Maria Dolgorukaya (died 1573/1580) was a legendary wife of Ivan IV ("the Terrible") of Russia, possibly his 5th or 7th. The marriage (unauthorized by the church) could have been celebrated in 1573 or 1580. Legend says she did not bear the tsar any children and was revealed to have a lover after their first night together, when the Tsar discovered she wasn't a virgin. Ivan subsequently had her drowned.
There is no evidence of her existence in primary sources. The first mention can be found in 19th-century Russian literature. Nikolay Kostomarov in 1866 wrote that the notice about her was found by Afanasiy Byichkov in a manuscript in the Imperial Public Library.
- Сперанский М. Н. Русские подделки рукописей в начале XIX в. — ПИ, 1956, т. V, с. 100
- Н. И. Костомаров, «Смутное время Московского государства в начале XVII столетия 1604—1613» // Вестник Европы, 1866