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Marie José of Belgium

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Marie José of Belgium
Marie-José of Belgium2.jpg
Queen consort of Italy
Tenure 9 May 1946 – 12 June 1946
Born (1906-08-04)4 August 1906
Ostend, Belgium
Died 27 January 2001(2001-01-27) (aged 94)
Thonex, Switzerland
Burial Hautecombe Abbey, France
Spouse King Umberto II of Italy
(m. 1930–1983; his death)
Issue Princess Maria Pia
Prince Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples
Princess Maria Gabriella
Princess Maria Beatrice
Full name
Marie-José Charlotte Sophie Amèlie Henriette Gabrielle
House Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Father King Albert I of Belgium
Mother Duchess Elisabeth of Bavaria
Religion Roman Catholicism
Styles of
Queen Marie José
Armoiries Princesse Marie José de Belgique Reine d'Italie.svg
Reference style Her Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty

Marie José of Belgium (Marie-José Charlotte Sophie Amélie Henriette Gabrielle; 4 August 1906 – 27 January 2001) was the last Queen of Italy. Her 35-day tenure as queen consort earned her the affectionate nickname "the May Queen".

Early life

Marie José, aged 9

Princess Marie-José was born in Ostend, the youngest child of King Albert I of the Belgians and his consort, Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria. During the First World War, she was evacuated to England where she was a boarding pupil at the Brentwood Ursuline Convent High School in Brentwood, Essex.

In 1924, Marie José attended her first court ball. For the occasion she was given an antique pearl and diamond tiara that had originally been owned by Stéphanie de Beauharnais.[1]

Marriage and children

Monza, September 1930. Princess Maria José of Belgium steps down from Borzacchini's Alfa Romeo car with the help of Prospero Gianferrari.

On 8 January 1930, she married in Rome Crown Prince Umberto of Italy, from the House of Savoy, and so became Princess of Piedmont (Italian: Principessa di Piemonte).

Among the wedding gifts was a turquoise and diamond parure, worn by the bride at her pre-wedding reception,[2] and a diamond bow worn as a sash decoration at state occasions.[3]

The couple had four children:

The princess would confess in an interview many years later, On n'a jamais été heureux ("We were never happy").[citation needed]

Princess of Piedmont

In October 1939, Princess Marie-José was made President of the Red Cross in Italy. The Princess and Duchess of Aosta attended the ceremony where Marie-José was installed as President of the Italian Red Cross.

During the Second World War she was one of the very few diplomatic channels between the German/Italian camp and the other European countries involved in the war, as she was the sister of Leopold III of Belgium (kept hostage by the German forces) and at the same time close to some of the ministers of Benito Mussolini's cabinet.[citation needed] A British diplomat in Rome recorded that the Princess of Piedmont was the only member of the Italian Royal Family with good political judgment.

In 1943, the Crown Princess involved herself in vain attempts to arrange a separate peace treaty between Italy and the United States; her interlocutor from the Vatican was Monsignor Giovanni Battista Montini, a senior diplomat who later became Pope Paul VI. Her attempts were not sponsored by the king and Umberto was not (directly, at least) involved in them. After her failure (she never met the American agents), she was sent with her children to Sarre, in Aosta Valley, and isolated from the political life of the Royal House.

She sympathized with the partisans, and while she was a refugee in Switzerland, smuggled weapons, money and food for them.[citation needed] She was even nominated for appointment as chief of a partisan brigade, but declined.

Queen for a month

Following Italy's defection to the Allied side in the war, her discredited father-in-law, King Victor Emmanuel III, withdrew from government. Her husband became acting monarch under the title of Lieutenant General of the Realm. He and Marie José toured war torn Italy, where they made a positive impression. However, King Victor Emmanuel III refused to abdicate until only weeks before the referendum.

Upon the eventual abdication on 9 May 1946 of her father-in-law, Marie-José became Queen consort of Italy, and remained such until the monarchy was abolished by plebiscite, on 2 June 1946. Umberto and Marie-José had been widely praised for their performance over the last two years, and it has been argued that had Victor Emmanuel abdicated sooner their relative popularity would have saved the monarchy.[citation needed] Following the monarchy's defeat (54–46%, a narrower margin than she had expected; she had feared that it might get as little as 10% support)[citation needed] she and her husband left the country for exile on 13 June 1946.

