Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach
|Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach|
Ebner-Eschenbach about 1900
Baroness Marie Dubský von Třebomyslice.|
September 13, 1830
Zdislavice Castle, Moravia,
March 12, 1916 (aged 85)|
|Occupation||Novelist, short story writer, essayist|
|Genre||Drama, narrative, novel, novella, bildungsroman|
|Notable works||Das Gemeindekind, Dorf- und Schlossgeschichten|
Baroness Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach (Czech: Marie von Ebner-Eschenbachová, German: Marie Freifrau von Ebner-Eschenbach; September 13, 1830 – March 12, 1916) was an Austrian writer. Noted for her excellent psychological novels, she is regarded—together with Ferdinand von Saar—as one of the most important German-language writers of the latter portion of the 19th century.
She was born at the castle of the Catholic Dubský (Dubský von Třebomyslice) noble family in Zdislavice (present Czech Republic) near Kroměříž in Moravia, the daughter of Baron (from 1843: Count) Dubsky and his wife Maria, née Baroness Vockel, who came from a Protestant-Saxon background. Marie lost her mother in early infancy, but received a careful intellectual training from two stepmothers. Despite being part of a noble family having access to her family's vast libraries, she was never actually schooled properly. In 1848 she married her cousin, the Austrian captain, and subsequent field-marshal, Moritz von Ebner-Eschenbach. The couple resided first in Vienna, then at Louka (Klosterbruck) near Znojmo, where her husband had a military charge, and after 1860 again in Vienna. The marriage was childless. Marie grappled with the domestic priorities of a woman. She kept a journal and wrote letters explaining how her life constantly felt interrupted because of these tasks. It has been speculated that Marie may have suffered from "hysteria" based on symptoms found throughout these entries including debilitating headaches and excessive nervousness.
Marie began devoting herself to literary work. In her endeavours she received assistance and encouragement from Franz Grillparzer and Freiherr von Münch-Bellinghausen. Her first publicized work was the drama Maria Stuart in Scotland (German: Maria Stuart in Schottland), which Philipp Eduard Devrient produced at the Karlsruhe theatre in 1860. Then came a tragedy in five acts, Marie Roland, with several one-act dramas: Doktor Ritter, Violets (German: Das Veilchen), and The Disconsolate One.
After these limited successes in the field of drama, she turned to narrative. Commencing with Die Prinzessin von Banalien (1872), she graphically depicts in Božena (Stuttgart, 1876, 4th ed. 1899) and Das Gemeindekind (Berlin, 1887, 4th ed. 1900) the surroundings of her Moravian home, and in Lotti, die Uhrmacherin (Berlin, 1883, 4th ed. 1900), Zwei Comtessen (Berlin, 1885, 5th ed. 1898), Unsühnbar (1890, 5th ed. 1900) and Glaubenslos? (1893) the life of the Austrian aristocracy in town and country.
Much of Ebner-Eschenbach's more mainstream success is accredited to Julius Rodenberg due to his publishing Ebner-Eschenbach's work in his popular periodical, Die Deutsche Rundschau. She also published Neue Erzählungen (Berlin, 1881, 3rd ed. 1894), Aphorismen (Berlin, 1880, 4th ed. 1895) and Parabeln, Märchen und Gedichte (2nd ed., Berlin, 1892). Von Ebner-Eschenbach's elegance of style, her incisive wit and masterly depiction of character give her a foremost place among the German women writers of her time. On the occasion of her 70th birthday the university of Vienna conferred upon her the degree of doctor of philosophy, honoris causa. An edition of Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach's Gesammelte Schriften (Collected Works) began to appear in 1893 (Berlin).
Throughout her life, she had never created literature or plays for monetary reasons, and so, in her will, she left, as to aid other writers in their own endeavors, the compensation she had received. She died in Vienna, Austria-Hungary.
