Margherita Hack, Knight Grand Cross OMRI (Italian: [marɡeˈriːta ˈ(h)ak]; Florence, 12 June 1922 – Trieste, 29 June 2013) was an Italian astrophysicist and scientific disseminator. The asteroid 8558 Hack, discovered in 1995, was named in her honour.
Born in Florence, her father was Roberto Hack, a bookkeeper of Swiss origin and Protestant religion. Her mother, Maria Luisa Poggesi, from Tuscany, was of Catholic religion, graduate at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Firenze and miniaturist at the Uffizi Gallery.
Both parents had left their religion of provenance to join the Italian Theosophical Society, for which Roberto Hack was secretary for a certain period under the chairmanship of the countess Gamberini-Cavallini.
Margherita Hack, after attending (without taking exams because of the outbreak of World War II) the Liceo Classico "Galileo Galilei" in Florence, graduated in physics from the University of Florence in 1945 with test score of 101/110, with a thesis in astrophysics on Cepheid variables, after studies made in the Arcetri Observatory at those times under the direction of Giorgio Abetti, that was for her a model of scientist, teacher and scientific research centre administrator.
In her youth, in addition to basketball, she practiced with success athletics, in which obtained victories in the long jump and the high jump at university championships, named Littoriali under the fascist regime.
In Italy, she was specially known for her anti-religious views and her continual criticism of the Catholic Church and of its hierarchy and institutions.
She was a vegetarian and has written a book explaining this choice entitled Perché sono vegetariana (Why I Am A Vegetarian).
Hack died in Trieste on 29 June 2013 at 04:30 at Cattinara hospital, after being hospitalized for a week for heart problems, from which she suffered from about two years. She had refused to have heart surgery.
Her husband, Aldo De Rosa, died on 26 September 2014, due to complications of the Alzheimer disease. They both rest in the cemetery of Sant'Anna di Trieste.
She left to the city of Trieste her personal library containing 24000 books on astronomy.
She was full professor of astronomy at the University of Trieste from 1964 to 1° November 1992, when she was placed "out of role" for seniority. She has been the first Italian woman to administrate the Trieste Astronomical Observatory from 1964 to 1987, bringing it to international fame.
Member of the most prestigious physics and astronomy associations, Margherita Hack was also director of the Astronomy Department at the University of Trieste from 1985 to 1991 and from 1994 to 1997. She was a member of the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei (national member in the class of mathematical physics and natural sciences; second category: astronomy, geodesic, geophysics and applications; section A: astronomy and applications). She worked at many American and European observatories and was for long time member of working groups of ESA and NASA. In Italy, with an intensive promotion work, she obtained the growth of activity of the astronomical community with access to several satellites, reaching a notoriety of international level.
She has published several original papers in international journals and several books both of popular science and university level. In 1994 she was awarded with the Targa Giuseppe Piazzi for the scientific research, and in 1995 with the Cortina Ulisse Prize for scientific dissemination.
In 1978 Margherita Hack founded the bimonthly magazine L'Astronomia whose first issue came out in November 1979; later, together with Corrado Lamberti, she directed the magazine of popular science and astronomy culture Le Stelle.
Social and political activity
Hack was also known for her activities outside of science, especially in the social and political fields.
She was an atheist and she did not believe in any religion or form of supernaturalism. She also believed that ethics does not derive from religion, but from "principles of conscience" that allow anyone to have a secular view of life, respectful of other people's individuality and freedom.
Hostile to any form of superstition, including pseudosciences, she was a scientific guarantor of CICAP since 1989 and an honorary president of the Union of Rationalist Atheists and Agnostics (UAAR). In 2005 she joined Luca Coscioni Association for the freedom of scientific research. She has been a member of the Transnational Radical Party.
She stood for Italian regional elections of 2005 in Lombardy in the list of the Party of Italian Communists obtaining 5,364 votes in the province of Milan. After the election, she gave her seat to Bebo Storti. She sided again with the Party of Italian Communists in the 2006 Italian general election. She was nominated for several districts of the Chamber of Deputies, but she decided to give the seat up to devote herself to astronomy.