Separation

In exile, the family gathered for a brief time in Portugal, but she and Umberto decided to separate. She and their four children soon left for Switzerland where she lived most of the time for the rest of her life, while Umberto remained in Portugal. However, the couple never divorced, partly for political reasons. The republican constitution not only forbade the restoration of the monarchy, but also barred all male members of the House of Savoy, as well as former queens consort, from returning to Italian soil. Nonetheless, Umberto lived in hope (albeit declining over the years) of returning to the throne. Both were devout Catholics and felt divorce was potentially damaging to a Catholic king.[citation needed]

Death

For some time, she lived in Mexico with her daughter, Princess Marie-Beatrice, and her grandchildren.[4] Marie-José returned to Italy only after her husband had died in 1983. She died in a Geneva clinic of lung cancer at the age of 94, surviving her two brothers and some of her nieces and nephews. Marie José's death was instrumental in influencing the Italian government to amend its constitution to allow male members of the House of Savoy to visit Italy.[citation needed] The funeral was held at Hautecombe Abbey, in Savoy in the south of France, and attended by 2000 guests. Among them were Albert II of Belgium, Juan Carlos I of Spain and Farah Pahlavi, the last Empress of Iran.[5]

Marie-José was buried in Hautecombe Abbey beside her husband.

Like her mother, Queen Elisabeth, she inspired a musical contest: the Queen Marie José international musical composition prize, a bi-annual contest held in Switzerland since 2000.

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

  • 4 August 1906 – 8 January 1930: Her Royal Highness Princess Marie José of Belgium
  • 8 January 1930 – 9 May 1946: Her Royal Highness Princess Marie José, The Princess of Piedmont, Princess of Belgium
  • 9 May 1946 – 18 June 1946: Her Majesty The Queen of Italy
  • 18 June 1946 – 27 January 2001: Her Majesty Queen Marie José of Italy

Honours

National dynastic honours

Foreign honours

Arms and monogram

Armoiries Princesse Marie José de Belgique Reine d'Italie.svg
Alliance Coat of Arms of King Umberto II and Queen Maria José
Royal Monogram of Queen Marie José of Italy.svg
Royal Monogram of Queen Maria José of Italy

Ancestry

See also

References

  1. ^ "An antique and pearl tiara". Christies.com. Retrieved 13 December 2017. 
  2. ^ "Fine antique turquoise and diamond parure". Christies.com. Retrieved 13 December 2017. 
  3. ^ "Antique diamond bow". Christies.com. Retrieved 13 December 2017. 
  4. ^ "Worldroots". Worldroots.com. Archived from the original on 2012-02-25. Retrieved 2012-02-27. 
  5. ^ "Funeral of Queen Marie Jose of Italy in Hautcombe/France on February 2nd 2001". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 13 December 2017. 
  6. ^ "Photographic image" (JPG). S-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com. Retrieved 13 December 2017. 
  7. ^ [1] Archived 2016-03-10 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ "King Umberto II of Italy & Marie Jose". Forum.alexanderpalace.org. Retrieved 13 December 2017. 
  9. ^ a b "Queen Marie Jose wearing the Roman Catholic orders of the golden spur and starry cross" (JPG). Altezzareale.com. Retrieved 13 December 2017. 
  10. ^ "Photographic image of Queen wearing ring" (PNG). Sothebys.com. Retrieved 13 December 2017. 
  11. ^ "King Umberto II of Italy & Marie Jose". Forum.alexanderpalace.org. Retrieved 13 December 2017. 
  12. ^ "Photographic image". Gettyimages.co.uk. Retrieved 13 December 2017. 
  13. ^ "Photographic image" (JPG). 40.media.tumblr.com. Retrieved 13 December 2017. 
  14. ^ "Photographic image" (JPG). S-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com. Retrieved 13 December 2017. 

External links

Marie José of Belgium
Cadet branch of the House of Wettin
Born: 4 August 1906 Died: 27 January 2001
Italian royalty
Preceded by
Princess Elena of Montenegro
Queen consort of Italy
9 May – 12 June 1946
Monarchy abolished