Mariano Rumor

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Mariano Rumor
Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F054628-0037, Ludwigshafen, CDU-Bundesparteitag, Rumor.jpg
Rumor in 1978
39th Prime Minister of Italy
In office
26 July 1973 – 23 November 1974
PresidentGiovanni Leone
Preceded byGiulio Andreotti
Succeeded byAldo Moro
In office
12 December 1968 – 6 August 1970
PresidentGiuseppe Saragat
Preceded byGiovanni Leone
Succeeded byEmilio Colombo
Chair of the European Parliament Political Affairs Committee
In office
22 April 1980 – 23 July 1984
Preceded byEmilio Colombo
Succeeded byRoberto Formigoni
Member of the European Parliament
In office
17 July 1979 – 23 July 1984
ConstituencyItaly
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
23 November 1974 – 29 July 1976
Prime MinisterAldo Moro
Preceded byAldo Moro
Succeeded byArnaldo Forlani
Minister of the Interior
In office
17 February 1972 – 7 July 1973
Prime MinisterGiulio Andreotti
Preceded byFranco Restivo
Succeeded byPaolo Emilio Taviani
In office
21 June 1963 – 4 December 1963
Prime MinisterGiovanni Leone
Preceded byPaolo Emilio Taviani
Succeeded byPaolo Emilio Taviani
Minister of Agriculture
In office
15 February 1959 – 21 June 1963
Prime MinisterAntonio Segni
Fernando Tambroni
Amintore Fanfani
Preceded byMario Ferrari Aggradi
Succeeded byBernardo Mattarella
Personal details
Born(1915-06-16)16 June 1915
Vicenza, Veneto, Kingdom of Italy
Died22 January 1990(1990-01-22) (aged 74)
Vicenza, Veneto, Italy
NationalityItalian
Political partyChristian Democracy

Mariano Rumor (Italian pronunciation: [maˈrjaːno ruˈmor]; 16 June 1915 – 22 January 1990) was an Italian politician. A member of the Democrazia Cristiana, he served as Prime Minister of Italy from 1968 to 1970 and again from 1973 to 1974. He was Prime Minister five separate times in those spans, leading a number of coalition governments. Rumor was born in Vicenza, Veneto on 16 June 1915. He died of a heart attack in Vicenza on 22 January 1990.[1]

Biography[edit]

Rumor earned a degree from the University of Padua in Letters in 1939, and was a teacher at an Italian liceo until his mobilization as a lieutenant in the Italian Army during the Second World War. Subsequent to the Armistice of Cassibile in 1943 between Italy and the Allied powers, Rumor joined the Italian resistance movement. After the end of the war he joined the Christian Democrats as an organizer, and became a representative of the centrist faction of DC in 1963 after attracting the attention of Prime Minister Alcide De Gasperi.[2]

During his periods as Prime Minister, a number of progressive reforms were carried out. A law of 11 December 1969 extended access to higher education to all students holding a higher secondary school diploma (formerly limited to students who came from classical (and in some cases, scientific) curricula. A law of 30 April 1969 introduced broad provisions covering pensions under the general scheme. The multiplying coefficient was increased to 1.85%, applied to average earnings of the best 3 years in the last 5 years of work (maximum pension, after 40 years of contribution: 74% of previous earnings). A social pension was also introduced for people over the age of 65 with low incomes and not eligible for any type of pension. In addition, cost of living indexation for all pensions (with the exception of social pensions) was introduced. A law of 2 February 1970 extended earnings replacement benefits to artisan undertakings in the construction industry. Under a law of 2 March 1974, the legal minimum for pensions was raised to 27.75% of the average industrial wage for 1973. A law of 16 July 1974 extended family allowances to INPS pensioners, in lieu of child supplements. A law of August 1974 extended hospital assistance to all those not previously covered by any scheme.[3]

Rumor's coalition governments, of which there were four, consisted of mostly the same parties. From December 1968 to July 1969, the DC joined with the Italian Socialist Party as well as the Italian Republican Party. Then, from August 1969 to February 1970 he led a DC-only government; its collapse led to a 45 day long period without government, with issues such as Italian divorce law and the status of the Italian Communist Party generating instability. After this period, which included an attempt by former Prime Minister Amintore Fanfani to form a government, Rumor led a new coalition with the Socialist, Republican, and Democratic Socialist parties from March until July 1970.[4] After three years under Emilio Colombo and Giulio Andreotti's ministries, Rumor returned to the office of Prime Minister, first leading a DC, Socialist, Republican, and Democratic Socialist coalition from July 1973 to March 1974. After this government collapsed, Rumor formed a new coalition within two weeks, calling upon the Socialists and Democratic Socialists to join with DC from March until October 1974.[5][6]

