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The Marfa lights, also known as the Marfa ghost lights, have been observed near U.S. Route 67 on Mitchell Flat east of Marfa, Texas, in the United States. They have gained some fame as onlookers have ascribed them to paranormal phenomena such as ghosts, UFOs, or will-o'-the-wisp, etc. However, scientific research suggests that most, if not all, are atmospheric reflections of automobile headlights and campfires.
The first published account of the lights appeared in the July 1957 issue of Coronet magazine, the earliest source for anecdotal claims that the lights date back to the 19th century. Reports often describe brightly glowing basketball-sized spheres floating above the ground, or sometimes high in the air. Colors are usually described as white, yellow, orange, or red, but green and blue are sometimes reported. The balls are said to hover at about shoulder height, or to move laterally at low speeds, or sometimes, to shoot around rapidly in any direction. They often appear in pairs or groups, according to reports, to divide into pairs or to merge, to disappear and reappear, and sometimes to move in seemingly regular patterns. Their sizes are typically said to resemble soccer balls or basketballs. Sightings are reported occasionally and unpredictably, perhaps 10 to 20 times a year. No reliable daytime sightings have been reported.
For 20 nights in May 2008, scientists from Texas State University used spectroscopic equipment to observe lights from the Marfa lights viewing station. They recorded a number of lights that "could have been mistaken for lights of unknown origin", but in each case, the movements of the lights and the data from their equipment could be easily explained as automobile headlights or small fires.
Society of Physics Students investigation
In May 2004, a group from the Society of Physics Students at the University of Texas at Dallas spent four days investigating and recording lights observed southwest of the view park using traffic volume-monitoring equipment, video cameras, binoculars, and chase cars. Their report made the following conclusions:
- U.S. Highway 67 is visible from the Marfa lights viewing location.
- The frequency of lights southwest of the view park correlates with the frequency of vehicle traffic on U.S. 67.
- The motion of the observed lights was in a straight line, corresponding to U.S. 67.
- When the group parked a vehicle on U.S. 67 and flashed its headlights, this was visible at the view park and appeared to be a Marfa light.
- A car passing the parked vehicle appeared as one Marfa light passing another at the view park.
They came to the conclusion that all of the lights observed over a four-night period southwest of the view park could be reliably attributed to automobile headlights traveling along U.S. 67 between Marfa and Presidio, Texas. A 1965 investigation of The Spooklight in southwestern Missouri reached a similar conclusion.
Skeptic Brian Dunning notes that the designated "View Park" for the lights, a roadside park on the south side of U.S. Route 90 about 9 miles (14 km) east of Marfa, is located at the site of Marfa Army Airfield, where tens of thousands of personnel were stationed between 1942 and 1947, training American and Allied pilots. This massive field was then used for years as a regional airport, with daily airline service. Between Marfa AAF and its satellite fields — each constantly patrolled by sentries — they consider it unlikely that any unusual phenomena would have remained unobserved and unmentioned. According to Dunning, the dominant explanation is that the lights are a sort of mirage caused by sharp temperature gradients between cold and warm layers of air. Marfa is located at an altitude of 4,688 ft (1,429 m) above sea level, and temperature differentials of 50–60°F (28–33°C) between high and low temperatures are quite common.
- Brown Mountain Lights
- Fata Morgana (mirage)
- Gurdon Light
- Hessdalen lights
- Paulding Light
- The Spooklight
- St. Louis Light
- Paul Moran (July 1957) "The Mystery of the Texas Ghost Light," Coronet (magazine), 42 (3) : .
- Brian Haughton (August 2011). Famous Ghost Stories: Legends and Lore. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 157–. ISBN 978-1-4488-4840-9.
- Spectroscopy applied to observations of terrestrial light sources of uncertain origin Karl D. Stephan et. al, 2009. American Journal of Physics
- An Experimental Analysis of the Marfa Lights The Society of Physics Students at the University of Dallas, 2004
- Gannon, Robert (September 1965). "Balls 'O Fire!". Popular Mechanics 124 (3): 116–119, 207–208, 211.
- Brian Dunning (2007-04-11). "The Marfa Lights: A Real American Mystery: What is the cause of the mysterious ghost lights outside Marfa, Texas?". Skeptoid: Critical Analysis of Pop Phenomena. Retrieved 2012-05-11.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- Judith M. Brueske, Ph.D., "The Marfa Lights, Being a Collection of First-Hand Accounts by People Who Have Seen the Lights Close-Up or in Unusual Circumstances, and Related Material," Second Revised Edition, Ocotillo Enterprises, P.O. Box 195, Alpine, Texas 79831, USA, 1989
- Darack, Ed (2008). "Unlocking the Atmospheric Secrets of the Marfa Mystery Lights". Weatherwise 61 (3): 36. doi:10.3200/WEWI.61.3.36-43.
- James Bunnell, "Night Orbs," Lacey Publishing Company, 29 Bounty Road West, Benbrook, TX 76132-1003, USA, 2003
- Herbert Lindee, "Ghosts Lights of Texas," Skeptical Inquirer, Vol. 166, No. 4, Summer 1992, pp. 400–406
- Elton Miles, "Tales of the Big Bend," Texas A&M University Press, 1976, pp. 149–167
- Paul Moran, "The Mystery of the Texas Ghost Light," Coronet Magazine, July 1957
- Dennis Stacy, "The Marfa Lights, A Viewer's Guide," Seale & Stacy, Box 12434, San Antonio, Texas 78212, USA, 1989
- Stephan, Karl D.; Bunnell, James; Klier, John; Komala-Noor, Laurence (2011). "Quantitative intensity and location measurements of an intense long-duration luminous object near Marfa, Texas". Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 73 (13): 1953. doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2011.06.002.
- David Stipp, "Marfa, Texas, Finds a Flickering Fame in Mystery Lights," Wall Street Journal, March 21, 1984, p. A1.
- Marfa Lights from the Handbook of Texas Online
- "Marfa Lights" – from the Skeptic's Dictionary
- Discussion of the Marfa Lights (and other 'ghost lights')
- "TexasMonthly: Texas Primer: The Marfa Lights"
- Skeptoid #38: The Marfa Lights: A Real American Mystery at Skeptoid