Marduk-apla-iddina I, contemporarily written in cuneiform as d AMAR.UTU-IBILA-SUM- na and meaning in Akkadian: " Marduk has given an heir", was the 34th  Kassite king of Babylon ca. 1171–1159 BC ( short chronology). He was the son and successor of Melišipak, from whom he had previously received lands, as recorded on a kudurru, and he reigned for 13 years, [i 2] during a time when [i 3] The Dark Ages cast a heavy cloud over the contemporary events.
Biography [ edit ]
He claimed, like his father, descent from
Kurigalzu and evidently kept court in Dūr-Kurigalzu itself because tablets found in the burnt ruins of the Tell-el-Abyad quarter which marked the later Elamite destruction of the city, are dated in the first two years of his reign. These include lists of garments received or distributed for the New Year, or , festival and indicate a normal economic relationship with Babylonia's western and eastern neighbors, the Subarians and Elamites respectively, whose singers apparently entertained the royal household. akitu Documents surviving from his reign date only as late as his sixth year  and include his repair of the E-zida temple at [i 4] Borsippa, where he credited the god [i 5] Enlil with raising him to kingship despite recording this in an inscription wholly dedicated to Marduk.
There is evidence of thriving commerce in woolen garments with Assyrian traders,
and numerous royal land grants in northern and especially northeastern Babylonia. [i 6] The  Chronicle of the Market Prices references his 21st year, but neither king with this name ruled longer than 13 years. Like his two predecessors, some of the economic texts show a curious double-dating formula which has yet to be satisfactorily explained. The [i 7] Synchronistic King List gives his [i 8] Assyrian contemporary as Ninurta-apal-Ekur, which is unlikely as he is also shown against the earlier two Kassite kings, despite his short reign.
Kudurrus [ edit ]
Detail from a
of Marduk-apla-iddina I.
, or boundary stones, survive which document large donations of land and tax exemptions during his reign. Marduk-zākir-šumi, the bēl pīḫati, or provincial governor, was the beneficiary of a piece of land as a perquisite from the king. He was son of Nabû-nadin-aḫe, grandson of Rimeni-Marduk, great grandson of kudurrus Uballissu-Marduk, who had been šatammu, or an official under Kurigalzu II’s regime and descendant of Arad-Ea, um-mi-a-niğ 2-kas 7, scholar of accounting. His responsibilities included inspector of temple and land and controller of forced labor. One of the witnesses was Nabû-šakin-šumi, also described as “son of” Arad-Ea. Another stele records that Ina-Esağila-zēra-ibni, “son of” Arad-Ea, measured a field, after replacing the previous land surveyor.
The symbol of the stylus, representing the god of writing and wisdom, Nabû, makes its first appearance on one of his kudurrus.
A kudurru comes with an unusual trinity of gods in its invocation of a divine curse,  “May Nabû, Nanaya and Tašmētum, lords of the decrees and decisions, surround him with evil and search him out for misfortune.” [nb 1]
The continuity of the reign with those earlier in the dynasty is evident in a kudurru providing confirmation of an earlier land grant by
Adad-šuma-uṣur and a copy of a kudurru [i 10] from the reign of [i 11] Nazi-Maruttaš, the original of which was destroyed when a wall collapsed on it. Kudurrus were also used to record legal settlements, and two examples include a lawsuit concerning land in Ḫudadu (Baghdad?) province, on the Elamite border east of the Tigris from his accession year, and one [i 12] recording legal actions over a field. [i 13]
List of kudurrus dated to this reign [ edit ]
kudurrus could be assigned to his reign based upon the art-history of their iconography. The following lists those which actually identify him as the monarch in their texts. 
Also dated to his reign is the stone copy of the
Nazimaruttaš kudurru stone.
End of his reign [ edit ]
The events at the end of his reign are uncertain, but it is clear from later sources that it ended dramatically, when Elamite troops led by
Shutruk-Nahhunte, who had married a sister of Marduk-apla-iddina, invaded Babylonia and sacked several cities, including the capital. Whether these events were the cause of his demise, or whether they followed a succession crisis in which Zababa-šuma-iddina, an individual whose relationship with Marduk-apla-iddina is unknown, attempted to succeed him to the kingship, has yet to be determined.
