Marinduque

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This article is about the Philippine province. For other uses, see Marinduque (disambiguation).
Marinduque
Province
Marinduque Island.jpg
Gasan skyline.jpg Bakulong Boat.JPG
Fishing Time at Boac River-Brgy.Tumapon.jpg Mogpog Marinduque.jpg
(From top, left to right:) Marinduque Island viewed from a RORO ferry in Tayabas Bay, the town of Gasan, Bakulong Beach in Boac, Boac River, and the Biglang Awa Shrine in Balanacan Harbor, Mogpog.
Flag of Marinduque
Flag
Official seal of Marinduque
Seal
Nickname(s): The Heart of the Philippines
Location in the Philippines
Location in the Philippines
Coordinates: 13°24′N 121°58′E / 13.400°N 121.967°E / 13.400; 121.967Coordinates: 13°24′N 121°58′E / 13.400°N 121.967°E / 13.400; 121.967
Country Philippines
Region Mimaropa (Region IV-B)
Founded February 21, 1920
Capital Boac
Government
 • Governor Carmencita Reyes (Liberal) (suspended)
 • Vice Governor Romulo Baccoro (Liberal)
 • Representative Regina Ongsiako Reyes (Liberal)
Lone District
Area[1]
 • Total 952.58 km2 (367.79 sq mi)
Area rank 75th out of 81
Highest elevation (Mount Malindig) 1,157 m (3,796 ft)
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total 227,828
 • Rank 68th out of 81
 • Density 240/km2 (620/sq mi)
 • Density rank 38th out of 81
Divisions
 • Independent cities 0
 • Component cities 0
 • Municipalities 6
 • Barangays 218
 • Districts Lone district of Marinduque
Time zone PHT (UTC+8)
ZIP code 4900 to 4905
Dialing code 42
ISO 3166 code PH-MAD
Spoken languages Tagalog (Marinduqueño dialect), Bicol, and English
Website www.marinduque.gov.ph

Marinduque (Tagalog pronunciation: [marinˈduke]) is an island province in the Philippines located in MIMAROPA (Region IV-B) region. Its capital is the municipality of Boac. Marinduque lies between Tayabas Bay to the north and Sibuyan Sea to the south. It is west of the Bondoc Peninsula of Quezon province; east of Mindoro Island; and north of the island province of Romblon.

The province of Marinduque resided by its peace-loving people was ranked number 1 by the Philippine National Police and Philippine Security Forces as the 2013 Most Peaceful Province of the country due to its low crime rate statistics conversely ranking with the province of Batanes yearly. Furthermore, for almost 200 years, the province is home to one of the oldest religious festivals of the country: the unique and colorful Moriones Festival celebrated annually every holy week.

History[edit]

Legend has it that the island of Marinduque was formed as a consequence of a tragic love affair between two people: Mariin and Gatduke. Mariin's father, a local chieftain, did not approve of this affair and ordered the beheading of Gatduke. Before this could be done, the couple sailed out to sea and drowned themselves, forming the island now called Marinduque.

During the Spanish and early American occupations, Marinduque was part of Balayan Province (now Batangas) in the 16th century, Mindoro in the 17th century, and had a brief period as an independent province in 1901, when the Americans arrived.

During the Philippine-American War, Marinduque was the first island to have American concentration camps.[3] Marinduque is the site of the Battle of Pulang Lupa, where 250 Filipino soldiers under Colonel Maximo Abad, defeated a smaller force of 54 American Infantrymen. Col. Abad surrendered in 1901.[4]:535

In 1902, the US-Philippine Commission annexed the islands of Mindoro (now two separate provinces) and Lubang (now part of Occidental Mindoro) to the province.

Four months later, the province became part of the province of Tayabas (now Quezon).

On February 21, 1920, Act 2280 was passed by the Philippine Congress, reestablishing Marinduque as a separate province.

In 1942, the Japanese Imperial forces landed in Marinduque.