- Aus Franzensbad. 6 Episteln von keinem Propheten (6 epistles from no prophet). Leipzig: Lorck, 1858
- Maria Stuart in Schottland. Drama in five acts. Vienna: Ludwig Mayer, 1860
- Das Veilchen (The Violet). Comedy in one act. Vienna: Wallishausser, 1861
- Marie Roland. Tragedy in five acts. Vienna: Wallishausser, 1867
- Doktor Ritter. Dramatic poem in one act. Vienna: Jasper, 1869
- Die Prinzessin von Banalien. A fairy tale. Vienna: Rosner, 1872
- Das Waldfräulein (Maid of the woods), 1873
- Božena. A story. Stuttgart: Cotta, 1876
- Die Freiherren von Gemperlein, 1878
- Lotti, die Uhrmacherin (Lotti, the clock maker), in: "Deutsche Rundschau", 1880
- Aphorismen. Berlin: Franz Ebhardt, 1880
- Dorf- und Schloßgeschichten (Village and castle stories), 1883 (containing Der Kreisphysikus, Jacob Szela, Krambambuli, Die Resel, Die Poesie des Unbewußten)
- Zwei Comtessen (Two countesses). A story. Berlin: Franz Ebhardt, 1885
- Neue Dorf- und Schloßgeschichten (New village and castle stories). Stories. Berlin: Paetel, 1886 (containing Die Unverstandene auf dem Dorfe, Er laßt die Hand küssen, Der gute Mond)
- Das Gemeindekind (Child of the neighborhood) Novel. 1887
- Unsühnbar. A story. Berlin: Paetel, 1890
- Drei Novellen (Three novellas). 1892 (containing Oversberg)
- Glaubenslos? A story. Berlin: Paetel, 1893
- Das Schädliche. Die Totenwacht. Two stories. Berlin: Paetel, 1894
- Rittmeister Brand. Bertram Vogelweid. Two stories. Berlin: Paetel, 1896
- Alte Schule (Old school) A story. Berlin: Paetel, 1897 (containing Ein Verbot, Der Fink, Eine Vision, Schattenleben, Verschollen)
- Am Ende. Scene in one act. Berlin: Bloch, 1897
- Aus Spätherbsttagen. Stories. Berlin: Paetel, 1901 (containing Der Vorzugsschüler, Maslans Frau, Fräulein Susannens Weihnachtsabend, Uneröffnet zu verbrennen, Die Reisegefährten, Die Spitzin, In letzter Stunde, Ein Original, Die Visite)
- Agave. Novel. Berlin: Paetel, 1903
- Die unbesiegbare Macht. Two stories. Berlin: Paetel, 1905
- Meine Kinderjahre (My childhood years). Autobiographical sketches. Berlin: Paetel, 1906
- Altweibersommer. Berlin: Paetel, 1909
- Regarding personal names: Freifrau (Baroness) is a title rather than a first or middle name. It denotes the wife of a Freiherr.
- Lewis, Hanna. "The Guises of Modesty: Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach's Female Artists". The Johns Hopkins University Press. The South Central Modern Language Association. JSTOR 3189816.
- Chisholm 1911.
- Woodford, Charlotte. "Realism and Sentimentalism in Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach's Unsühnbar". The Gale Group. Modern Humanities Research Association. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- Worley, Linda. "The Making (and Unmaking) of an Austrian Icon: The Reception of Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach". GALE Literature Research Center. Modern Australian Literature. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Ebner-Eschenbach, Barones Marie von". Encyclopedia Americana.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ebner-Eschenbach, Marie". Encyclopædia Britannica. 8 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 843. This work in turn cites:
- A. Bettelheim, Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach: biographische Blätter (Berlin, 1900)
- M. Necker, Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach, nach ihren Werken geschildert (Berlin, 1900)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach.|
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- Works by Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach at Internet Archive
- Works by Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Biography by the Austrian encyclopedia
- Biography by the German historical Museum (in German)
- "Ebner-Eschenbach, Marie, Baroness von". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.