Prophecy A text may portray him in the figure of the 4th king, whose 13-year reign ends with an Elamite attack on Akkad, the booty of Akkad taken away, confusion, social disorder, usurpation and famine, events which seem to mirror much of what is known about this period. [i 17]
Inscriptions [ edit ]
^ Kudurru of Gula, Sb 31, published as MDP X 95.
^ Land grant to Marduk-apla-iddina kudurru Sb 22, excavated at Susa and currently in the Louvre.
Kinglist A, BM 33332, ii 13.
^ Namely, tablet IM 50025.
^ VS 1, 34, VAT 4131.
^ IM 49992.
Chronicle of Market Prices (ABC 23), BM 48498, lines 10 and 11.
Synchronistic King List ii 9.
^ a b c Land grant to Marduk-zākir-šumi kudurru, BM 90850, published as BBSt 5.
^ a b Adad-bēl-kala kudurru AS 6035 (Sb 169) published as MDP VI 42.
^ a b Kudurru of Nazi-Maruttaš, Sb 21, published as MDP II 86.
^ a b Land grant to Munnabittu kudurru, Sb 26, published as MDP VI 31.
^ a b Kudurru of Marduk-apla-iddina, Sb 33 (AS 6018), published as MDP 6 39.
^ Uzbi-Enlil kudurru, IM 67953, published as Sumer 23 (1967) 45–67, pl. 1–6.
^ Kudurru of Marduk-apla-iddina, NBC 9502, partially published as Hallo & Simpson (1988) 100, fig. 21.
^ Tehran kudurru, published as Borger AfO 23 (1970) 1–11.
Prophecy A, tablet VAT 10179, KAR 421.
dAG dNa-na-a ù dTaš-me-tum bēlē šipṭi u purussê ana lemutti lisḫurūš ana la ṭābti [liš]te'uš.
References [ edit ]
Douglas B. Miller, R. Mark Shipp (1996). An Akkadian Handbook. Eisenbrauns. p. 58.
D. J. Wiseman (1975). "XXXI: Assyria and Babylonia, 1200-1000 B.C.". In I. E. S. Edwards (ed.). Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 2, Part 2, History of the Middle East and the Aegean Region, c. 1380-1000 BC. Cambridge University Press. p. 445.
^ a b
J. A. Brinkman (1976). "Marduk-apla-iddina I". Materials and Studies for Kassite History, Vol. I (MSKH I). Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. pp. 247–252.
J. A. Brinkman (1999). Dietz Otto Edzard (ed.). Reallexikon Der Assyriologie Und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie: Libanukasabas - Medizin. 7. Walter De Gruyter. p. 374.
Tallay Ornan (2005). The Triumph of the Symbol: Pictorial Representation of Deities in Mesopotamia and the Biblical Image Ban. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. p. 47.
Irving L. Finkel, Markham J. Geller (1997). Sumerian gods and their representations. STYX Publications. p. 71.
Ursula Seidl (1989). Die Babylonischen Kudurru-Reliefs: Symbole Mesopotamischer Gottheiten. Academic Press Fribourg. pp. 33–40, 222.
Kathryn E. Slanksi (2003). The Babylonian Entitlement narûs (kudurrus): A study in their form and function. ASOR. p. 296.
Tremper Longman (July 1, 1990). Fictional Akkadian autobiography: a generic and comparative study. Eisenbrauns. p. 161.
