turkey.
Coordinates: 37°19′0″N 40°44′16″E / 37.31667°N 40.73778°E / 37.31667; 40.73778Coordinates: 37°19′0″N 40°44′16″E / 37.31667°N 40.73778°E / 37.31667; 40.73778
Country Turkey
RegionSoutheastern Anatolia
ProvinceMardin
Government
 • MayorMustafa Yaman
 • Co-MayorFebruniye Akyol[1] (Until 16 November, 2016)[2][3]
Area[4]
 • District969.06 km2 (374.16 sq mi)
Elevation1,083 m (3,553 ft)
Population (2012)[5]
 • Urban86,948
 • District139,254
 • District density140/km2 (370/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+3 (FET)
Postal code47x xx
Area code(s)0482
Vehicle registration47
Websitewww.mardin.gov.tr
www.mardin.bel.tr
www.mardinimiz.net

Mardin (Kurdish: Mêrdîn‎, Syriac: ܡܶܪܕܺܝܢ‎, Arabic/Ottoman Turkish: ماردينMārdīn) is a city and multiple (former/titular) bishopric in southeastern Turkey. The capital of Mardin Province, it is known for the Artuqid (Artıklı or Artuklu in Turkish) architecture of its old city, and for its strategic location on a rocky hill near the Tigris River that rises steeply over the flat plains.[6]

History[edit]

Close-up of the old town
Another detail of the old town

Antiquity[edit]

The territory of Mardin and Karaca Dağ was known as Izalla in the Late Bronze Age (variously: KURAzalzi, KURAzalli, KURIzalla), and originally part of a Hurrian kingdom.

The city and its surrounds were absorbed into Assyria proper during the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365-1020 BC), and then again during the Neo Assyrian Empire (911-605 BC).[7]

The ancient name was rendered as Izalā in Old Persian, and during the Achaemenid Empire (546-332 BCE) according to the Behistun Inscription it was still regarded as an integral part of the geo-political entity of Assyria (Achaemenid Assyria, Athura).[8]

It survived into the Assyrian Christian[disambiguation needed] period as the name of Mt. Izala (Izla), on which in the early 4th century AD stood the monastery of Nisibis, housing seventy monks.[9]

In the Roman period, the city itself was known as Marida (Merida),[10][11] from a Syriac/Assyrian Neo-Aramaic language name translating to "fortress".[12][13]

Between c.150 BC and 250 AD (apart from a brief Roman intervention when it became a part of Assyria (Roman province) it was part of the Neo-Assyrian kingdom of Osroene.[14]

In the late 3rd century AD Shapur II conquered Mardin and Osroene into the Sassanid Empire (224-651 AD) after which the region became part of the province of Assuristan.

Medieval history[edit]

Byzantine Izala fell to the Seljuks in the 11th century. During the Artuqid period, many of Mardin's historic buildings were constructed, including several mosques, palaces, madrassas and khans. Mardin served as the capital of one of the two Artuqid branches during the 11th and 12th centuries. The lands of the Artukid dynasty fell to the Mongol invasion sometime between 1235 and 1243, but the Artuqids continued to govern as vassals of the Mongol Empire.[15] During the battle of Ain Jalut in 1260, the Artuqid governor revolted against Mongol rule. Hulagu's general and Chupan's ancestor, Koke-Ilge of the Jalayir, stormed the city and Hulegu appointed the rebel's son, al-Nasir, governor of Mardin. Although, Hulagu suspected the latter's loyalty for a while, thereafter the Artuqids remained loyal unlike nomadic Bedouin and Kurd tribes in the south western frontier. The Mongol Ilkhanids considered them important allies. For this loyalty they showed, Artuqids were given more lands in 1298 and 1304.[citation needed] Mardin later passed to the Aq Qoyunlu, a federation of Turkic tribes that controlled territory all the way to the Caspian Sea.

