Margaret of Denmark, Queen of Scotland

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Margaret of Denmark
Margaret of Scotland (1469) by Hugo van der Goes.jpg
Portrait by Hugo van der Goes
Queen consort of Scotland
Tenure 1469–1486
Born (1456-06-23)23 June 1456
Denmark
Died 14 July 1486(1486-07-14) (aged 30)
Stirling Castle, Stirlingshire
Burial Cambuskenneth Abbey, Stirlingshire
Spouse James III of Scotland
(m. 1469)
Issue James IV of Scotland
James, Duke of Ross
John, Earl of Mar
House Oldenburg
Father Christian I of Denmark
Mother Dorothea of Brandenburg
Religion Roman Catholic
The grave of King James III and Queen Margaret, Cambuskenneth Abbey

Margaret of Denmark (23 June 1456 – 14 July 1486), also referred to as Margaret of Norway, was Queen of Scotland from 1469 to 1486 by marriage to King James III. She was the daughter of Christian I, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and Dorothea of Brandenburg.

Life[edit]

Margaret was born in Denmark to the King Christian I and Queen Dorothea of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Not much is known about Margaret's upbringing. By the time she was four years old there were talks about her marriage to the Scottish Prince James.[1] In 1468 Margaret was betrothed to James of Scotland as a means to stop a feud regarding the debt Scotland owed Denmark over the taxation of the Hebrides and Isle of Man. The marriage was arranged on the recommendation of the king Charles VII of France. In July 1469, at the age of 13 she married James III at Holyrood Abbey. Upon their marriage all of the Scottish debt was cancelled.[2] William Sinclair, 1st Earl of Caithness, was at that time the Norse Earl of Orkney. In 1472 he was made to exchange his Orkney fief for Ravenscraig Castle, so the Scottish throne took the earl's rights to the islands too.

Queen Margaret was given the largest jointure allowed by Scottish law in her marriage settlement. She was interested in clothes and jewelry, and known for always being dressed in the latest fashions of the time.[3] She may have taught her son James to speak Danish. She became a popular queen in Scotland and was described as beautiful, gentle, and sensible.[4] Many years later historians called her far better qualified to rule than her spouse.

The relationship between Margaret and James III was not described as a happy one. Reportedly, she was not very fond of her husband and had intercourse with him only for procreation, though she did respect his position as a monarch.[3] One reason for their estrangement was the fact that James favoured their second son over their eldest.[3] In 1476, James had decided that he wanted the Earldom of Ross for his second son and stripped John MacDonald, the Earl, of treason who was then put on trial before the Parliament. However, upon Margaret's request John MacDonald was allowed to remain as Lord of Parliament .[3] During the crisis of 1482, when James III was deprived of power by his brother for several months, Margaret was said to have shown more interest in the welfare of her children than her spouse, which lead to a permanent estrangement.[3] Politically, she worked for the reinstatement of her spouse in his powers as monarch during this incident.[3] After the crisis of 1482, the couple lived apart: James III lived in Edinburgh, while queen Margaret preferred to live in Stirling with her children.[3]

Death[edit]

Margaret died at Stirling Castle on 14 July 1486 after falling ill, and was buried with James III in Cambuskenneth Abbey.[5] The abbey has mostly been reduced to ruins, apart from its bell-tower which is still standing today. The grave was enclosed and restored in 1865 at her descendant, Queen Victoria's expense.[6]

A story given by her son claims that Margaret was killed by poison given to her by John Ramsay, 1st Lord Bothwell, leader of one of the political factions.[4] However, as Ramsay was favoured by the royal family also after the death of the queen, this is considered doubtful and may have been slander, although he did have some knowledge of poisons.[4]

Reportedly, James III did mourn her death but sent a supplication to the Pope where he applied for her to be declared a saint.

Issue[edit]

Gallery[edit]

Ancestry[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Margaret of Denmark, Queen of Scots". The Freelance History Writer. 2012-12-04. Retrieved 2017-09-15. 
  2. ^ "Margaret of Denmark, Queen of Scots". The Freelance History Writer. 2012-12-04. Retrieved 2017-09-15. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Elizabeth Ewan, Sue Innes and Sian Reynolds: The Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Women
  4. ^ a b c "121 (Dansk biografisk Lexikon / XI. Bind. Maar - Müllner)". Runeberg.org. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  5. ^ Henderson 1893.
  6. ^ Grave inscription of King James III
Attribution

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHenderson, Thomas Finlayson (1893). "Margaret (1457?-1486)". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 36. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 

  • Marshall, Rosalind, Scottish Queens, 1034-1714
  • Richard Oram: The Kings and Queens of Scotland
  • Timothy Venning: The Kings and Queens of Scotland
  • Mike Ashley: British Kings and Queens
  • Elizabeth Ewan, Sue Innes and Sian Reynolds: The Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Women

External links[edit]

Scottish royalty
Preceded by
Mary of Guelders
Queen consort of Scotland
1469–1486
Succeeded by
Margaret Tudor