dates     Egypt
Chronology of the Neolithic period
Naqada culture (4000–3100 BCE)
Sumerian period (4000–2340 BCE) Susa I
Pre-Dynastic period (4000–2900 BCE)
Naqada I Naqada II
Uruk period (4000-3100 BCE) (Anonymous "King-priests") Legendary ante-deluvian rulers: In Eridu: Alulim, Alalngar, then in Bad-tibira: En-men-lu-ana, En-men-gal-ana, Dumuzid, the Shepherd, then in Larag: En-sipad-zid-ana, then in Zimbir: En-men-dur-ana, then in Shuruppag: Ubara-Tutu "then the flood swept over"
 Susa II (Uruk influence or control)
Proto-Dynastic period ( Naqada III) Early or legendary kings:
Upper Egypt Finger Snail Fish Pen-Abu Animal Stork Canide Bull Scorpion I Shendjw Iry-Hor Ka Scorpion II Narmer / Menes
Lower Egypt Hedju Hor Ny-Hor Hsekiu Khayu Tiu Thesh Neheb Wazner Nat-Hor Mekh Double Falcon Wash
Early Dynastic Period First Dynasty of Egypt Narmer Menes Neithhotep ♀ (regent) Hor-Aha Djer Djet Merneith ♀ (regent) Den Anedjib Semerkhet Qa'a Sneferka
Jemdet Nasr period Proto-Elamite period ( Susa III) (3100-2700 BCE)
Second Dynasty of Egypt Hotepsekhemwy Nebra/Raneb Nynetjer Ba Nubnefer Horus Sa Weneg-Nebty Wadjenes Senedj Seth-Peribsen Sekhemib-Perenmaat Neferkara I Neferkasokar Hudjefa I Khasekhemwy
Early Dynastic Period I (2900–2700 BCE)
First Eblaite Kingdom (Semitic)
First kingdom of Mari (Semitic)
Kish I dynasty Jushur, Kullassina-bel Nangishlishma, En-tarah-ana Babum, Puannum, Kalibum
Kalumum Zuqaqip Atab Mashda Arwium Etana Balih En-me-nuna Melem-Kish Barsal-nuna
Uruk I dynasty Mesh-ki-ang-gasher
Enmerkar ("conqueror of Aratta")
Early Dynastic Period II (2700–2600 BCE)
Zamug, Tizqar, Ilku Iltasadum
Lugalbanda Dumuzid, the Fisherman
Enmebaragesi ("made the land of Elam submit")
Aga of Kish
Old Elamite period (2700–1500 BCE) Indus-Mesopotamia relations
Third Dynasty of Egypt Djoser Sekhemkhet Sanakht Nebka Khaba Qahedjet Huni
Early Dynastic Period III (2600–2340 BCE)
Sagisu Abur-lim Agur-lim Ibbi-Damu Baba-Damu
Kish II dynasty (5 kings) Uhub Mesilim
Ur-Nungal Udulkalama Labashum
Lagash En-hegal Lugalshaengur
Ur A-Imdugud Ur-Pabilsag Meskalamdug (Queen Puabi) Akalamdug
Enun-dara-anna Mes-he Melamanna Lugal-kitun
Adab Nin-kisalsi Me-durba Lugal-dalu
Old Kingdom of Egypt Fourth Dynasty of Egypt Snefru Khufu Djedefre Khafre Bikheris Menkaure Shepseskaf
Thamphthis Ur I dynasty Mesannepada "King of Ur and Kish", victorious over Uruk
Phoenicia (2500-539 BCE)
Second kingdom of Mari (Semitic) Ikun-Shamash Iku-Shamagan Ansud Sa'umu Ishtup-Ishar Ikun-Mari Iblul-Il Nizi
Akshak dynasty Unzi Undalulu
Kish III dynasty Ku-Baba
Uruk II dynasty Enshakushanna
Umma I dynasty Pabilgagaltuku
Lagash I dynasty Ur-Nanshe Akurgal
A'annepada Meskiagnun Elulu Balulu
Awan dynasty Peli Tata Ukkutahesh Hishur
Fifth Dynasty of Egypt Userkaf Sahure Neferirkare Kakai Neferefre Shepseskare Nyuserre Ini Menkauhor Kaiu Djedkare Isesi Unas
Elamite invasions (3 kings)  Shushuntarana Napilhush
Eannatum (King of Lagash, Sumer, Akkad, conqueror of Elam)
Adub-Damu Igrish-Halam Irkab-Damu
