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Marie-Thérèse, Duchess of Angoulême

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Dauphine of France
Duchess of Angoulême
Madame Royale
Portrait by Antoine-Jean Gros, 1816
Queen consort of France
Tenure2 August 1830
Consort of the Legitimist pretender to the French throne
Pretendence6 November 1836 – 3 June 1844
Born(1778-12-19)19 December 1778
Palace of Versailles, France
Died19 October 1851(1851-10-19) (aged 72)
Frohsdorf Palace, Lanzenkirchen, Austrian Empire
(m. 1799; died 1844)
Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte de France
FatherLouis XVI
MotherMarie Antoinette
SignatureMarie-Thérèse's signature
Styles of
Marie-Thérèse, Duchess of Angoulême
Reference styleHer Royal Highness
Spoken styleYour Royal Highness
Alternative styleMost High, Most Potent
and Excellent Princess

Marie-Thérèse Charlotte (19 December 1778 – 19 October 1851) was the eldest child of King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette of France, and their only child to reach adulthood. In 1799 she married her cousin Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême, the eldest son of Charles, Count of Artois, henceforth becoming the Duchess of Angoulême. She was briefly Queen of France in 1830.

She became Dauphine of France upon the accession of her uncle and father-in-law, Charles X, to the French throne in 1824.

She was queen for twenty minutes, on 2 August 1830, between the time her father-in-law signed the instrument of abdication and the time her husband, reluctantly, signed the same document,[1][2] though this claim is disputed by historians.

Early life (1778–1789)[edit]

Marie-Thérése with her brother, Louis Joseph (by Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, 1785)
Marie-Thérèse Charlotte with her mother, Marie Antoinette, and her brother Louis Joseph, Dauphin of France, in the Petit Trianon's gardens (by Adolf Ulrik Wertmüller, 1785)

Marie-Thérèse Charlotte was born at the Palace of Versailles on 19 December 1778, the first child (after eight years of her parents' marriage) and eldest daughter of King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette.[3] As the daughter of the King of France, she was a fille de France, and as the eldest daughter of the king, she was styled Madame Royale at birth.

Marie Antoinette almost died of suffocation during the birth process due to a crowded and unventilated room, but the windows were finally opened to let fresh air in the room in an attempt to revive her.[3] As a result of the horrible experience, Louis XVI banned public viewing, allowing only close family members and a handful of trusted courtiers to witness the birth of the next royal children. When she was revived, the queen greeted her daughter (whom she later nicknamed Mousseline) with delight:[4]

Poor little one, you are not desired, but you will be none the less dear to me! A son would have belonged to the state—you will belong to me.[5]

Marie-Thérèse was baptised on the day of her birth.[6] She was named after her maternal grandmother, the Empress regnant Maria Theresa. Her second name, Charlotte, was for her mother's favourite sister, Maria Carolina of Austria, Queen consort of Naples and Sicily, who was known as Charlotte in the family.

Marie-Thérèse's household was headed by her governess, Princess Victoire of Rohan-Guéméné, who later had to resign due to her husband's bankruptcy and was replaced by one of the queen's closest friends, Yolande de Polastron, Duchess of Polignac. The actual care was, however, given by the sub governesses, notably Baroness Marie Angélique de Mackau. Louis XVI was an affectionate father, who delighted in spoiling his daughter, while her mother was stricter.

Marie Antoinette was determined that her daughter should not grow up to be as haughty as her husband's unmarried aunts. She often invited children of lower rank[7] to come and dine with Marie-Thérèse and, according to some accounts, encouraged the child to give her toys to the poor. In contrast to her image as a materialistic queen who ignored the plight of the poor, Marie Antoinette attempted to teach her daughter about the sufferings of others. One account, written by a partisan source some years after her death, says that on New Year's Day in 1784, after having some beautiful toys brought to Marie-Thérèse's apartment, Marie Antoinette told her:

I should have liked to have given you all these as New Year's gifts, but the winter is very hard, there is a crowd of unhappy people who have no bread to eat, no clothes to wear, no wood to make a fire. I have given them all my money; I have none left to buy you presents, so there will be none this year.[8]