During the medieval period, the town (which retained significant Assyrian and Armenian populations) became the centre for episcopal sees of Armenian Apostolic, Armenian Catholic, Assyrian, Syriac Catholic, churches, as well as a stronghold of the Syriac Orthodox Church, whose patriarchal see was headquartered in the nearby Saffron Monastery from 1034 to 1924.[16]

Modern history[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
152610,000—    
192722,249+122.5%
194518,522−16.8%
195019,354+4.5%
195524,379+26.0%
1970 33,740+38.4%
1990 53,005+57.1%
2000 65,072+22.8%
2012 86,948+33.6%
Lush plains south of Mardin
Filigree art in Mardin, known as Telkârî

In 1451 the Kara Koyunlu besieged the castle of Mardin, damaging the city after their failed attempt to take the stronghold. About half a century later, in 1507, Ismail I of the Safavids succeeded to capture the city and the castle.[17] A few years later in 1515, the city yielded to the Ottomans, who were bitter rivals of the Safavid dynasty, though the castle still remained under the control of Ismail I. One year later, the Ottomans under the leadership of Selim I besieged the city anew and eventually annexed it in 1517.[17] During this time, Mardin was administered by a governor directly appointed under the Ottoman Sultan's authority.

The city experienced a relatively tranquil period under Ottoman rule, without any significant conflicts or plights. This period of peace was finally halted when the Ottoman Empire came into conflict with the Khedivate of Egypt. During this time the city came under the rule of insurgents associated with the Milli clan. Between 1847 and 1865 the city's population suffered from a notable cholera epidemic, with the exact number of fatalities not known.[17] During World War I Mardin was one of the sites affected by the Armenian Genocide. On the eve of World War I, Mardin was home to over 12,000 Assyrians and over 7,500 Armenians.[18] During the armed conflicts and plights caused by the war, many were sent to the camps of Ras al-'Ayn, though some managed to escape to the Sinjar Mountain with help from local Chechens.[19] Kurds and Arabs of Mardin typically refer to these events as "fırman" (government order), while Syriacs call it "seyfo" (sword).[20] After the Armistice of Mudros Mardin was one of the Turkish cities that was not occupied by the troops of the Allied Powers. In 1923, with the founding of the Republic of Turkey, Mardin was made the administrative capital of a province named after it. Many Assyrian survivors of the violence later on left Mardin for nearby Qamishli in the 1940s after their conscription in the Turkish military became compulsory.[20]

Through a passed law in 2012 Mardin became a metropolitan municipality, which took office after the Turkish local elections in 2014.[21] After the last local election, an Assyrian Syriac Orthodox female, Februniye Akyol (Fabronia Benno), is serving as co-mayor of the town.

Ecclesiastical history[edit]

A bishopric of the Assyrian Church of the East was centred on the town when it was part of the Roman province of Assyria. It was a suffragan see of Edessa, the provincial metropolitan see.

It eventually became part of the Catholic Church in the late 17th century AD following a breakaway from the Assyrian Church, and is the (nominal) seat of three sees of the Catholic Church : the current Chaldean Catholic Eparchy of Mardin and two (now) titular sees under the ancient name of the town :[22] former Armenian Catholic Archeparchy of Mardin, now Titular see of Mardin only, and former Syriac Catholic Eparchy of Mardin and Amida, now Titular see (initially as mere Eparchy).

Historical landmarks[edit]

Main post office building

Mardin has often been considered an open-air museum due to its historical architecture. Most buildings use the beige colored limestone rock which has been mined for centuries in quarries around the area. The whole city has been listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site under the "Mardin Cultural Landscape".