Kish IV dynasty Puzur-Suen Ur-Zababa
Ur-Lumma Il Gishakidu (Queen Bara-irnun)
Enannatum Entemena Enannatum II Enentarzi
Ur II dynasty Nanni Mesh-ki-ang-Nanna II
Sixth Dynasty of Egypt Teti Userkare Pepi I Merenre Nemtyemsaf I Pepi II Merenre Nemtyemsaf II Netjerkare Siptah
Adab dynasty Lugalannemundu "King of the four quarters of the world"
Enna-Dagan Ikun-Ishar Ishqi-Mari
Mari Anbu, Anba, Bazi, Zizi of Mari, Limer, Sharrum-iter
Puzur-Nirah Ishu-Il Shu-Sin
Uruk III dynasty Lugalzagesi (Governor of Umma, King of all Sumer)
Akkadian Period (2340–2150 BCE)
Akkadian Empire (Semitic) Sargon of Akkad Rimush Manishtushu
Akkadian Governors: Eshpum Ilshu-rabi Epirmupi Ili-ishmani
Lugal-ushumgal (vassal of the Akkadians)
First Intermediate Period Seventh Dynasty of Egypt Eighth Dynasty of Egypt Menkare Neferkare II Neferkare Neby Djedkare Shemai Neferkare Khendu Merenhor Neferkamin Nikare Neferkare Tereru Neferkahor Neferkare Pepiseneb Neferkamin Anu Qakare Ibi Neferkaure Neferkauhor Neferirkare
Second Eblaite Kingdom (Semitic) (Vassals of UR III)
Third kingdom of Mari Shakkanakku dynasty (Semitic) Ididish Shu-Dagan Ishma-Dagan (Vassals of the Akkadians)
Igigi, Imi, Nanum, Ilulu (3 years) Dudu Shu-turul
Uruk IV dynasty Ur-nigin Ur-gigir
Lagash II dynasty Puzer-Mama Ur-Ningirsu I Pirig-me Lu-Baba Lu-gula Ka-ku
Hishep-Ratep Helu Khita Puzur-Inshushinak
Ninth Dynasty of Egypt Meryibre Khety Neferkare VII Nebkaure Khety Setut
Neo-Sumerian Period (2150–2000 BCE)
Nûr-Mêr Ishtup-Ilum Ishgum-Addu Apil-kin
Gutian dynasty (21 kings) La-erabum Si'um
Kuda (Uruk) Puzur-ili Ur-Utu
Umma II dynasty Lugalannatum (vassal of the Gutians)
Ur-Baba Gudea Ur-Ningirsu Ur-gar Nam-mahani
Tenth Dynasty of Egypt Meryhathor Neferkare VIII Wahkare Khety Merykare
Iddi-ilum Ili-Ishar Tura-Dagan Puzur-Ishtar Hitial-Erra Hanun-Dagan (Vassals of Ur III)
 Uruk V dynasty Utu-hengal
Ur III dynasty "Kings of Ur, Sumer and Akkad" Ur-Nammu Shulgi Amar-Sin Shu-Sin Ibbi-Sin
Middle Kingdom of Egypt Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt Mentuhotep I Intef I Intef II Intef III Mentuhotep II Mentuhotep III Mentuhotep IV
circa 2000 BCE
Amorite invasions Elamite invasions Kindattu ( Shimashki Dynasty)
Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt Amenemhat I Senusret I Amenemhat II Senusret II Senusret III Amenemhat III Amenemhat IV Sobekneferu ♀
Third Eblaite Kingdom (Semitic) Ibbit-Lim Immeya Indilimma
Lim Dynasty Yaggid-Lim Yahdun-Lim Yasmah-Adad Zimri-Lim (Queen Shibtu)
Isin-Larsa period ( Amorites) : Dynasty of Isin Ishbi-Erra Shu-Ilishu Iddin-Dagan Ishme-Dagan Lipit-Eshtar Ur-Ninurta Bur-Suen Lipit-Enlil Erra-imitti Enlil-bani Zambiya Iter-pisha Ur-du-kuga Suen-magir Damiq-ilishu Dynasty of Larsa: Naplanum Emisum Samium Zabaia Gungunum Abisare Sumuel Nur-Adad Sin-Iddinam Sin-Eribam Sin-Iqisham Silli-Adad Warad-Sin Rim-Sin I (...) Rim-Sin II Uruk VI dynasty: Alila-hadum Sumu-binasa Naram-Sin of Uruk Sîn-kāšid Sîn-iribam Sîn-gāmil Ilum-gamil Anam of Uruk Irdanene Rim-Anum Nabi-ilišu
