|Marshal of Poland
Marian Spychalski in 1965
|Born||6 December 1906
Łódź, Congress Poland, Russian Empire
|Died||7 June 1980 (aged 73)
|Buried at||Warsaw, Poland|
|Years of service||1944 - 1949, 1956 - 1968|
|Rank||Marshal of Poland|
|Commands held||Gwardia Ludowa
|Battles/wars||World War II|
|Other work||architect, politician|
Marian "Marek" Spychalski pronounced [ˈmarjan spɨˈxalskʲi] (6 December 1906 – 7 June 1980) was a Polish architect in the interbellum, military commander, and communist politician. During World War II he belonged to the Soviet-led underground forces operating within Poland and was one of the leaders of the communist resistance movement Gwardia Ludowa (People's Guard), then Armia Ludowa (People's Army).
In 1943 as part of the subversive Soviet effort to destroy Polish independence and resistance movement associated with the Polish government-in-exile, he denounced to the Gestapo various members of the Polish resistance organizations.
Born to a working-class family in Łódź, Spychalski graduated from the Faculty of Architecture at the Warsaw University of Technology in 1931. He was a member of the Communist Party of Poland since 1931, then Polish Workers' Party since 1942, and Polish United Workers' Party since 1948.
After the war he held a number of offices in the communist government of Poland, one of his first being that of mayor of Warsaw (18 September 1944 – March 1945), technically still while the war was in progress. Among other posts, he was a long-time member of the Sejm (parliament) and, between 1968 and 1970, the chairman of the Council of State (the de iure head of state in the People's Republic of Poland).
He was imprisoned during the purges in 1949–53 and was only released from prison in 1956 to become Polish Minister of Defense, replacing the Soviet marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky.
Honours and awards
- Knight's Cross of the Virtuti Militari
- Order of the Builders of People's Poland (1961)
- Commander's Cross with Star of the Order of Polonia Restituta, also the Commander's Cross
- Cross of Grunwald, 2nd and 3rd Classes
- Order of the Banner of Labour, 1st Class
- Partisan Cross (12 June 1946)
- Medal for Warsaw 1939-1945
- Medal for Odra, Nysa, the Baltic
- Medal of Victory and Freedom 1945
- Gold Medal "in the Service of the Armed Forces of the Homeland"
- Gold Medal "for his contribution to national defense"
- Medal "For the Capture of Berlin"
- Badge "Meritorious activist ORMO"
- Order of Lenin (USSR) (1968)
- Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" (USSR)
- Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown (Belgium)
- Grand Cross of the Order of the White Rose (Finland)
|Chairman of the Polish Council of State
- Michał Nogaś, Wojciech Włodarczyk. (2011-06-17). "Marszałek Polski Marian Spychalski". Polskie Radio. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- Bułhak, Władysław Komunistyczny donos do gestapo Rzeczpospolita 5–6 maja 2007