Churches[edit]

Monastery of Deyrul Zafran

Islamic monuments[edit]

Mosques[edit]

The Great Mosque of Mardin
Zinciriye Medrese
Zinciriye Medrese
  • Great Mosque (Ulu Camii) - constructed in the 12th century by the ruler of the Artukid Turks, Qutb ad-din Ilghazi. It has a ribbed dome and a minaret that soars above the city. There were originally two minarets, but one collapsed many centuries ago.
  • Melik Mahmut Mosque - built in the 14th century and contains the tomb of its patron Melik Mahmut. It is known for its large gate which features elaborate stonework.
  • Abdüllatif Mosque (Latfiye Mosque) - built in 1371 by the Artukid ruler Abdüllatif. Its minaret was destroyed by Tamerlane's army and rebuilt many centuries later in 1845 by the Ottoman Governor Gürcü Mehmet Pasha.
  • Şehidiye Medresse and Mosque - built in 1214 by Artuk Aslan. It has an elaborate ribbed minaret and an adjoining madrassa.
  • Selsel Mosque
  • Necmettin Gazi Mosque
  • Kasım Tuğmaner Mosque
  • Reyhaniye Mosque - the second largest mosque in Mardin after Ulu Camii. Built in the 15th century, it has a large courtyard and open hallway featuring a fountain.
  • Hamidiye Mosque (Zebuni Mosque) - built before the 15th century, it is named after its patron Şeyh Hamit Effendi.
  • Süleymanpaşa Mosque
  • Secaattin and Mehmet Mosque
  • Hamza-i Kebir Mosque
  • Şeyh Abdülaziz Mosque
  • Melik Eminettin el-Emin Mosque
  • Sıtra Zaviye Mosque
  • Şeyh Salih Mosque
  • Mahmut Türki Mosque
  • Sarı Mosque
  • Şeyh Çabuk Mosque - built in the 14th century and contains the tomb of its patron Şeyh Çabuk
  • Nizamettin Begaz Mosque
  • Kale Mosque
  • Dinari Mosque

Madrassas[edit]

  • Zinciriye Medrese (Sultan Isa Medrese) - constructed in 1385 by Najm ad-din Isa. The madrasa is part of a complez that includes a mosque and the tomb of Najm ad-din Isa.
  • Sitti Radviyye Medrese (Hatuniye Medrese) - built in the 12th century in the honor of Sitti Radviyye, the wife of Najm ad-din Alpi. There is a footprint that is claimed to be that to be that of the Prophet Muhammad.
  • Kasımiye Medrese - construction started by the Artuqids and completed by the Aq Qoyunlu under Sultan Kasım. It has an adjoining Mosque and a Dervish lodge.

Politics[edit]

In the 2014 local elections, Ahmet Türk of the Democratic Regions Party (DBP)[32] was elected mayor of Mardin. However, on 21 November 2016 he was detained on terror charges after being dismissed from office by Turkish authorities and a trustee appointed as mayor.[33]

Economy[edit]

Historically, Mardin produced sesame.[34] Tourism is an important industry in Mardin.

Geology[edit]

During the late Permian ~250 mya the Afro-Arabian plate started opening up. The East African continental rift initiation is believed to have started around 27-31 million years ago with the beginning of the basaltic volcanism of the Afar Plume. This rift system would cause a contractional tectonic process to occur in which the Arabian Plate was pushed in a north-easterly direction towards the Eurasian plate. The divergence in the East African Rift would eventually cause the closure of the Tethys Ocean as the Arabian Plate made its first inception of collision with Eurasia between 25-23 million years ago, and complete closure around 10 mya and creation of the Mardin High.

Panorama of Mardin, with the Mesopotamian Plain opening to the right

Climate[edit]

Mardin has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers and cold, wet, and occasionally snowy winters. Temperatures in summer usually increase to 40 °C (104 °F) due to Mardin being situated right next to the border of Syria. Snowfall is quite common between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two. Mardin has over 3000 hours of sun per year. The highest recorded temperature is 42.5 °C (108.5 °F). Average rainfall is about 641.4 mm (25 inches) per year.