Sukkalmah dynasty Siwe-Palar-Khuppak
Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Fourteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Abraham ( Biblical) Kings of Byblos Kings of Tyre Kings of Sidon
Old Assyrian Empire (2025–1378 BCE) Puzur-Ashur I Shalim-ahum Ilu-shuma Erishum I Ikunum Sargon I Puzur-Ashur II Naram-Sin Erishum II Shamshi-Adad I Ishme-Dagan I Mut-Ashkur Rimush Asinum Ashur-dugul Ashur-apla-idi Nasir-Sin Sin-namir Ipqi-Ishtar Adad-salulu Adasi Bel-bani Libaya Sharma-Adad I Iptar-Sin Bazaya Lullaya Shu-Ninua Sharma-Adad II Erishum III Shamshi-Adad II Ishme-Dagan II Shamshi-Adad III Ashur-nirari I Puzur-Ashur III Enlil-nasir I Nur-ili Ashur-shaduni Ashur-rabi I Ashur-nadin-ahhe I Enlil-Nasir II Ashur-nirari II Ashur-bel-nisheshu Ashur-rim-nisheshu Ashur-nadin-ahhe II
First Babylonian dynasty ("Old Babylonian Period") ( Amorites) Sumu-abum Sumu-la-El Sin-muballit Sabium Apil-Sin Sin-muballit Hammurabi Samsu-iluna Abi-eshuh Ammi-ditana Ammi-saduqa Samsu-Ditana Early Kassite rulers
Second Babylonian dynasty (" Sealand Dynasty") Ilum-ma-ili Itti-ili-nibi Damqi-ilishu Ishkibal Shushushi Gulkishar mDIŠ+U-EN Peshgaldaramesh Ayadaragalama Akurduana Melamkurkurra Ea-gamil
Second Intermediate Period Sixteenth Dynasty
Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt (" Hyksos") Semqen 'Aper-'Anati Sakir-Har Khyan Apepi Khamudi
Mitanni (1600–1260 BCE) Kirta Shuttarna I Parshatatar
New Kingdom of Egypt Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt Ahmose I Amenhotep I
Third Babylonian dynasty ( Kassites) Agum-Kakrime Burnaburiash I Kashtiliash III Ulamburiash Agum III Karaindash Kadashman-harbe I Kurigalzu I Kadashman-Enlil I Burnaburiash II Kara-hardash Nazi-Bugash Kurigalzu II Nazi-Maruttash Kadashman-Turgu Kadashman-Enlil II Kudur-Enlil Shagarakti-Shuriash Kashtiliashu IV Enlil-nadin-shumi Kadashman-Harbe II Adad-shuma-iddina Adad-shuma-usur Meli-Shipak II Marduk-apla-iddina I Zababa-shuma-iddin Enlil-nadin-ahi
Middle Elamite period
Kidinuid dynasty Igehalkid dynasty Untash-Napirisha
Thutmose I Thutmose II Hatshepsut ♀ Thutmose III
Amenhotep II Thutmose IV Amenhotep III Akhenaten Smenkhkare Neferneferuaten ♀ Tutankhamun Ay Horemheb
Hittite Empire Ugarit
Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt Ramesses I Seti I Ramesses II Merneptah Amenmesses Seti II Siptah Twosret ♀
Elamite Empire Shutrukid dynasty Shutruk-Nakhunte
Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt Setnakhte Ramesses III Ramesses IV Ramesses V Ramesses VI Ramesses VII Ramesses VIII Ramesses IX Ramesses X Ramesses XI Third Intermediate Period
Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt Smendes Amenemnisu Psusennes I Amenemope Osorkon the Elder Siamun Psusennes II
Phoenicia Kings of Byblos Kings of Tyre Kings of Sidon Kingdom of Israel Saul Ish-bosheth David Solomon
