Maria de Ventadorn
Maria was one of las tres de Torena, "the three of Turenne", the three daughters of viscount Raymond II of Turenne and of Elise de Séverac. These three, according to Bertran de Born, possessed tota beltat terrena, "all earthly beauty". Her date of birth is uncertain; she possibly died in 1222. Her name is variously recorded as Marie de Turenne and Marguerite de Turenne. She married viscount Eble V of Ventadour (Corrèze, France); they had a son, Eble (VI), who married Dauphine de la Tour d'Auvergne, and a daughter, Alix or Alasia.
Maria's husband was the grandson of Eble III (patron of the important early troubadour Bernart de Ventadorn), and the great-grandson of Eble le chanteur, believed to have been among the creators of the genre. Maria is addressed, or at least mentioned, in the work of several troubadours including Gaucelm Faidit, the Monk of Montaudon, Gausbert de Puicibot, Pons de Capduelh, Guiraut de Calanso, Bertran de Born and Gui d'Ussel. According to a poetic commentary included in the Biographies des Troubadours, Hugh IX of Lusignan was Maria's "knight" (era sos cavalliers).
Maria de Ventadorn is listed as a trobairitz in her own right on the strength of a single tensó or poetic debate (dated c. 1197), of which alternate verses were apparently composed by her and by Gui d'Ussel. The question at issue in the debate was this: once a man has succeeded in his plea to be accepted as a lady's lover, does he thereafter become her equal, or does he remain her servant? Maria takes the latter view.
- Kehew (2005). Robert Kehew (ed.). Lark in the morning : the verses of the troubadours. Translated by Ezra Pound; W.D. Snodgrass (A bilingual ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 175–79. ISBN 0226429334.
- Samuel N. Rosenberg, ed. (1998). Songs of the troubadours and trouvéres : an anthology of poems and melodies. New York [u.a.]: Garland. pp. 151–153. ISBN 0815313411.
- Julie Anne Sadie, ed. (1994). The Norton Grove dictionary of women composers (1. American ed.). New York [u.a.]: Norton. p. 314. ISBN 0393034879.
- Songs of the women troubadours. Translated by Matilda Tomaryn Bruckner. New York [u.a.]: Garland. 1995. ISBN 0815308175.
- Biographies des troubadours ed. J. Boutière, A.-H. Schutz (Paris: Nizet, 1964) pp. 170–179, 208-214, 314-320.
- Pierre Bec, Chants d'amour des femmes-troubadours: trobairitz et chansons de femme (Paris: Stock, 1995) pp. 164–171: Occitan text and French translation of the tensó.
- Jean Mouzat, Les poèmes de Gaucelm Faidit. Paris: Nizet, 1965.