Maria Piątkowska (née Ilwicka, later Chojnacka; born 24 February 1931) is a former Polish sprinter, hurdler, and long jumper.
She was a three-time olympian (Helsinki 1952, Rome 1960 and Tokyo 1964) and participated in three different European Championships (1954 Bern, 1958 Stockholm and 1962 Belgrade).
She was a member of a world record-setting 4x100 metre relay team on 13 September 1964 in Łódź, Poland, with the time of 44.2 s.
She won three medals at two different European championships: bronze in 4 × 100 m relay in 1958 in Stockholm and gold in 4 × 100 m relay and bronze in 80 metre hurdles in 1962 in Belgrade.
She is the wife of a fellow Polish Olympian, discus thrower Edmund Piątkowski.
She was born in Goleni, Romania, now in Moldova.