Maria Theresa of Austria-Este, Queen of Sardinia
|Maria Theresa of Austria-Este|
|Queen consort of Sardinia|
|Tenure||4 June 1802 – 12 March 1821|
1 November 1773|
Royal Palace of Milan, Milan
|Died||29 March 1832
|Burial||Basilica of Superga, Turin|
|Spouse||Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia|
|Maria Beatrice, Duchess of Modena
Maria Teresa, Duchess of Parma
Maria Anna, Empress of Austria
Maria Cristina, Queen of the Two Sicilies
|House||House of Austria-Este (by birth)
House of Savoy (by marriage)
|Father||Archduke Ferdinand of Austria|
|Mother||Maria Beatrice Ricciarda d'Este|
Maria Theresa of Austria-Este (Maria Theresia Josefa Johanna; 1 November 1773 – 29 March 1832) was born an Archduchess of Austria and a Princess of Modena. She was later Queen of Sardinia as consort of Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia.
Family and infancy
She was born at the Royal Palace of Milan, a daughter of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, governor of Milan and son of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria after whom she was named. Her mother was Maria Beatrice d'Este, heiress to the Duchy of Modena.
Maria Theresa married on 25 April 1789 at the age of 15 with the 29-year-old Victor Emmanuel, Duke of Aosta future King Victor Emmanuel I. Their relationship was a happy one.
She was a good friend of Marie Clotilde of France, the childless consort of Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Piedmont. She was also close to the Duchess of Chablais. At the time of her marriage, her spouse was the Duke of Aosta as such she was styled as Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Aosta till she became Queen. The couple had six daughters and one son, who died young. Upon the invasion of Savoy by Napoleon in 1798, she left with her family first to Tuscany and then to Sardinia.
After the abdication of Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia in 1802, Maria Theresa became queen consort, but she had to wait on the island of Sardinia for the end of the war in 1814 to return to the capital Turin. Maria Theresa was initially enthusiastically welcomed in Turin, but she soon aroused great discontent among the public. She was accused of wishing to undermine and abolish so much as possible of the reforms initiated during the French occupation, and was additionally said to treat all whom cooperated with the French with contempt. Her conduct has been suggested as one of the reasons behind the discontent which led to the rebellions of 1821 which led to her consort's abdication. After the outbreak of a liberal revolution in 1821, her husband Victor Emmanuel abdicated in favor of his brother, Charles Felix. During the riots, she declared herself willing to assume regency if necessary. Instead, she followed her abdicated spouse to Nice.
Maria Theresa survived Victor Emmanuel by eight years. She was accused of having tried to convince her childless brother-in-law Charles Felix to assign Francis IV, duke of Modena (her brother and the husband of her eldest daughter Maria Beatrice), as heir to the throne. Due to the hostility directed toward her, she was not allowed to return to Turin until 1831. She was buried in the Basilica of Superga.
- Princess Maria Beatrice Victoria Josepha of Savoy (Maria Beatrice Vittoria Giuseppina; 6 December 1792 – 15 September 1840), married Francis IV, Duke of Modena, had issue.
- Princess Maria Adelaide of Savoy (Maria Adelaide Clothilde Xaveria Borbonia; 1 October 1794 – 9 March 1802) died in infancy.
- Prince Charles Emmanuel of Savoy (Carlo Emanuele; 3 September 1796 – 9 August 1799) died of smallpox.
- A daughter (November 1800 – 10 January 1801) died in infancy.
- Maria Teresa of Savoy (Maria Teresa Fernanda Felicitas Gaetana Pia; 19 September 1803 – 16 July 1879) married Charles II, Duke of Parma, had issue.
- Princess Maria Anna of Savoy (Maria Anna Ricarda Carlotta Margherita Pia; 19 September 1803 – 4 May 1884) married Ferdinand I of Austria, no issue.
- Princess Maria Cristina of Savoy (Maria Cristina Carlotta Giuseppina Gaetana Elise; 14 November 1812 – 21 January 1836) married Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies, had issue.
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
- 1 November 1773 - 25 April 1789 - Her Royal Highness Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria-Este
- 25 April 1789 - 4 June 1802 - Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Aosta
- 4 June 1802 - 12 March 1821 - Her Majesty The Queen of Sardinia
- 12 March 1821 - 29 March 1832 - Her Majesty Queen Maria Theresa of Sardinia
- Jacobite: 6 October 1819 - 10 January 1824 - Her Majesty The Queen of England, Scotland, France and Ireland
- Jacobite: 10 January 1824 - 29 March 1832 - Her Majesty The Queen Dowager of England, Scotland and Ireland
Since the Empire of Austria was established in 1804, many years after Maria Theresa's marriage, she was never styled as an "Imperial and Royal Highness". Prior to 1804, members of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (previously Habsburg) were only entitled to "Royal Highness" as Archdukes or Archduchesses of Austria.
- Festorazzi, Roberto. La regina infelice: Lettere d'amore segrete di Maria Teresa di Savoia. Milano: Mursia, 2002. ISBN 88-425-3060-3.
- Brigitte Hamann: Die Habsburger. Ein biographisches Lexikon. Verlag Carl Ueberreuter, Wien 1988, S. 345f.
Media related to Maria Theresa of Austria-Este at Wikimedia Commons
Maria Theresa of Austria-EsteBorn: 1 November 1773 Died: 29 March 1832
Title last held byMarie Clotilde of France
|Queen consort of Sardinia
4 June 1802 – 12 March 1821
Maria Cristina of Naples and Sicily
Louise of Stolberg-Gedern
|— TITULAR —
Queen consort of England
Queen consort of Ireland
Queen consort of Scotland
Reason for succession failure:
Title next held byFrancis IV, Duke of Modena
as Prince consort