Marie-Thérèse was joined by two brothers and a sister, Louis Joseph Xavier François, Dauphin of France, in 1781, Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy, in 1785, and Sophie Hélène Béatrix, Madame Sophie, in 1786. Out of all her siblings, she was closest to Louis Joseph, and after his death, Louis Charles. As a young girl, Marie-Thérèse was noted to be quite attractive, with beautiful blue eyes, inheriting the good looks of her mother and maternal grandmother.[9] She was the only one of her parents' four children to survive past age 10.[10]

Life during the Revolution (1789–1795)[edit]

As Marie-Thérèse matured, the march toward the French Revolution was gaining momentum. Social discontent mixed with a crippling budget deficit provoked an outburst of anti-absolutist sentiment. By 1789, France was hurtling toward revolution as the result of bankruptcy brought on by the country's support of the American Revolution and high food prices due to drought, all of which was exacerbated by propagandists whose central object of scorn and ridicule was the Queen of France, Marie Antoinette.

As the attacks upon the queen grew ever more vicious, the popularity of the monarchy plummeted. Inside the court at Versailles, jealousies and xenophobia were the principal causes of resentment and anger toward Marie Antoinette. Her unpopularity with certain powerful members of the court, including the Duke of Orléans, led to the printing and distribution of scurrilous pamphlets which accused her of a range of sexual depravities as well as of spending the country into financial ruin. While it is now generally agreed that the queen's actions did little to provoke such animosity, the damage these pamphlets inflicted upon the monarchy proved to be a catalyst for the upheaval to come.

The worsening political situation, however, had little effect on Marie-Thérèse. More immediate tragedy struck when her younger sister, Sophie, died in 1787.[11] This was followed two years later by the dauphin, Louis Joseph, who died of tuberculosis on 4 June 1789,[11] one day after the opening of the Estates-General.

Move to the Tuileries[edit]

When the Bastille was stormed by an armed mob on 14 July 1789, the situation reached a climax. The life of the 10-year-old Madame Royale began to be affected as several members of the royal household were sent abroad for their own safety. The Count of Artois, her uncle, and the Duchess of Polignac, governess to the royal children, emigrated on the orders of Louis XVI.

The Duchess of Polignac was replaced by Louise-Elisabeth de Croÿ, Marquise de Tourzel, whose daughter Pauline became a lifelong friend of Marie-Thérèse.

On 5 October, a mixed cortège of mainly working women from Paris marched to Versailles, intent on acquiring food believed to be stored there, and to advance political demands.[12] After the invasion of the palace in the early hours of 6 October had forced the family to take refuge in the king's apartment, the crowd demanded and obtained the move of the king and his family to the Tuileries Palace in Paris.[12]

As the political situation deteriorated, Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette realized that their lives were in danger, and went along with the plan of escape organised with the help of Count Axel von Fersen.[13] The plan was for the royal family to flee to the northeastern fortress of Montmédy, a royalist stronghold, but the attempted flight was intercepted in Varennes, and the family was escorted back to Paris.[13]


On 10 August 1792, after the royal family had taken refuge in the Legislative Assembly, Louis XVI was deposed, although the monarchy was not abolished before 21 September. On 13 August, the entire family was imprisoned in the Temple Tower,[14] remains of a former medieval fortress. On 21 January 1793, Louis XVI was executed on the guillotine, at which time Marie-Thérèse's young brother Louis Charles was recognized as King Louis XVII of France by the royalists.

In March 1793 General Charles François Dumouriez came up with the idea to restore the monarchy and free Marie-Antoinette and her children. His ally, the 20-years-old Duke of Chartres should marry Marie-Thérèse. When they failed in getting support from the troops, the men went toward the Austrian camp and lived in exile.

Three months later, in the evening of 3 July 1793,[15] guards entered the royal family's apartment, forcibly took away the eight-year-old Louis Charles, and entrusted him to the care of Antoine Simon, a cobbler and Temple commissioner.[16] Remaining in their apartment in the Tower were Marie Antoinette, Marie-Thérèse and Madame Élisabeth, Louis XVI's youngest sister. When Marie Antoinette was taken to the Conciergerie one month later, in the night of 2 August, Marie-Thérèse was left in the care of her aunt Élisabeth who, in turn, was taken away on 9 May 1794 and executed the following day. Of the royal prisoners in the Temple, Marie-Thérèse Charlotte was the only one to survive the Reign of Terror.

