Mariana of Austria
|Mariana of Austria|
Portrait by Velázquez
|Queen consort of Spain|
|Tenure||7 October 1649 – 17 September 1665|
24 December 1634|
Wiener Neustadt, Archduchy of Austria, Holy Roman Empire
16 May 1696 (aged 61)|
Uceda Palace, Madrid, Spain
|Spouse||Philip IV of Spain|
Margaret Theresa, Holy Roman Empress|
Infanta Maria Ambrosia
Philip Prospero, Prince of Asturias
Infante Ferdinand Thomas Charles
Charles II of Spain
|Father||Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor|
|Mother||Maria Anna of Spain|
Mariana of Austria or Maria Anna was Queen of Spain from 1649 until her husband Philip IV died in 1665. She was appointed Queen Regent for their three-year-old son Charles II and due to his ill health remained an influential figure until her own death in 1696.
Maria Anna was born on 24 December 1634 in Wiener Neustadt, the second child of Ferdinand of Hungary and Maria Anna of Spain. In 1637, her father became Emperor Ferdinand III on the death of Emperor Ferdinand II.
Her parents had six children, of whom three survived into adulthood. Maria Anna's elder brother, Ferdinand IV of Hungary died in 1654 at the age of 21; her younger brother Leopold succeeded as Emperor in 1658.
Queen of Spain
The Habsburgs preferred to marry within the family to retain their lands and properties, and in 1646 Maria Anna was betrothed to her Spanish cousin Balthasar Charles, Prince of Asturias, heir to the Spanish crown. When he died three months later, Maria Anna was left without a husband and Philip IV without a male heir. His own wife had died several years before and on 7 October 1649, forty-four-year-old Philip married his fourteen-year-old niece in Navalcarnero, near Madrid. From then on, she was known by her Spanish name 'Mariana.'
The marriage was not a happy one; Mariana was excluded from government, focusing instead on religion and exceptional piety. Only two of their five children lived into adulthood; the eldest, Margaret Theresa (1651-1673) followed her mother's example in 1666 by marrying her maternal uncle Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. Mariana's second daughter, Maria Ambrosia, lived only fifteen days, followed by two sons, Philip Prospero (1657-1661) and Ferdinand Thomas (1658-1659).
Shortly after Philip Prospero's death, on 6 November 1661 Mariana gave birth to her last child, Charles. Unlike his elder sister, he suffered a number of physical disabilities and was known as El Hechizado or "The Bewitched" from the popular belief his ailments were caused by "sorcery." In Charles' case, the so-called Habsburg lip was so pronounced he spoke and ate with difficulty all his life. He did not learn to walk until he was eight and never attended school but foreign observers noted his mental capacities remained intact.
It has been suggested Charles suffered from the endocrine disease acromegaly and a combination of rare genetic disorders often transmitted through recessive genes, including combined pituitary hormone deficiency and distal renal tubular acidosis. However, this is speculation; the authors of the most significant study state that 'it has not been demonstrated the disabilities suffered by Charles II were caused by the expression of detrimental recessive alleles inherited from common ancestors.
When Philip died on 17 September 1665, Charles was only 3 years old and Mariana was appointed Queen Regent until he became a legal adult at the age of 14. Assessments of her competence often reflect contemporary views on the role of women, while the second half of the 17th century was one of almost continuous crisis for much of Europe and Spain in particular. Charles' poor health meant there was a good chance he would die childless, with the nearest claimants being from the Austrian Hapsburg and French Bourbon families. The Spanish Court was divided between Mariana's 'Austrian' faction and a 'French' faction, headed by Charles' illegitimate half-brother John of Austria the Younger.
Mariana followed the system established by Philip of governing through personal advisors or "validos," the first being Juan Everardo Nithard, an Austrian Jesuit and her personal confessor. Nithard was immediately faced with the long-running Portuguese Restoration War and the War of Devolution with France; Spain declared bankruptcy in 1662 and 1666, making reductions in military spending a matter of extreme urgency. In 1668, the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the war with France while the Treaty of Lisbon accepted the restoration of the Crown of Portugal and loss of the Portuguese Empire. These were largely an acceptance of reality; in many ways Aix-La-Chapelle was a diplomatic triumph, since France returned most of its gains.
Nevertheless, much of the nobility saw this as a humiliation, including John who instigated a revolt in Aragon and Catalonia and forced Nithard to resign in February 1669. He was replaced by Fernando de Valenzuela; when Charles turned 14 in 1675, John used the opportunity to dismiss him but the Regency was reinstated in 1677 due to Charles's continuing ill-health and Valenzuela restored.
The Franco-Dutch War in 1672 dragged Spain into another expensive war with France and John finally gained control of government in 1678. He died in September 1679, one of his last acts being to arrange a marriage between Charles and 17-year-old Marie Louise of Orléans in November 1679. Mariana returned as Queen Regent, although her influence over Charles was diminished by his new wife.
The 1683-84 War of the Reunions was followed in 1688 by the outbreak of the Nine Years' War. In February 1689, Marie Louise died and as with many deaths of the period, there were allegations she was poisoned; the real cause was almost certainly appendicitis. To replace her, Mariana selected Maria Anna of Neuburg, one of 12 children whose eldest sister Eleonore was the third wife of Emperor Leopold, making her aunt to future Emperors Joseph I and Charles VI. These Austrian connections and her family's record of fertility made her an ideal choice.
