In Arabic sources
The word mārid is an active participle of the root m-r-d (مرد), whose primary meaning is recalcitrant, rebellious. Lisān al-`arab, the encyclopedic dictionary of classical Arabic compiled by Ibn Manzur, reports only forms of this general meaning. It is found as an attribute of evil spirits in the Qur'an (aṣ-Ṣāffāt, 37:7), which speaks of a "safeguard against every rebellious devil" (شَيْطَانٍ مَارِدٍ, shaitān mārid). The Wehr-Cowan dictionary of modern written Arabic also gives secondary meanings of demon and giant. Lane's Arabic-English Lexicon cites a source where it "is said to be applied to an evil jinnee of the most powerful class," but this distinction is by no means universal. For example, in standard Arabic editions of One Thousand and One Nights one finds the words marid and ifrit used interchangeably (see, e.g., The Story of the Fisherman in the MacNaghten edition.)
In modern fantasy genres
- Ibn Manzur. "Lisan al-`arab (entry for m-r-d)"., p. 5376.
- Hans Wehr & J M. Cowan. A dictionary of modern written Arabic. Third Edition. Ithaca, N.Y.: Spoken Language Services. p. 903.
- Edward William Lane. "An Arabic-English Lexicon: Derived from the Best and the Most Copious Eastern Sources".
- "The Alif laila, ed. Sir William Hay Macnaghten". Calcutta, W. Thacker and co. 1839, vol. 1, p. 20.
- Jonathan Stroud. The Amulet of Samarkand (The Bartimaeus Trilogy, Book 1). Disney-Hyperion; Reprint edition (2004). p. 36
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