Her stay in the Temple Tower was one of solitude and often great boredom.[17] The two books she had, the famous prayer book by the name of The Imitation of Christ and Voyages by Jean-François de La Harpe, were read over and over, so much so that she grew tired of them. But her appeal for more books was denied by government officials, and many other requests were frequently refused, while she often had to endure listening to her brother's cries and screams whenever he was beaten.[17] On 11 May, Robespierre visited Marie-Thérèse, but there is no record of the conversation. During her imprisonment, Marie-Thérèse was never told what had happened to her family. All she knew was that her father was dead. The following words were scratched on the wall of her room in the tower:

"Marie-Thérèse Charlotte is the most unhappy person in the world. She can obtain no news of her mother; nor be reunited to her, though she has asked it a thousand times. Live, my good mother! whom I love well, but of whom I can hear no tidings. O my father! watch over me from Heaven above. O my God! forgive those who have made my parents suffer."

Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte est la plus malheureuse personne du monde. Elle ne peut obtenir de savoir des nouvelles de sa mère, pas même d'être réunie à elle quoiqu'elle l'ait demandé mille fois. Vive ma bonne mère que j'aime bien et dont je ne peux savoir des nouvelles. Ô mon père, veillez sur moi du haut du Ciel. Ô mon Dieu, pardonnez à ceux qui ont fait souffrir mes parents.[18]

In late August 1795, Marie-Thérèse was finally told what had happened to her family, by Madame Renée de Chanterenne, her female companion. When she had been informed of each of their fates, the distraught Marie-Thérèse began to cry, letting out loud sobs of anguish and grief.[17]: p.156 

It was only once the Terror was over that Marie-Thérèse was allowed to leave France. She was liberated on 18 December 1795, on the eve of her seventeenth birthday,[19] exchanged for prominent French prisoners (Pierre Riel de Beurnonville, Jean-Baptiste Drouet, Hugues-Bernard Maret, Armand-Gaston Camus, Nicolas Marie Quinette, and Charles-Louis Huguet de Sémonville) and taken to Vienna, the capital city of her cousin, the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, and also her mother's birthplace.

Exile (1795–1814)[edit]

Marie-Thérèse in Vienna in 1796 soon after her departure from France (by Heinrich Friedrich Füger)
Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême
(collection Musée de la Légion d'honneur)

Marie-Thérèse arrived in Vienna on 9 January 1796, in the evening, twenty-two days after she had left the Temple.[20]

She later moved to Mitau, Courland (now Jelgava, Latvia), where her father's eldest surviving brother, the Count of Provence, lived as a guest of Tsar Paul I of Russia. He had proclaimed himself King of France as Louis XVIII after the death of Marie-Thérèse's brother. With no children of his own, he wished his niece to marry her cousin, Louis-Antoine, Duke of Angoulême, son of his brother, the Count of Artois. Marie-Thérèse agreed.

Louis-Antoine was a shy, stammering young man. His father tried to persuade Louis XVIII against the marriage. However, the wedding took place on 10 June 1799 at Jelgava Palace (modern-day Latvia). The couple lost a baby in 1813. [21]

Life in Britain[edit]

The royal family moved to Great Britain, where they settled at Hartwell House, Buckinghamshire,[22] while her father-in-law spent most of his time in Edinburgh, where he had been given apartments at Holyrood Palace.

The long years of exile ended with the abdication of Napoleon I in 1814, and the first Bourbon Restoration, when Louis XVIII ascended the throne of France, twenty-one years after the death of his brother Louis XVI.

Bourbon Restoration (1814–1830)[edit]

Louis XVIII attempted to steer a middle course between liberals and the Ultra-royalists led by the Count of Artois. He also attempted to suppress the many men who claimed to be Marie-Thérèse's long-lost younger brother, Louis XVII. Those claimants caused the princess a good deal of distress.

Marie-Thérèse found her return emotionally draining and she was distrustful of the many Frenchmen who had supported either the Republic or Empire. She visited the site where her brother had died, and the Madeleine Cemetery where her parents were buried. The royal remains were exhumed on 18 January 1815 and re-interred in the Basilica of Saint-Denis, the royal necropolis of France, on 21 January 1815, the 22nd anniversary of Louis XVI's execution.