Mardin-Kızıltepe, with +48.8 °C (119.84 °F) on August 14, 1993, holds the record for the highest temperature ever recorded in Turkey.[35]

Climate data for Mardin
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 7.4
(45.3)
9.4
(48.9)
14.5
(58.1)
19.6
(67.3)
26.4
(79.5)
33.0
(91.4)
38.1
(100.6)
37.5
(99.5)
33.8
(92.8)
25.6
(78.1)
17.1
(62.8)
10.1
(50.2)
22.7
(72.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.5
(38.3)
4.9
(40.8)
8.7
(47.7)
14.4
(57.9)
19.8
(67.6)
25.4
(77.7)
30.2
(86.4)
29.6
(85.3)
25.7
(78.3)
18.7
(65.7)
11.2
(52.2)
5.0
(41)
16.4
(61.6)
Average low °C (°F) −0.5
(31.1)
0.4
(32.7)
3.5
(38.3)
8.3
(46.9)
13.1
(55.6)
18.2
(64.8)
22.3
(72.1)
21.6
(70.9)
17.1
(62.8)
11.3
(52.3)
6.2
(43.2)
1.2
(34.2)
10.2
(50.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 99.8
(3.929)
110.7
(4.358)
94.6
(3.724)
75.5
(2.972)
37.7
(1.484)
8.3
(0.327)
3.3
(0.13)
1.2
(0.047)
4.1
(0.161)
33.3
(1.311)
68.7
(2.705)
104.2
(4.102)
641.4
(25.25)
Average rainy days 10.6 10.6 10.7 9.9 6.6 1.7 0.5 0.2 0.7 5.3 7.4 10.2 74.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 139.5 142.8 189.1 222 310 375 396.8 368.9 315 238.7 174 136.4 3,008.2
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü[36]

[37]

Notable locals[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Mardin is twinned with:

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Güsten, Susanne (April 14, 2014). "Mardin elects 25-year old Christian woman as mayor". Al-Monitor.
  2. ^ http://www.voltairenet.org/article194970.html
  3. ^ https://armenianweekly.com/2017/02/09/turkey-removes-assyrian/
  4. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  5. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  6. ^ [1], from roughguides.com
  7. ^ Parpola - Assyrians after Assyria
  8. ^ Besides, in the Behistun inscription, Izalla, the region of Syria renowned for its wine, is assigned to Athura. George Roux - Ancient Iraq
  9. ^ Johann Elieser Theodor Wiltsch, trans. John Leitch, Handbook of the Geography and Statistics of the Church, Volume 1, Bosworth & Harrison, 1859, [books.google.ch/books?id=DbwpAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA232 p. 232.]
  10. ^ "Mardin". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  11. ^ Fraternité Chrétienne Sarthe-Orient, "Marida (Mardin)" Archived 2014-01-25 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ Lipiński, Edward (2000). The Aramaeans: their ancient history, culture, religion. Peeters Publishers. p. 146. ISBN 978-90-429-0859-8.
  13. ^ Smith, of R. Payne Smith. Ed. by J. Payne (1998). A compendious Syriac dictionary : founded upon the Thesaurus Syriacus (Repr. ed.). Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns. p. 299. ISBN 978-1-57506-032-3. Retrieved 8 March 2013. suggesting Mardin as a plural "fortresses".
  14. ^ Amir Harrak". Journal of Near Eastern Studies 51 (3): 209–214. 1992. doi:10.1086/373553. JSTOR 545546.
  15. ^ Ed. Morris Rossabi - China among equals: the Middle Kingdom and its neighbors, 10th-14th centuries, p. 244
  16. ^ Cinti Migliarini, Anita. "La chiesa siriaca di Antiochia". Chiesa siro-ortodossa di Antiochia (in Italian). Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  17. ^ a b c Mehmet Taştemir. "MARDİN" (in Turkish). İslam Ansiklopedisi [Islamic Encyclopedia]. p. 45. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  18. ^ Kevorkian, Raymond (2011). The Armenian Genocide: a Complete History. London: Tauris. p. 371.
  19. ^ Kevorkian, Raymond (2011). The Armenian Genocide: a Complete History. London: Tauris. pp. 375–376.
  20. ^ a b Biner, Zerrin Özlem (Fall–Winter 2010). "Acts of Defacement, Memory of Loss: Ghostly Effects of the "Armenian Crisis" in Mardin, Southeastern Turkey". History and Memory.
  21. ^ "Kanun No. 6360". resmigazete.gov.tr. Archived from the original on 15 August 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  22. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice, 2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 923
  23. ^ a b "Mardin - Duane Alexander Miller's Blog". Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  24. ^ "Mardin Surp Kevork Kilisesi için Kitap Kermesi ve Söyleşi". Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  25. ^ http://www.mardintravel.com/surp-kevork-church/
  26. ^ Philandre (6 October 2013). "Sunday Service, Syriac Orthodox Church of the Forty Martyrs, Mardin, Turkey". Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  27. ^ "St Hirmiz Chaldean Church in Mardin, Turkey". 2 June 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  28. ^ simpsonturkishadventures.blogspot.com/2013/03/easter-in-mardin.html
  29. ^ "Renovated Protestant church in Mardin to open soon". Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  30. ^ SOR (2000-04-19). "Dayro d-Mor Hananyo: Erstwhile seat of the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch". Sor.cua.edu. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
  31. ^ "ARTS-CULTURE - Syriac monastery dated back to 4,000 years". Hurriyetdailynews.com. 2010-01-03. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
  32. ^ "The final nail in the coffin of peace process in Turkey". Al-Monitor. 22 November 2016.
  33. ^ "Court arrests former Mardin mayor Ahmet Türk". Hurriyet Daily News. 24 November 2016.
  34. ^ Prothero, W.G. (1920). Armenia and Kurdistan. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 62.
  35. ^ "Sıkça Sorulan Sorular - Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü".
  36. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-01-19. Retrieved 2011-01-12.
  37. ^ "Resmi İstatistikler (İllerimize Ait İstatistiki Veriler)". MGM.
  38. ^ Satter, Raphael (16 September 2009). "8'1" Turk takes title of world's tallest man". Retrieved 17 September 2009.
  39. ^ "Medmestno in mednarodno sodelovanje". Mestna občina Ljubljana (Ljubljana City) (in Slovenian). Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-07-27.