In 1945, combined American and Philippine Commonwealth troops attacked from the Japanese Troops liberated to the Battle of Marinduque in the Second World War.

Sixth Army Operations Mindoro and Marinduque Islands - 13 December 1944-24 January 1945
Battle of Marinduque
Part of World War II
Date 1945
Location Marinduque
Result Allied Victory
Belligerents

 Japan

Casualties and losses
18,700 killed
27,600 wounded
37,000 killed
43,000 wounded
8,000 captured

Archaeological finds[edit]

Archaeology in the Philippines began in Marinduque. Prior to 1900, only one important archaeological investigation had been carried out in the country: the Antoine-Alfred Marche ’s exploration of Marinduque from April to July 1881. According to anthropologist Henry Otley Beyer, while many other accidental finds have been recorded from time to time and a few burial caves and sites had been casually explored by European or local scientists, no systematic work had been done anywhere else prior to these explorations. After Marche, the next important archaeological work was undertaken by Dr. Carl Gunthe in the Central Visayan Islands in 1922.

An abundant yield of Chinese urns, vases, gold ornaments, skulls and other ornaments of pre-Spanish origin was what Marche finds represented. He brought back to France the Marinduque artifacts he uncovered in 40 crates. Part of it now said to be housed at the Musée de l'Homme in France. The finds also included a wooden image of the Marinduque anito called ‘Pastores’ by the natives.

One of these artifacts also found its way into the National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. (Catalogue No. A127996-0, Department of Anthropology, NMNH, Smithsonian Institution). These fragile jarlets traveled from China to the pre-colonial Philippines. Buried in a cave in Marinduque for centuries, excavated in the late 19th century, brought to Paris and eventually one ended up at the Smithsonian Institution museum.

Part of Marinduque's history lies at the Marinduque Museum in Poblacion, Boac, Marinduque and in museums abroad. It will take some time to analyze these artifacts to piece together its pre-colonial past.

Geography[edit]

Physical[edit]

Marinduque is considered as the geographical center of the Philippine archipelago by the Luzon Datum of 1911, the mother of all Philippine geodetic surveys.[citation needed] The province is a "heart-shaped" island with a total land area of 95,258 hectares (235,390 acres). It is situated between Tayabas Bay in the north and Sibuyan Sea to the south. It is separated from the Bondoc Peninsula in Quezon by the Mompong Pass. West of Marinduque is Tablas Strait, which separates it from Mindoro Island. Some of the smaller islands to the northeast are Polo Island, Maniwaya Island, and Mompong Island. Southwest portion includes the Tres Reyes Islands and Elephant Island.

The highest peak in Marinduque is Mount Malindig (formerly called Mt. Marlanga), a potentially active stratovolcano with an elevation of 1,157 metres (3,796 ft) above sea level, located at the southern tip of the island. Various cave systems occupy the province, which include the grand Bathala Cave; the newly discovered San Isidro Cave with its complex subterranean river; and Talao Caves with its 12 series of caves overlooking the western part of the island.

Northern part
Southern part

Climate[edit]

Marinduque is categorized on the Type III climate having rainfall more or less evenly distributed throughout the year with no clear boundary between dry and wet seasons. The annual mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures were calculated at 27.0 °C (80.6 °F), 32.9 °C (91.2 °F) and 22.3 °C (72.1 °F) respectively. Humidity average is 78% year-round with an average annual rainfall totaling 2,034.6 millimetres (80.10 in).[5]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Marinduque is divided into 6 municipalities and 218 barangays.[6]

Municipality Area
(km²)[6]
Population
(2010)[6][7]
Density
(per km²)
No. of
barangays
ZIP
code
Income
class
(DOF)[6]
Coordinates