In March 1815, Napoleon returned to France and rapidly began to gain supporters and raised an army in the period known as the Hundred Days. Louis XVIII fled France, but Marie-Thérèse, who was in Bordeaux at the time, attempted to rally the local troops. The troops agreed to defend her but not to cause a civil war with Napoleon’s troops. Marie-Thérèse stayed in Bordeaux despite Napoleon’s orders for her to be arrested when his army arrived. Believing her cause was lost, and to spare Bordeaux senseless destruction, she finally agreed to leave. Her actions caused Napoleon to remark that she was "the only man in her family."[23]

After Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo on 18 June 1815, the House of Bourbon was restored for a second time, and Louis XVIII returned to France.

The House of Bourbon in 1823.
From left to right: Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, Madame Royale; Louis-Antoine, Duke of Angoulême; Prince Henri de Bourbon; Charles-Philippe, Count of Artois; Louis XVIII of France; Princess Louise-Marie-Thérèse d'Artois; Marie-Caroline, Duchess of Berry

On 13 February 1820, tragedy struck when the Count of Artois' younger son, the Duke of Berry, was assassinated by the anti-Bourbon and Bonapartist sympathiser Louis Pierre Louvel, a saddler. Soon after, the royal family was cheered when it was learned that the Duchess of Berry was pregnant at the time of her husband's death. On 29 September 1820, she gave birth to a son, Henry, Duke of Bordeaux, the so-called "Miracle child", who later, as the Bourbon pretender to the French throne, assumed the title of Count of Chambord.[24]

Madame la Dauphine[edit]

Louis XVIII died on 16 September 1824, and was succeeded by his younger brother, the Count of Artois, as Charles X. Marie-Thérèse's husband was now heir to the throne, and she was addressed as Madame la Dauphine. She is the only Dauphine whose father was a former King of France. However, anti-monarchist feeling was on the rise again. Charles's ultra-royalist sympathies alienated many members of the working and middle classes.

On 2 August 1830, after Les Trois Glorieuses, the Revolution of July 1830 which lasted three days, Charles X, who with his family had gone to the Château de Rambouillet, abdicated in favor of his son, who in turn abdicated in favor of his nephew, the nine-year old Duke of Bordeaux. However, in spite of the fact that Charles X had asked him to be regent for the young king, Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans, accepted the crown when the Chamber of Deputies named him King of the French.[25]

On 4 August, in a long cortège, Marie-Thérèse left Rambouillet for a new exile with her uncle, her husband, her young nephew, as well as his mother, the Duchess of Berry, and his sister Louise Marie Thérèse d'Artois. On 16 August, the family had reached the port of Cherbourg where they boarded a ship for Britain. King Louis-Philippe had taken care of the arrangements for the departure and sailing of his cousins.[26]

Final exile (1830–1848)[edit]

22 Regent Terrace, Edinburgh

The royal family lived in what is now 22 (then 21) Regent Terrace in Edinburgh[27][28] until 1833 when the former king chose to move to Prague as a guest of Marie-Thérèse's cousin, Emperor Francis I of Austria. They moved into luxurious apartments in Prague Castle. Later, the royal family left Prague and moved to the estate of Count Coronini near Gorizia, which was then Austrian but is in Italy today. Marie-Thérèse devotedly nursed her uncle through his last illness in 1836, when he died of cholera.

Her husband died in 1844 and was buried next to his father. Marie-Thérèse then moved to Schloss Frohsdorf, a baroque castle just outside Vienna, where she spent her days taking walks, reading, sewing and praying. Her nephew, who now styled himself as the Count of Chambord, and his sister joined her there. In 1848, Louis Philippe's reign ended in a revolution and, for the second time, France became a Republic.


Marie-Thérèse died of pneumonia on 19 October 1851, three days after the fifty-eighth anniversary of her mother's execution. She was buried next to her father-in-law and her husband, in the crypt of the Franciscan monastery church of Castagnavizza in Görz, then in Austria, now Kostanjevica in the Slovenian city of Nova Gorica. Marie-Thérèse had remained a devout Roman Catholic.

Later, her nephew Henri, the Count of Chambord, last male of the senior line of the House of Bourbon; his wife, the Countess of Chambord (formerly the Archduchess Marie-Thérèse of Austria-Este, daughter of Francis IV, Duke of Modena and his wife, Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy); and the count's only sister, Louise, Duchess of Parma, were also laid to rest in the crypt in Görz. The famous antiquarian the Duke of Blacas was also buried there in honor of his dutiful years of service as a minister to Louis XVIII and Charles X.