Weathering a cabinet resignation in June of 1974, Rumor's final cabinet - the 36th in the history of post-war Italy - would fall in October 1974 after failing to come to an agreement on how to deal with rising economic inflation.[7][8]

In 1973, then-Interior Minister Mariano Rumor was attacked by Gianfranco Bertoli, a self-described anarchist. Four were killed during the bombing, and 45 injured, while Rumor escaped alive from it. Bertoli was given a life-term in 1975. Bertoli was an informant of SISMI, or the Military Intelligence and Security Service, at the time. Court proceedings later showed that this connection was one of mistaken identity.[9]

Rumor would later go on to be elected to the European Parliament in 1979. He was later elected Chair of the Political Affairs Committee in 1980, serving in that capacity until he left the European Parliament in 1984.[10]

Legacy[edit]

In the years since his death, Rumor's legacy has been widely debated. The Lockheed bribery scandals, of which Rumor was exonerated by the Italian Parliament, took place under his government and culminated in the trials of two former Defense ministers, Luigi Gui and Mario Tanassi.[11] Rumor was implicated in the scandal after a Lockheed codebook referenced "Antelope Cobbler" as "Prime Minister", which could have been any of Rumor, Aldo Moro, or then-President Giovanni Leone during the relevant time period. While Leone later resigned from the Presidency due to accusations of corruption, none of the three men were ever convicted of being "Antelope Cobbler".[12][13]

Others have criticized his Presidential Decree No. 1092, a measure which allowed Italian governmental workers to retire after nineteen and a half years of work or fourteen and a half years if they were a woman; such retirees were later termed "baby pensioners" by detractors. The program, instituted in 1973, was terminated in 1992. As of 2014 it was estimated that around half a million pensioners who benefited from the decree were still drawing an average of €1,500 per month.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "MARIANO RUMOR, 74, PREMIER OF ITALY FOR FIVE TERMS, DIES". The Washington Post. The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Politician All the Way; Mariano Rumor". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  3. ^ Growth to Limits: The Western European Welfare States Since World War II Volume 4 edited by Peter Flora
  4. ^ "RUMOR IS SEEKING TO STAFF A CABINET". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  5. ^ "NEW GOVERNMENT IS FORMED IN ITALY". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  6. ^ Ginsborg, Paul (1 January 2003). A History of Contemporary Italy: Society and Politics, 1943-1988. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 9781403961532. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  7. ^ Paul, Hofman. "RUMOR'S CABINET RESIGNS IN ITALY". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  8. ^ Shenker, Israel. "RUMOR'S CABINET RESIGNS IN ITALY". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  9. ^ "Neofascists cleared of 1973 bomb attack for second time". ANSA. 1 December 2004.
  10. ^ "Mariano RUMOR". European Parliament. European Parliament. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  11. ^ Saxon, Wolfgang. "Mariano Rumor, 74, Italian Chief During Student and Labor Strife". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  12. ^ Tanner, Henry. "PRESIDENT OF ITALY RESIGNS IN SCANDAL". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  13. ^ Shuster, Alvin. "RUMOR,EX‐PREMIER, LINKED TO LOCKHEED". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  14. ^ Hooper, John. "12 people who ruined Italy". Politico. POLITICO SPRL. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
Italian Chamber of Deputies
Parliament re-established Member of the Chamber of Deputies
for Veneto
Legislatures: CA, I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII

1946–1979
Title jointly held
European Parliament
Parliament established Member of the European Parliament
for Northeast Italy
Legislatures: I

1979–1984
Title jointly held
Italian Senate
Title jointly held Member of the Senate of the Republic
for Veneto
Legislatures: VIII, IX, X

1979–1990
Title jointly held
Government offices
Preceded by
Mario Ferrari Aggradi
Minister of Agriculture
1959–1963
Succeeded by
Bernardo Mattarella
Preceded by
Paolo Emilio Taviani
Minister of the Interior
1963
Succeeded by
Paolo Emilio Taviani
Preceded by
Franco Restivo
Minister of the Interior
1972–1973
Preceded by
Aldo Moro
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1974–1976
Succeeded by
Arnaldo Forlani
Political offices
Preceded by
Giovanni Leone
Prime Minister of Italy
1968–1970
Succeeded by
Emilio Colombo
Preceded by
Giulio Andreotti
Prime Minister of Italy
1973–1974
Succeeded by
Aldo Moro
Party political offices
Preceded by
Aldo Moro
Secretary of the Christian Democracy
1964–1969
Succeeded by
Flaminio Piccoli