Boac 212.7 52,892 248.7 61 4900 1st 13°26′54″N 121°50′31″E / 13.4483529°N 121.8418727°E / 13.4483529; 121.8418727 (Boac)
Buenavista 81.25 23,111 284.4 15 4904 4th 13°15′17″N 121°56′37″E / 13.2547446°N 121.9436522°E / 13.2547446; 121.9436522 (Buenavista)
Gasan 100.88 33,402 331.1 25 4905 3rd 13°19′24″N 121°50′45″E / 13.3233134°N 121.845932°E / 13.3233134; 121.845932 (Gasan)
Mogpog 108.06 33,384 308.9 37 4901 3rd 13°28′35″N 121°51′47″E / 13.4764364°N 121.8629288°E / 13.4764364; 121.8629288 (Mogpog)
Santa Cruz 270.77 55,673 205.6 55 4902 1st 13°28′24″N 122°01′42″E / 13.4734318°N 122.0284319°E / 13.4734318; 122.0284319 (Santa Cruz)
Torrijos 178.92 29,366 164.1 25 4903 3rd 13°19′10″N 122°05′11″E / 13.3194714°N 122.0862579°E / 13.3194714; 122.0862579 (Torrijos)
 †  Provincial capital

Demography[edit]

Population census of
Marinduque
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1903 51,674 —    
1918 56,868 +0.64%
1939 81,768 +1.74%
1948 85,828 +0.54%
1960 114,586 +2.44%
1970 144,109 +2.32%
1975 162,804 +2.48%
1980 173,715 +1.31%
1990 185,524 +0.66%
1995 199,910 +1.41%
2000 217,392 +1.81%
2007 229,636 +0.76%
2010 227,828 −0.29%
Source: National Statistics Office[8][1]

Marinduqueños are said to be very hospitable in nature and are very welcoming. One such custom reflecting this is putong or tubong, which is a custom of welcoming and honoring friends and visitors. The honoree (or honorees) are seated and crowned with flowers while local women dance and sing for them. Other well-wishers throw coins and flower petals for long life. Marinduqueños are known to speak a dialect of Tagalog known as the Marinduque Tagalog.

Religion[edit]

Marinduque is resided by various religious groups, with Catholics belonging to the Latin Rite predominantly making up the greatest number with 70%. The Aglipayan Church has 25% of the population and the rest belongs to the different denominations such as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Iglesia ni Cristo, Members Church of God International (popularly called Ang Dating Daan) and various Mainline Protestant denominations which include Assemblies of God, Baptists, JIL, Methodists, Presbyterian, and Seventh-day Adventist Church (SDA).

Language[edit]

The version of Tagalog spoken in Marinduque has been described as "the root from which modern national forms of speech have sprung," where remnants of archaic Tagalog could be found, spoken in a lilting manner by its inhabitants. If this linguistic theory is accurate, Marinduque's Tagalog has contributed significantly to the development of the official Philippine national language.[9]

To this day, Marinduqueños speak an old variation of the Tagalog language that is very close to the way Tagalog was spoken before the Spanish colonization. According to language experts[who?], the Tagalog dialects of Marinduque are the most divergent, especially the Eastern Marinduque dialect, perhaps due to the relative isolation from the Tagalogs of Luzon and also perhaps due to the influence of the Visayan and Bikol migrants.[10]

Linguist Rosa Soberano's 1980 The Dialects of Marinduque Tagalog goes into great depth concerning the dialects spoken there. The following is a verb chart which outlines the conjugation of the Eastern Marinduque dialect of Tagalog:

Infinitive Contemplative

(future actions)

Progressive

(past and present actions)

Completed

(past actions)

Imperative
Actor Focus 1 -um-

(gumawa) (future actions)

má-

(mágawâ)

ná-

(nágawâ)

-um-

(gumawa)

0

(gawa)

Actor Focus 2 mag-

(magbigay)

(ma)ga-

([ma]gabigay)

naga-

(nagabigay)

nag-

(nagbigay)

pag-

(pagbigay)

Object Focus 1 -in

(kainin)

a-

(akainin)

ina-

(inakain)

-in-

(kinain)

-a

(kaina)

Object Focus 2 i-

(isulat)

a-

(asulat)

ina-

(inasulat)

i- -in-

(isinulat)

-an

(sulatan)

