Marginal sea

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This article is about physical oceanography. For naval territory, see territorial waters.
Marginal seas as defined by the IMO
The Arabian Sea as a marginal sea of the Indian Ocean

In oceanography, a marginal sea is a sea partially enclosed by islands, archipelagos, or peninsulas, adjacent to or widely open to the open ocean at the surface, and/or bounded by submarine ridges on the sea floor.[1][clarification needed]

Marginal seas of the world[edit]

The Norwegian Sea

Sources differ over which seas are considered marginal seas as well as which ocean a given sea is considered a marginal part of. There is no single ultimate authority on the matter.

Marginal seas of the Arctic Ocean:

The Irish Sea

Marginal seas of the Atlantic Ocean:

Marginal seas of the Indian Ocean:

Aegean, Adriatic, Ionian, and Tyrrhenian seas

Marginal seas of the Mediterranean Sea:

Marginal sea of the Black Sea:

Coral Sea

Marginal seas of the Pacific Ocean:

Marginal seas of the Southern Ocean:

The Caribbean Sea is sometimes defined as a marginal sea,[4] sometimes as a mediterranean sea.[1]

The Caspian Sea is also sometimes defined as a marginal sea, and also the Dead Sea and the Garabogazköl.


  1. ^ a b c d American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (1994). Glossary of the mapping sciences. ASCE Publications. p. 469. ISBN 978-0-7844-0050-0. Retrieved 9 December 2010. 
  2. ^ Kara Sea, Encyclopædia Britannica
  3. ^ Laptev Sea, Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o James C. F. Wang (1992). Handbook on ocean politics & law. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 14–. ISBN 9780313264344. Retrieved 9 December 2010. 
  5. ^ Longhurt, Alan R. (2007). Ecological Geography of the Sea. Academic Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-12-455521-1. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  6. ^ Andaman Sea, Encyclopædia Britannica

External links[edit]