Marie-Thérèse is described on her gravestone as the "Queen Dowager of France", a reference to her husband's claim as King Louis XIX of France.

"Dark Countess" mystery[edit]

In October 2013, the grave of a woman in Hildburghausen, Thuringia, Germany, was exhumed to obtain DNA for testing, to determine if she was Marie-Thérèse.[29] The woman, who gave her name as Sophie Botta, lived in a castle in the area from 1807 until her death in 1837, and never spoke in public,[30] or was seen outside without her face being veiled.[29] She was accompanied by Leonardus Cornelius van der Valck, a secretary in the Dutch embassy in Paris from July 1798 to April 1799,[citation needed] and together they were known as the Dark Counts. Van der Valck addressed Botta as 'Your Grace' and they only spoke to each other in French.[31] Some German historians believe she was the real Marie-Thérèse,[30] who had swapped places with her adoptive-sister, and possible half-sister, Ernestine Lambriquet, following the revolution.[29] Possibly as she was too traumatised to resume a role in society,[29] but also as a result of a pregnancy, after abuse by her captors, which was referred to in a letter from a family friend, at the Spanish Court, in 1795.[30]

The DNA testing revealed that the Dark Countess was not Marie-Thérèse, but rather, another woman whose identity remains a mystery. On 28 July 2014 the 'Interessenkreis Dunkelgräfin' broadcast the results which proved beyond doubt that the Dunkelgräfin was not Marie-Thérèse, on television.[32]

In fiction[edit]


Marie-Thérèse has been portrayed in several motion picture adaptations, mainly to do with her mother's life.

Theatre and literature[edit]

She has also been portrayed in the following:

  • All Those Who Suffered; a Northern Irish play on the mystery of Louis XVII.[33]
  • Madame Royale, a novel by Elena Maria Vidal, based on Marie-Thérèse's life.
  • The Dark Tower, a novel by Sharon Stewart, based on The Journal of Madame Royale, which were the writings of Marie-Thérèse. The novel was later re-released as part of the Beneath the Crown series under the title The Princess in the Tower.
  • The Lacemaker and the Princess (2007), a children's novel by Kimberly Brubaker Bradley.
  • Faces of the Dead by Suzanne Weyn (2014) ISBN 978-0545425315.
  • Hungry Marie (2017), a manga by Ryuhei Tamura.
  • When Blood Lies by C.S. Harris (2022) ISBN 978-0-593-10269-5.


Marie-Thérèse was a descendant of the Holy Roman Emperors through her mother, Archduchess Marie Antoinette of Austria, who was a daughter of Maria Theresa I, Holy Roman Empress; the empress wanted all of her eldest granddaughters to be named after her.

