|Federal Commissioner for the Stasi Records|
10 October 2000 – 14 March 2011
|Preceded by||Joachim Gauck|
|Succeeded by||Roland Jahn|
22 January 1948 |
Marianne Birthler (born 22 January 1948 in Friedrichshain, Berlin) is a German human rights advocate and politician of the Alliance '90/The Greens. From 2000 to 2011, she served as the Federal Commissioner for the Stasi Records, responsible for investigating the past crimes of the Stasi, the former communist secret police of East Germany. In 2016 she was offered the nomination of the CDU/CSU and her own party for President of Germany, but after some time decided not to run; the parties would have had a majority in the Federal Convention, securing her the election.
Birthler grew up in East Germany and was active in child and youth work for the Church, first in her parish in Prenzlauer Berg, then as a youth advisor in the City of Berlin from 1987. In 1986 she co-founded a group called Church Solidarity (Solidarische Kirche), which campaigned for greater democracy in the church and in society. In 1988 she joined the Initiative for Peace and Human Rights, which formed part of the resistance to the Soviet-imposed communist regime in the 1980s.
Birthler was elected to the only democratically elected People's Chamber in the GDR in March 1990, where she served as spokeswoman of the Alliance 90. From German Reunification on 3 October 1990 until the elections of 2 December 1990, she was a member of the Bundestag, the Parliament of Germany. In October 1990, she became a member of the state parliament of Brandenburg, and in November, she was appointed as Minister for Education in the state government of Minister-President Manfred Stolpe. She resigned from the parliament in the summer of 1992 and, in protest over Stolpe's Stasi contacts, from the cabinet in October the same year.
In September 2000, Birthler was appointed by the Parliament of Germany as Federal Commissioner for the Stasi Records, succeeding Joachim Gauck. She was appointed to a second term in January 2006. In February 2011 it was revealed 53 former Stasi agents were employed at the Stasi Records Agency under her leadership, creating a controversy as she prepared to leave the authority the following month. As Federal Commissioner, she has notably been a strong critic of the left party Die Linke, the successor of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany, and has on several occasions criticized the party of being extremist and nominating former Stasi employees as members of parliament. She has also criticized other parties for cooperating with the Die Linke party, warning that the party should not be given political influence.
Birthler was a member of the 2009 Federal Convention, serving as an elector of the President of Germany. Before the election, she strongly criticized the SPD candidate Gesine Schwan for claiming that the GDR was "not an unjust state".
Other activities (selection)
- Berlin Wall Memorial, Member of the Board of Trustees
- Bürgerstiftung Berlin, Member of the Board of Trustees
- Evangelische Akademie zu Berlin, Chairwoman of the Advisory Board
- Free University of Berlin, Member of the Board of Trustees
- Friede Springer Foundation, Deputy Chairwoman of the Board of Trustees (since 2011)
- Körber Foundation, Deputy Chairwoman of the Board of Trustees
- Stiftung Mitarbeit, Member of the Board of Trustees
- German Evangelical Church Assembly (DEKT), Member of the Presidium (1993-2005)
Marianne Birthler was formerly (until 1983) married to veterinarian Wolfgang Birthler, who later became a regional cabinet minister under Minister-President Manfred Stolpe in Brandenburg. They have three daughters.
- Edmund L. Andrews (August 25, 2011), [https://www.nytimes.com/2001/08/25/world/east-german-files-on-berlin-leaders-cast-shadows-still.html East German Files On Berlin Leaders Cast Shadows StillNew York Times.
- Edmund L. Andrews (August 25, 2011), East German Files On Berlin Leaders Cast Shadows Still New York Times.
- "More than 50 ex-Stasi work for files authority", February 26, 2011. The Local. Accessed March 4, 2011
- Hugh Williamson (November 7, 2007), The ex files Financial Times.
- Robert Roßmann (November 18, 2016), Merkel wollte Marianne Birthler als Bundespräsidentin Süddeutsche Zeitung.
- Board of Trustees Bürgerstiftung Berlin.
- Marianne Birthler Evangelische Akademie zu Berlin.
- Board of Trustees Friede Springer Foundation.
- Friede Springer – "Der Staat kann nicht alles" Berliner Morgenpost, January 23, 2011.
- Board of Trustees Körber Foundation.
- Board of Trustees Stiftung Mitarbeit.
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|Federal Commissioner for the Stasi Records