Marginal revenue productivity theory of wages
The marginal revenue productivity theory of wages is a theory in neoclassical economics stating that wages are paid at a level equal to the marginal revenue product of labor, MRP (the value of the marginal product of labor), which is the increment to revenues caused by the increment to output produced by the last laborer employed. In a model, this is justified by an assumption that the firm is profit-maximizing and thus would employ labor only up to the point that marginal labor costs equal the marginal revenue generated for the firm.
The marginal revenue product (MRP) of a worker is equal to the product of the marginal product of labour (MP) (the increment to output from an increment to labor used) and the marginal revenue (MR) (the increment to sales revenue from an increment to output): MRP = MP × MR. The theory states that workers will be hired up to the point when the marginal revenue product is equal to the wage rate. If the marginal revenue brought by the worker is less than the wage rate, then employing that laborer would cause a decrease in profit.
The idea that payments to factors of production equal their marginal productivity had been laid out by John Bates Clark and Knut Wicksell, in simpler models. Much of the MRP theory stems from Wicksell's model.
The marginal revenue product of labour MRPL is the increase in revenue per unit increase in the variable input = ∆TR/∆L
- MR = ∆TR/∆Q
- MPL = ∆Q/∆L
- MR x MPL = (∆TR/∆Q) x (∆Q/∆L) = ∆TR/∆L
The change in output is not limited to that directly attributable to the additional worker. Assuming that the firm is operating with diminishing marginal returns then the addition of an extra worker reduces the average productivity of every other worker (and every other worker affects the marginal productivity of the additional worker).
As above noted the firm will continue to add units of labor until the MRP equals the wage rate w—mathematically until
- MRPL = w
- MR(MPL) = w
- MR = w/MPL
- MR = MC which is the profit maximizing rule.
Marginal revenue product in a perfectly competitive market
Under perfect competition, marginal revenue product is equal to marginal physical product (extra unit produced as a result of a new employment) multiplied by price.
MRP in monopoly or imperfect competition
Firms operating as monopolies or in imperfect competition face downward-sloping demand curves. To sell extra units of output, they would have to lower their output's price. Under such market conditions, marginal revenue product will not equal MPP×Price. This is because the firm is not able to sell output at a fixed price per unit. Thus the MRP curve of a firm in monopoly or in imperfect competition will slope downwards, when plotted against labor usage, at a faster rate than in perfect specific competition.
- Daniel S. Hamermesh. 1986. The demand for labor in the long run. Handbook of Labor Economics (Orley Ashenfelter and Richard Layard, ed.) p. 429.
- Pullen, J. (2009). The Marginal Productivity Theory of Distribution: A Critical History. Routledge Advances in Heterodox Economics. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-134-01089-9.