On 22 October 2008, during a student demonstration in Piazza della Signoria in Florence, she gave a lecture on astrophysics touching on the experiments carried out at the CERN about the Higgs boson, after a discussion against the law 133/08 (which previously was the law-decree 112, called "Tremonti decree"). On the 21st of January 2009 she became a candidate of the Anti-capitalist List for the European Elections of June. She wasn't elected because the list didn't reach the 4% threshold. In November 2009, through an open letter on the MicroMega magazine, she criticized the Italian President of the Council, Silvio Berlusconi, on the matter of legal actions in which he was involved in and his alleged attempt to elude them.
During the regional elections of 2010 she was running with the Federazione della Sinistra and she was elected in the Rome district with over 7000 votes. During the first Council meeting she resigned leaving the seat to the other list's candidates.In October 2012 she declared her endorsement for Nichi Vendola during the left wing primary elections, whereas during the following ballot she sided for Matteo Renzi against Pierluigi Bersani.
In April 2013 she joined the "Emma Bonino committee" together with other eminent Italian figures, such as Renzo Arbore, Toni Garrani, Anna Fendi, Alessandro Pace, Stefano Disegni in order to promote Emma Bonino's candidacy as Italian President of the Republic.
For the nuclear research
Regarding energetic issue, Margherita Hack spoke against the construction of nuclear power stations in Italy, but in favour of the nuclear research, explaining that Italy was not at that time able to maintain nuclear reactors and that Italy is a scarcely reliable country.
Awards and decorations
|Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic – awarded on 28 May 2012|
|Gold Medal of the Italian Order of Merit for Culture and Art – awarded on 27 May 1998|
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- Lo sguardo dell’astrofisica Archived 2012-01-12 at the Wayback Machine
- astrieparticelle (2009-10-23), Zichichi-Hack
- Hack, Margherita (2005). Idee per diventare Astrofisico - Osservare le stelle per spiegare l'Universo. Zanichelli. p. 150.
- Mambretti, Daniela (2010-08-10). "L'astrofisica Hack, stella dei Littoriali del fascismo". La Provincia (in Italian).
- Corriere della Sera, «Giurai al regime, volevo la medaglia vinta in atletica» Margherita Hack
- Repubblica.it, Margherita Hack, la voglia di vivere diecimila anni
- "La Chiesa vieta a Margherita Hack di presentare il libro di venerdì santo". Linkiesta (in Italian). 2012-03-02. Retrieved 2018-03-08.
- "Morta l'astrofisica Margherita Hack". Rai News 24. 29 June 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- "Margherita Hack". Telegraph. 2013-07-16. ISSN 0307-1235.
- Margherita Hack: «Sono malata ma non mi opero. Come va, va»
- Hack, Margherita (2000). L'amica delle stelle. Storia di una vita. Rizzoli. p. 293. ISBN 9788817258708.
- "Grandi maestre/Grandi allieve - Margherita Hack e Chiara Daraio". d.repubblica.it. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
- "Hack, Margherita". www.treccani.it. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
- International Astronomical Union, European Physical Society, Società astronomica italiana, Italian Physical Society
- Yearbook 2014 on the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei site
- Furlanetto, Lucio (1998-08-04). "Conferenza di Margherita Hack a Caorle". www.castfvg.it.
- Editions archive of "Le Stelle"
- Ingerenza del Vaticano di Margherita Hack Archived 2016-03-05 at the Wayback Machine
- "I Presidenti onorari dell'UAAR | UAAR". UAAR (in Italian). 2008-08-02.
- "The "Who's Who" in the Transnational Radical Party". radicalparty.org. 2012-11-28.
- "::: Ministero dell'Interno ::: Archivio Storico delle Elezioni - Regionali del 3 Aprile 2005". 2007-12-26.
- "Margherita Hack: Lettera aperta al premier Berlusconi". micromega-online. Retrieved 2018-03-08.
- "Sito ufficiale della Regione Lazio - Home Page". www.regione.lazio.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2018-03-08.
- "Margherita Hack: Nucleare? Voto sì". Repubblica Tv - la Repubblica.it (in Italian). 2011-06-08. Retrieved 2018-03-08.
- "Presidential Awards". Quirinal Palace. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- "Presidential Awards". Quirinal Palace. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
- Media related to Margherita Hack at Wikimedia Commons