Margarita Salas Falgueras, 1st Marquise of Canero (born 1938), commonly known as Margarita Salas, is a well-known Spanish scientist in the fields of Biochemistry, and Molecular genetics.
Salas was born in Canero (Asturias), Spain. She graduated in chemistry at the Complutense University of Madrid and obtained a PhD degree in 1961, with as supervisor Alberto Sols (CSIC). In 1967, she travelled to the United States to work with Severo Ochoa. Salas, with her husband Eladio Viñuela, have been responsible for promoting Spanish research in the field of biochemistry and molecular biology. She has supervised more than 40 PhD-students, and has published over 200 scientific articles. She works as a professor at the CSIC in the field of Biotechnology.
Salas won the L'Oréal-UNESCO Awards for Women in Science in 2000.
Salas is a member of Spanish Royal Academy of Sciences, Royal Spanish Academy, European Academy of Sciences and Arts, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Academy of Microbiology, United States National Academy of Sciences, and the Severo Ochoa Foundation.
On 11 July 2008, Salas was raised into the Spanish nobility by King Juan Carlos I with the hereditary title of Marquesa de Canero (English: Marquise of Canero).