Middle Assyrian Empire Eriba-Adad I Ashur-uballit I Enlil-nirari Arik-den-ili Adad-nirari I Shalmaneser I Tukulti-Ninurta I Ashur-nadin-apli Ashur-nirari III Enlil-kudurri-usur Ninurta-apal-Ekur Ashur-dan I Ninurta-tukulti-Ashur Mutakkil-Nusku Ashur-resh-ishi I Tiglath-Pileser I Asharid-apal-Ekur Ashur-bel-kala Eriba-Adad II Shamshi-Adad IV Ashurnasirpal I Shalmaneser II Ashur-nirari IV Ashur-rabi II Ashur-resh-ishi II Tiglath-Pileser II Ashur-dan II
Fourth Babylonian dynasty (" Second Dynasty of Isin") Marduk-kabit-ahheshu Itti-Marduk-balatu Ninurta-nadin-shumi Nebuchadnezzar I Enlil-nadin-apli Marduk-nadin-ahhe Marduk-shapik-zeri Adad-apla-iddina Marduk-ahhe-eriba Marduk-zer-X Nabu-shum-libur
Neo-Elamite period (1100–540 BCE)
Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth Babylonian dynasties ("Period of Chaos") Simbar-shipak Ea-mukin-zeri Kashshu-nadin-ahi Eulmash-shakin-shumi Ninurta-kudurri-usur I Shirikti-shuqamuna Mar-biti-apla-usur Nabû-mukin-apli
Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt Shoshenq I Osorkon I Shoshenq II Takelot I Osorkon II Shoshenq III Shoshenq IV Pami Shoshenq V Pedubast II Osorkon IV
Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt Harsiese A Takelot II Pedubast I Shoshenq VI Osorkon III Takelot III Rudamun Menkheperre Ini
Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Egypt Tefnakht Bakenranef
Kingdom of Samaria Kingdom of Judah
Neo-Assyrian Empire Adad-nirari II Tukulti-Ninurta II Ashurnasirpal II Shalmaneser III Shamshi-Adad V Shammuramat ♀ (regent) Adad-nirari III Shalmaneser IV Ashur-Dan III Ashur-nirari V
Ninth Babylonian Dynasty Ninurta-kudurri-usur II Mar-biti-ahhe-iddina Shamash-mudammiq Nabu-shuma-ukin I Nabu-apla-iddina Marduk-zakir-shumi I Marduk-balassu-iqbi Baba-aha-iddina (five kings) Ninurta-apla-X Marduk-bel-zeri Marduk-apla-usur Eriba-Marduk Nabu-shuma-ishkun Nabonassar Nabu-nadin-zeri Nabu-shuma-ukin II Nabu-mukin-zeri
Humban-Tahrid dynasty Urtak Teumman Ummanigash Tammaritu I Indabibi Humban-haltash III
Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt (" Black Pharaohs") Piye Shebitku Shabaka Taharqa Tanutamun
( Sargonid dynasty) Tiglath-Pileser † Shalmaneser † Marduk-apla-iddina II Sargon † Sennacherib † Marduk-zakir-shumi II Marduk-apla-iddina II Bel-ibni Ashur-nadin-shumi † Nergal-ushezib Mushezib-Marduk Esarhaddon † Ashurbanipal Ashur-etil-ilani Sinsharishkun Sin-shumu-lishir Ashur-uballit II
Assyrian conquest of Egypt
Late Period Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt Necho I Psamtik I Necho II Psamtik II Wahibre Ahmose II Psamtik III
Neo-Babylonian Empire Nabopolassar Nebuchadnezzar II Amel-Marduk Neriglissar Labashi-Marduk Nabonidus
Median Empire Deioces Phraortes Madius Cyaxares Astyages
Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt ( Achaemenid conquest of Egypt)
Kings of Byblos Kings of Tyre Kings of Sidon
Achaemenid Empire Cyrus Cambyses Darius I Xerxes Artaxerxes I Darius II Artaxerxes II Artaxerxes III Artaxerxes IV Darius III
Twenty-eighth Dynasty of Egypt Twenty-ninth Dynasty of Egypt
Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt
Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt
Ptolemaic dynasty Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy Keraunos Ptolemy II Philadelphus Arsinoe II ♀ Ptolemy III Euergetes Berenice II Euergetis ♀ Ptolemy IV Philopator Arsinoe III Philopator ♀ Ptolemy V Epiphanes Cleopatra I Syra ♀ Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Cleopatra II Philometor Soter ♀ Ptolemy VIII Physcon Cleopatra III ♀ Ptolemy IX Lathyros Cleopatra IV ♀ Ptolemy X Alexander Berenice III ♀ Ptolemy XI Alexander Ptolemy XII Auletes Cleopatra V ♀ Cleopatra VI Tryphaena ♀ Berenice IV Epiphanea ♀ Ptolemy XIII Ptolemy XIV Cleopatra VII Philopator ♀ Ptolemy XV Caesarion Arsinoe IV ♀
Hellenistic Period : Argead dynasty Alexander I Philip Alexander II Antigonus
: Seleucid Empire Seleucus I Antiochus I Antiochus II Seleucus II Seleucus III Antiochus III Seleucus IV Antiochus IV Antiochus V Demetrius I Alexander III Demetrius II Antiochus VI Dionysus Diodotus Tryphon Antiochus VII Sidetes
Kingdom of Judea Simon Thassi John Hyrcanus Aristobulus I Alexander Jannaeus Salome Alexandra Hyrcanus II Aristobulus II Antigonus II Mattathias
Alexander II Zabinas Seleucus V Philometor Antiochus VIII Grypus Antiochus IX Cyzicenus Seleucus VI Epiphanes Antiochus X Eusebes Antiochus XI Epiphanes Demetrius III Eucaerus Philip I Philadelphus Antiochus XII Dionysus Antiochus XIII Asiaticus Philip II Philoromaeus
Parthian Empire Mithridates I Phraates Hyspaosines Artabanus Mithridates II Gotarzes Mithridates III Orodes I Sinatruces Phraates III Mithridates IV Orodes II Phraates IV Tiridates II Musa Phraates V Orodes III Vonones I Artabanus II Tiridates III Artabanus II Vardanes I Gotarzes II Meherdates Vonones II Vologases I Vardanes II Pacorus II Vologases II Artabanus III Osroes I
30 BCE–116 CE
Roman conquest of Egypt) Province of Egypt
Province of Mesopotamia under Trajan
Parthamaspates of Parthia
Province of Mesopotamia
Sinatruces II Mithridates V Vologases IV Osroes II Vologases V Vologases VI Artabanus IV
Sasanian Empire Province of Asoristan Ardashir I Shapur I Hormizd I Bahram I Bahram II Bahram III Narseh Hormizd II Adur Narseh Shapur II Ardashir II Shapur III Bahram IV Yazdegerd I Shapur IV Khosrow Bahram V Yazdegerd II Hormizd III Peroz I Balash Kavad I Jamasp Kavad I Khosrow I Hormizd IV Khosrow II Bahram VI Chobin Vistahm
Palmyrene Empire Vaballathus Zenobia Antiochus
Province of Egypt
Province of Mesopotamia
Palaestina Prima, Palaestina Secunda
Sasanian conquest of Egypt) Province of Egypt Shahrbaraz Sahralanyozan Shahrbaraz
Sasanian Empire Province of Asoristan Khosrow II Kavad II
Byzantine Empire Ardashir III Shahrbaraz Khosrow III Boran Shapur-i Shahrvaraz Azarmidokht Farrukh Hormizd Hormizd VI Khosrow IV Boran Yazdegerd III Peroz III Narsieh
Palaestina Prima, Palaestina Secunda
Muslim conquest of Egypt
Muslim conquest of the Levant
Muslim conquest of Mesopotamia and Persia
Rulers of Ancient Central Asia