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ Moran, Michelle (2011). Madame Tussaud. Quercus. p. 430. ISBN 978-1-84916-137-4.
  2. ^ Nagel, Susan (2009). Marie-Thérèse: The Fate of Marie Antoinette's Daughter. Bloomsbury. p. 316. ISBN 978-0-7475-9666-0.
  3. ^ a b Romer, Isabella Frances (1852). Filia dolorosa, memoirs of Marie Thérèse Charlotte, duchess of Angoulême. pp. 4–6.
  4. ^ Castelot, André (1962). Madame Royale (in French). Paris: Librairie Académique Perrin. p. 13. ISBN 2-262-00035-2.
  5. ^ Thieme, Hugo Paul (1908). Women of Modern France. Vol. 7. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: George Barrie & Sons. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
  6. ^ Isabella Frances Romer (1852). Filia dolorosa, memoirs of Marie Thérèse Charlotte, duchess of Angoulême. p. 4.
  7. ^ Nagel (2009), p. 47.
  8. ^ Campan, Madame (1823). Mémoires sur la vie de Marie-Antoinette (in French). Paris: Nelson Éditeurs. p. 184.
  9. ^ Fremont-Barnes, Gregory, ed. (2007). Encyclopedia of the Age of Political Revolutions and New Ideologies, 1760–1815: A-L. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 427. ISBN 978-0-313-33446-7.
  10. ^ Maranzani, Barbara (3 June 2021). "What Happened to Marie Antoinette's Children?". Biography. Retrieved 7 May 2023.
  11. ^ a b The History of Paris, from the Earliest Period to the Present Day;: Containing a Description of Its Antiquities, Public Buildings, Civil, Religious, Scientific, and Commercial Institutions, with Numerous Historical Facts and Anecdotes, Hitherto Unpublished, Tending to Illustrate the Different Aeras of French History, Particularly the Eventful Period of the Revolution. To which is Added an Appendix: Containing a Notice of the Church of Saint Denis; an Account of the Violation of the Royal Tombs; ... Etc. Etc. In Three Volumes. A. and W. Galignani. 1825. p. 410.
  12. ^ a b Johnson, Alison (2013). Louis XVI and the French Revolution. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. pp. 79–85. ISBN 978-1-4766-0243-1.
  13. ^ a b Mansel, Philip (1991). The Court of France 1789–1830. Cambridge University Press. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-0-521-42398-4.
  14. ^ Lever, Evelyne (1985). Louis XVI. Paris: Fayard. p. 635. ISBN 2-213-01545-7..
  15. ^ Castelot (1962), p. 88.
  16. ^ Erickson, Carolly (2004). To the Scaffold: The Life of Marie Antoinette. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 336. ISBN 978-1-4299-0405-6.
  17. ^ a b c Nagel (2009), p. 146.
  18. ^ Le Correspondant. 1907. p. 537.
  19. ^ Castelot (1962), p. 110–111.
  20. ^ Castelot (1962), p. 126.
  21. ^ Price, Munro (1 October 2007). The Perilous Crown: France between Revolutions. London: Pan Macmillan UK. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-74329-365-2.
  22. ^ Isabella Frances Romer (1852). Filia dolorosa, memoirs of Marie Thérèse Charlotte, duchess of Angoulême. p. 68.
  23. ^ Castelot (1962), p. 197.
  24. ^ Skuy, David (2003). Assassination, Politics, and Miracles: France and the Royalist Reaction of 1820. Montreal: McGill-Queen's Press University Press. pp. 7–13. ISBN 978-0-7735-2457-6.
  25. ^ Castelot (1962), pp. 226–251.
  26. ^ Castelot (1962), pp. 245–251.
  27. ^ Mitchell, Anne (1993), "The People of Calton Hill", Mercat Press, James Thin, Edinburgh, ISBN 1-873644-18-3.
  28. ^ Newspaper article on sale of 21 Regent Terrace Diggines, Graham "For sale: tragic royals bolthole", The Scotsman, 9 February 2002 Accessed 9 August 2009
  29. ^ a b c d Samuel, Henry (15 October 2013). "'Dark Countess' tomb exhumed to solve 200-year-old mystery". The Telegraph. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
  30. ^ a b c Patterson, Tony (28 July 2002). "German grave to unlock 'mystery of the Bourbons'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
  31. ^ Nagel (2009), p. 370.
  32. ^ "Dunkelgraefin war keine Prinzessin und nicht Tochter von Ludwig XVI". Spiegel. 29 July 2014.
  33. ^ "All Those Who Suffered". Archived from the original on 28 April 2005. Retrieved 10 October 2004.
  34. ^ Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. pp. 1, 11.

Further reading[edit]

  • Desmond, Alice Curtis (1967). Marie Antoinette's Daughter. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company. ISBN 0-396-05641-5.
  • Lenotre, G., La fille de Louis XVI, Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte de France, duchesse d'Angoulême, in Mémoires et Souvenirs sur la Révolution et l'Empire, Librairie Académique Perrin, 1908.

External links[edit]

Media related to Marie Thérèse Charlotte of France, Madame Royale at Wikimedia Commons

Primary sources[edit]

Other material[edit]

Marie-Thérèse, Duchess of Angoulême
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
Born: 19 December 1778 Died: 19 October 1851
French royalty
Title last held by
Marie Louise of Austria
as Empress of the French
Queen consort of France
2 August 1830
for 20 minutes
Title next held by
Maria Amalia of the Two Sicilies
as Queen of the French
Titles in pretence
Title last held by
Marie Joséphine of Savoy
Queen consort of France
6 November 1836 – 3 June 1844
Title next held by
Maria Theresa of Austria-Este