Mares of Diomedes
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Heracles before capturing the Mares of Diomedes. Roman mosaic, 3rd century AD
|Sub grouping||Man-eating horses|
The Mares of Diomedes (Greek: Διομήδους ἵπποι), also called the Mares of Thrace, were a herd of man-eating horses in Greek mythology. Magnificent, wild, and uncontrollable, they belonged to Diomedes (not to be confused with Diomedes, son of Tydeus), king of Thrace, son of Ares and Cyrene who lived on the shores of the Black Sea. Bucephalus, Alexander the Great's horse, was said to be descended from these mares.
As the eighth of his Twelve Labours, also categorised as the second of the Non-Peloponnesian labours, Heracles was sent by King Eurystheus to steal the Mares from Diomedes. The mares’ madness was attributed to their unnatural diet which consisted of the flesh of unsuspecting guests or strangers to the island. Some versions of the myth say that the mares also expelled fire when they breathed. The Mares, which were the terror of Thrace, were kept tethered by iron chains to a bronze manger in the now vanished city of Tirida and were named Podargos (the swift), Lampon (the shining), Xanthos (the yellow) and Deinos (or Deinus, the terrible). Although very similar, there are slight variances in the exact details regarding the mares’ capture.
In one version, Heracles brought a number of volunteers to help him capture the giant horses. After overpowering Diomedes’ men, Heracles broke the chains that tethered the horses and drove the mares down to sea. Unaware that the mares were man-eating and uncontrollable, Heracles left them in the charge of his favored companion, Abderus, while he left to fight Diomedes. Upon his return, Heracles found that the boy was eaten. As revenge, Heracles fed Diomedes to his own horses and then founded Abdera next to the boy's tomb.
In another version, Heracles, who was visiting the island, stayed awake so that he didn't have his throat cut by Diomedes in the night, and cut the chains binding the horses once everyone was asleep. Having scared the horses onto the high ground of a knoll, Heracles quickly dug a trench through the peninsula, filling it with water and thus flooding the low lying plain. When Diomedes and his men turned to flee, Heracles killed them with an axe (or a club), and fed Diomedes’ body to the horses to calm them.
In yet another version, Heracles first captured Diomedes and fed him to the mares before releasing them. Only after realizing that their King was dead did his men, the Bistonians, attack Heracles. Upon seeing the mares charging at them, led in a chariot by Abderus, the Bistonians turned and fled.
All versions have eating human flesh make the horses calmer, giving Heracles the opportunity to bind their mouths shut, and easily take them back to King Eurystheus, who dedicated the horses to Hera. In some versions, they were allowed to roam freely around Argos, having become permanently calm, but in others, Eurystheus ordered the horses taken to Olympus to be sacrificed to Zeus, but Zeus refused them, and sent wolves, lions, and bears to kill them. Roger Lancelyn Green states in his Tales of the Greek Heroes that the mares’ descendants were used in the Trojan War, and survived even to the time of Alexander the Great. After the incident, Eurystheus sent Heracles to bring back Hippolyta's Girdle.
Mares of Diomedes in modern fiction
- Percy Jackson and the Olympians- The Battle of the Labyrinth, by Rick Riordan.
Although not referred to directly as the Mares of Diomedes in the book, Diomedes himself is mentioned in chapter eight (We Visit the Demon Dude Ranch), and the horses, who are mentioned in chapters eight and nine (I Scoop Poop), are described as both fire-breathing and flesh-eating.
- Morford, Mark P. O., 1929- (2003). Classical mythology. Lenardon, Robert J., 1928- (7th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515344-8. OCLC 49421755.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Horse madness (hippomania) and hippophobia, Yiannis G. Papakostas, Michael D. Daras, Ioannis A. Liappas and Manolis Markianos, History of Psychiatry 2005; 16; 467
- "Myths and Legends of Ancient Greece and Rome". www.gutenberg.org. Retrieved 2020-03-24.
- "Mares of Diomedes". www.greekmythology.com. Retrieved 2020-03-24.
- Graves, Robert, 1895-1985 (28 September 2017). The Greek myths : the complete and definitive edition (Complete and definitive ed.). [London], UK. ISBN 978-0-241-98235-8. OCLC 1011647388.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Hyginus. Fabulae 30: Latinized here as "Podargus, Lampon, Xanthus, and Dinus".
- Rose, H. J. (Herbert Jennings), 1883-1961. (1958). A handbook of Greek mythology : including its extension to Rome. [Whitefish, Montana]: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-4286-4307-9. OCLC 176053883.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Leeming, David Adams, 1937- (1998). Mythology : the voyage of the hero (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-802810-9. OCLC 252599545.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Godfrey, Linda S. (2009). Mythical creatures. Guiley, Rosemary. New York: Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7910-9394-8. OCLC 299280635.
- Riordan, Rick. The battle of the Labyrinth. ISBN 1-4231-0149-9. OCLC 907293730.
- Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca ii.5.8
- Diodorus Siculus. Bibliotheca historica, Book 4.15
- Quintus Smyrnaeus. Fall of Troy, Book 6.270 ff
- Philostratus the Elder. Imagines 2.25