However, Charles' second marriage was also childless; by now, he was almost certainly impotent, his autopsy later revealing he had only one atrophied testicle. As his health declined, internal struggles over the Succession became increasingly bitter, the pro-French faction now led by Fernández de Portocarrero, Cardinal and Archbishop of Toledo.
The 'Austrians' remained in control and in 1690 Spain joined the anti-French Grand Alliance coalition. This was another disastrous decision; by 1696, France held most of Catalonia, with Spain declared bankruptcy again in 1692, having previously done so nine times between 1557 and 1666. Mariana retained power with the help of German auxiliaries commanded by Maria Anna's brother, although Charles was forced to expel much of his wife's German entourage in 1696. Mariana died on 16 May 1696 at the Uceda Palace in Madrid, at the age of sixty-one; the cause is thought to have been breast cancer.
- Margaret Theresa (12 July 1651 – 12 March 1673), first wife of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
- Maria Ambrosia de la Concepción (7 December 1655 – 21 December 1655)
- Philip Prospero, Prince of Asturias (28 November 1657 – 1 November 1661)
- Ferdinand Thomas Charles (23 December 1658 – 22 October 1659)
- Charles II of Spain (6 November 1661 – 1 November 1700)
The Portrait of Mariana painted by Diego Velázquez was commissioned by Philip and is the only known full-length painting of her. The original is in the Prado Museum in Madrid; a copy was sent to her father Ferdinand and is held by the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna.
Several other portraits of her were made, including Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo's Queen Mariana of Spain in Mourning, 1666. She also appears as a detail in Velasquez' masterpiece Las Meninas which features her daughter Margaret Theresa.
Heraldry and family tree
- Diccionario Biográfico. Real Academia de la Historia Mariana de Austria
- Graziano, Frank (2004). Wounds of Love: The Mystical Marriage of Saint Rose of Lima. OUP. pp. 106–107. ISBN 0195136403.
- Onnekink, David (ed) Mijers, Esther (ed), Rule, John (2017). The Partition Treaties, 1698-1700; A European View in Redefining William III: The Impact of the King-Stadholder in International Context. Routledge. pp. 91–108. ISBN 1138257966.
- Callaway, Ewen (19 April 2013). "Inbred Royals Show Traces of Natural Selection". Nature News. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- Gonzalo, Alvarez, Ceballos, Francisco; Quintero Celsa (2009). "The Role of Inbreeding in the Extinction of a European Royal Dynasty". PLOS. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005174. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
- de Vries, Jan (2009). "The Economic Crisis of the 17th Century" (PDF). Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 40 (2): 151–194. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
- Barton, Simon (2009). A History of Spain. Palgrave. ISBN 0230200125.
- Rommelse, Gijs (2011). Ideology and Foreign Policy in Early Modern Europe (1650–1750). Routledge. p. 224. ISBN 1409419134.
- García-Escudero López, Ángel, Arruza Echevarría A, Padilla Nieva and R. Puig Giró1, Padilla Nieva, Jaime, Puig Giró, Ramon (2009). "Charles II; from spell to genitourinary pathology". History of Urology. 62 (3): 182.
- Storrs, Christopher (2006). The Resilience of the Spanish Monarchy 1665-1700. OUP Oxford. p. 158. ISBN 0199246378.
- Graziano, Frank (2003). Wounds of Love : The Mystical Marriage of Saint Rose of Lima. Oxford University Press. pp. 106–107.
- Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Maria Anna (Königin von Spanien)" (in German). Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire]. 7. Wikisource. p. 24.
- Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Maria Anna von Spanien" (in German). Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire]. 7. Wikisource. p. 23.
- Eder, Karl (1961), "Ferdinand II.", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 5, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 83–85; (full text online)
- Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Maria Anna von Bayern" (in German). Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire]. 7. Wikisource. p. 23.
- Kurth, Godefroid (1911). "Philip II". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 12. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1860). "Habsburg, Anna von Oesterreich (Königin von Spanien)" (in German). Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire]. 6. Wikisource. p. 151.
- Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1860). "Habsburg, Karl II. von Steiermark" (in German). Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire]. 6. Wikisource. p. 352.
- Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Maria von Bayern" (in German). Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire]. 7. Wikisource. p. 20.
- Sigmund Ritter von Riezler (1897), "Wilhelm V. (Herzog von Bayern)", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), 42, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 717–723
- Cartwright, Julia Mary (1913). Christina of Denmark, Duchess of Milan and Lorraine, 1522-1590. New York: E. P. Dutton. pp. 538–539.
- Barton, Simon; A History of Spain; (Palgrave, 2009);
- De Vries, Jan; The Economic Crisis of the 17th Century; (Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2009);
- Graziano, Frank; Wounds of Love : The Mystical Marriage of Saint Rose of Lima; (OUP, 2003);
- Rommelse, Gijs; Ideology and Foreign Policy in Early Modern Europe (1650–1750) (Routledge, 2011);
- Storrs, Christopher; The Resilience of the Spanish Monarchy 1665-1700 (OUP Oxford, 2006);
Mariana of AustriaBorn: 23 December 1634 Died: 16 May 1696
Title last held byElisabeth of France
| Queen consort of Spain
7 October 1649 – 17 September 1665
Title next held byMarie Louise of Orléans