Sara Margery Fry
11 March 1874
London, United Kingdom
|Died||21 April 1958(aged 84)|
|School or tradition||Somerville College, Oxford|
|Notable ideas||Penal reformer|
Sara Margery Fry (11 March 1874 – 21 April 1958) was a British prison reformer as well as one of the first women to become a magistrate. She was the secretary of the Howard League for Penal Reform and the principal of Somerville College, Oxford.
Fry was born in London in 1874. She was the child of Quakers Sir Edward Fry, a judge, and his wife, Mariabella Hodgkin (1833–1930). Her siblings included Joan Mary Fry, the social reformer, Roger Fry of the Bloomsbury Group, the biographer and bryologist Agnes Fry and pacifist Anna Ruth Fry. She was home schooled until she was seventeen when she attended Miss Lawrence's school at Brighton before proceeding to study maths at Somerville College, Oxford in 1894. She went home after she graduated but returned to Somerville to become their librarian.
In 1904, she left Somerville and became Warden of the new women's residence at Birmingham University at an annual salary of £60. It was there that Fry met educationist and fellow relief worker Marjorie Rackstraw, who would become her lifelong friend.
In 1913 her uncle, Joseph Storrs Fry died and left her sufficient money that she left her position at Birmingham in the following year. After 1915, she helped organise Quaker relief efforts in the Marne war area, and then elsewhere in France.
Belief in penal reform
After the First World War, she lived with her brother Roger and began the work on prison reform in which she was to be involved until the end of her life. In 1918, she became secretary of the Penal Reform League, which merged with the Howard Association in 1921 to form the Howard League for Penal Reform; she was secretary of the combined organisation until 1926. In 1919 she was appointed to the newly founded University Grants Committee on which she served until 1948. In 1921 she was appointed a magistrate, one of the first women magistrates in Britain. In 1922 she was appointed education advisor to Holloway Prison (a prison for women in London). Margery Fry who was Director of the Howard League for Penal Reform from its foundation in 1921 until 1926. She also served as Chair of the league's Council from 1926 to 1929.
She is also known for her opposition to the death penalty and her support of compensation for victims of crimes.
Fry studied mathematics at Somerville College, Oxford. She was Librarian at Somerville (1899–1904). In 1904, she became Warden of the women's residence at Birmingham University. From 1926 to 1930, she was Principal of Somerville College. Her appointment was hailed as "[combining] intellectual distinction, a fine eloquence, and academic experience with the force of character and sympathy which the post demands." The Graduate (Middle Common Room, or MCR) accommodation building at Somerville College is called 'Margery Fry House' in her honour.
She was also a governor of the BBC from 1937 to 1938 and a participant in The Brains Trust series starting in 1942. The Fry Housing Trust was established in 1959, in memory of Margery Fry. In 1990, the Margery Fry Award was established in her honour.
- "Margery Fry". www.quakersintheworld.org. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
- "Rackstraw, Marjorie (1888–1981), educationist and social worker". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/52396. Retrieved 9 March 2019. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- "Somerville's Jubilee". Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- "A full College of the University". Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- "Special Collections". some.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
- Murphy, Kate (2016). "2.2 BBC Hierarchies". Behind the Wireless: A History of Early Women at the BBC. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 25. doi:10.1057/978-1-137-49173-2. ISBN 978-1-137-49172-5.
- "home – The Howard League for Penal Reform". Howard League. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- Margery Fry: The Essential Amateur by Enid Huws Jones, Oxford University Press. 1966.
- "Margery Fry", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Written by Thomas L. Hodgkin, rev. Mark Pottle. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/33286
- The Politics of Penal Reform: Margery Fry and the Howard League (2017) by Ann Logan 
- Fry Housing Trust website
- The official history of Fry's career on the Somerville College website
- Margery Fry, 1874–1958: a lecture given on Friday 5 July 1974, at the University of Birmingham to celebratethe centenary of the birth of Margery Fry, by Janet Vaughan. Published in 1974, Margery Fry Memorial Trust (Birmingham).
- Fry's correspondence and papers are now held by Somerville College library
- Routledge SOLON Explorations in Crime and Criminal Justice Histories