Maria (gens)

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Denarius of Gaius Marius Capito, 81 BC. Ceres is shown on the obverse, while the reverse depicts a ploughman with yoke of oxen.

The gens Maria was a plebeian family of Rome. Its most celebrated member was Gaius Marius, one of the greatest generals of antiquity, and seven times consul.[1]

Origin[edit]

As a nomen, Marius is probably derived from the Oscan praenomen Marius, in which case the family may be of Sabine or Sabellic background, although in this form the name is Latinized, and the family cannot be proven to have originated anywhere other than Rome.[1][2]

Praenomina[edit]

The Marii of the Republic used the praenomina Marcus, Gaius, Lucius, Quintus, and Sextus. Publius and Titus are found in imperial times.

Branches and cognomina[edit]

The Marii of the Republic were never divided into any families, though in course of time, more especially under the emperors, several of the Marii assumed surnames. The only cognomen found on coins is Capito.[1]

Members[edit]

This list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Generally found with the surname Trogus, based on Eckhel's reading of the abbreviation Tro on his coins; but this probably identified him as a member of the tribus Tromentina.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, p. 949 ("Maria Gens").
  2. ^ Chase, pp. 131, 139.
  3. ^ Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage, pp. 218, 219.
  4. ^ Gellius, x. 3.
  5. ^ a b c Broughton, vol. I, pp. 550, 558, 562, 567, 570, 574.
  6. ^ a b Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, p. 952 ff. ("Marius", no. 1).
  7. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, p. 959 ("Marius", no. 2).
  8. ^ Appian, Bellum Civile, i. 65, Hispanica, 100.
  9. ^ Cicero, Brutus, 62; De Legibus, iii. 16; De Officiis, iii. 16, 20; De Oratore, i. 39, ii. 65.
  10. ^ Quintus Cicero, De Petitione Consulatus, 3.
  11. ^ Asconius Pedianus, In Toga Candida, p. 84 (ed. Orelli).
  12. ^ Seneca the Younger, De Ira, 3.
  13. ^ Pliny the Elder, xxxiii. 9.
  14. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, p. 603 ("C. Marius Capito").
  15. ^ Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage, p. 392.
  16. ^ Broughton, vol. II, p. 93.
  17. ^ Appian, Bellum Civile iii. 2, 3.
  18. ^ Livy, Epitome 116.
  19. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum, xii. 49, xiv. 6–8, Philippicae, i. 2.
  20. ^ Valerius Maximus, ix. 15. § 2.
  21. ^ Nicolaus Damascenus, The Life of Augustus, c. 14. p. 258 (ed. Coraes).
  22. ^ Cicero, In Verrem, v. 16.
  23. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares, vii. 1-4, Epistulae ad Quintum Fratrem, ii. 10.
  24. ^ Valerius Maximus, ii. 8. § 1.
  25. ^ Asconius Pedianus, Pro Scauro, p. 19, ed. Orelli.
  26. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares, ii. 17.
  27. ^ a b c d PIR, vol. II, p. 347.
  28. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares, xii. 15.
  29. ^ Eckhel, vol. v. p. 250.
  30. ^ Borghesi, Oeuvres Complètes, vol. I, pp. 155, 156.
  31. ^ Roman Imperial Coinage, vol. I, p. 72
  32. ^ a b c d e PIR, vol. II, p. 346.
  33. ^ Valerius Maximus, vii. 8. § 6.
  34. ^ a b PIR, vol. II, p. 345.
  35. ^ Tacitus, Annales, ii. 48.
  36. ^ Tacitus, Annales, iv. 36, vi. 19.
  37. ^ Cassius Dio, lviii. 22.
  38. ^ Tacitus, Annales xv. 25, Historiae i. 14, 31, 39, 45, 71, 77, 87, 90; ii. 23, 33, 60.
  39. ^ Tacitus, Historiae, ii. 12, 13, iii. 42, 43.
  40. ^ Pliny the Younger, Epistulae, ii, 11, 12.
  41. ^ Cassius Dio, lxxviii. 35.
  42. ^ a b c d e PIR, vol. II, p. 348.
  43. ^ Flavius Vopiscus, "The Life of Firmus", 2; Aelius Spartianus, "The Life of Hadrian", 2, "The Life of Geta", 2, "The Life of Septimius Severus", 15, "The Life of Elagabalus", 11; Aelius Lampridius, "The Life of Alexander Severus", 5, 30, 65, "The Life of Commodus 13, 15"; Vulcatius Gallicanus, "The Life of Avidius Cassius", 6, 9; Julius Capitolinus, "The Life of Clodius Albinus", 3, 9, 12.
  44. ^ a b c PIR, vol. II, p. 349.
  45. ^ Trebellius Pollio, "The Lives of the Thirty Tyrants", vii.
  46. ^ Aurelius Victor, De Caesaribus, xxxiii. 39.
  47. ^ Eutropius, ix. 7.
  48. ^ Eckhel, vol. vii, p. 454.
  49. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, pp. 1258, 1259 ("Victorinus", no. 2).
  50. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, pp. 1045, 1046 ("Marius Mercator").
  51. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, p. 428 ("Plotius").

Bibliography[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1870). "Maria Gens". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. II. p. 949.