Sources and external links[edit]

  • Ayliffe, Rosie, et al.. (2000) The Rough Guide to Turkey. London: Rough Guides.
  • Gaunt, David: Massacres, Resistance, Protectors: Muslim-Christian Relations in Eastern Anatolia During World War I, Gorgias Press, Piscataway (NJ) 2006 I
  • Grigore, George (2007), L'arabe parlé à Mardin. Monographie d'un parler arabe périphérique. Bucharest: Editura Universitatii din Bucuresti, ISBN 978-973-737-249-9[1]
  • Jastrow, Otto (1969), Arabische Textproben aus Mardin und Asex, in "Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft" (ZDMG) 119 : 29-59.
  • Jastrow, Otto (1992), Lehrbuch der Turoyo-Sprache in "Semitica Viva – Series Didactica", Wiesbaden : Otto Harrassowitz.
  • Minorsky, V. (1991), Mārdīn, in "The Encyclopaedia of Islam". Leiden: E. J. Brill.
  • Niebuhr, Carsten (1778), Reisebeschreibung, Copenhagen, II:391-8
  • Shumaysani, Hasan (1987), Madinat Mardin min al-fath al-'arabi ila sanat 1515. Bayrūt: 'Ālam al-kutub.
  • Tavernier, Jean-Baptiste (1692), Les six voyages, I:187
  • Sasse, Hans-Jürgen (1971), Linguistische Analyse des Arabischen Dialekts der Mhallamīye in der Provinz Mardin (Südossttürkei), Berlin.
  • Socin, Albert (1904), Der Arabische Dialekt von Mōsul und Märdīn, Leipzig.
  • della Valle, Pietro (1843), Viaggi, Brighton, I: 515
  • Wittich, Michaela (2001), Der arabische Dialekt von Azex, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-05-09.