Object Focus 3 -an

(tawagan) (future actions)

a-...-an

(atawagan)

ina- ... -an

(inatawagan)

-in- ... -an

(tinawagan)

-i

(tawagi)

Linguist Christopher Sundita observed that some of the affixes in Marinduque Tagalog, particularly "a-" and "ina-," are affixes used in Asi (Bantoanon), a Visaya language spoken in Romblon, just south of Marinduque. Marinduque Tagalog, like the Tagalog spoken over two centuries ago, had an additional verb category, the imperative, which was used for commands and requests (e.g., Matulog ka na - Go to sleep). Even then, the imperative and the infinitive were used side by side in expressing commands; but in standard Tagalog, apparently the infinitive became used exclusively. And in the Eastern Marinduque dialect, the imperative affixes are very much alive.[11]

Economy[edit]

Marinduque is an agricultural province, primarily growing rice and coconuts. Handicrafts from Marinduque are also exported to dıfferent parts of the world, and fishing is another important part of the economy. Mining was once an important player in the economy until a mining accident (the Marcopper Mining Disaster) occurred, bringing the industry to a standstill on the island and causing enormous damage to the people and the island. The provincial government has just recently sued Marcopper's parent company, Placer Dome, for $100 million in damages. Placer Dome was purchased in 2006 by Barrick Gold, who has now been joined in the lawsuit.

A significant role in Marinduque's economy is also played by tourism, especially during the Lenten season. While this is not one of the larger parts of the island's economy, it has shown great growth. Recently, some residents are now engaged in butterfly farming. Butterflies are raised for export to countries in both Europe and the Americas. Locally, live butterflies are released in celebration on different occasions, such as birthdays, weddings, and some corporate events.

Culture[edit]

Festivals
The Moriones Festival also plays a prominent role in Marinduque's culture. Marinduque is famous for this annual festival locally known as "Moryonan". During the month of March or April, parades and celebrations can be seen on the streets. In Santa Cruz, Gasan, Boac, and Mogpog, a parade of people dressed as "Moryons" can be seen on the main road connecting the towns of the island. Boac and Sta. Cruz, the biggest towns in the province, shows a reenactment in the evening of the actual event when Longinus, a blind soldier, punctures Jesus with his spear and blood droplets from the wound restores Longinus'sight.[12]
Music
The Marinduque is also home to a musical instrument called the Kalutang. The Kalutang is an instrument made of two pieces of wood that produce different note ranges depending on its size. A band of 10 to 12 can create music with this instrument.[13]
Putong
The province welcome ceremony treating the guest like royalty.

Governors[edit]

Marinduque has had its own Governor since becoming a sub-province of Tayabas (now Quezon) in 1902 and after gaining its independence from Tayabas in 1920.

Period Governor
1898-1901
(sub-province under Tayabas)
Martin Lardizabal
1901-1907
(sub-province under Tayabas)
Ricardo Paras
1907-1916
(sub-province under Tayabas)
Juan Nieva
1916-1919
(sub-province under Tayabas)
Pedro Madrigal
1919-1922
(sub-province under Tayabas until 1920)
Vicente Trivino
1922-1925 Miguel Villamayor
1925-1929 Damian J. Reyes
1929-1933 Leon Pelaez
1933-1936 Pedro del Mundo
1936-1938 Leon Pelaez
1938-1941 Ramon Reynoso
1941-1945 Jose L. Basa
1945-1946 Ricardo Nepomuceno
1946-1951 Cesar L. Nepomuceno
1951-1963 Miguel M. Manguera
1963-1967 Celso L. Preclaro
1967-1988 Aristeo Marasigan Lecaroz
1988-1995 Luisito Mercader Reyes
1995-1998 Jose Antonio Nieva Carrion
1998-2007 Carmencita Ongsiako Reyes
2007-2010 Jose Antonio Nieva Carrion
2010–present Carmencita O. Reyes

Transport[edit]

By air

Currently, Marinduque is served by direct daily flights to-and-fro Manila by Zest Airways (formerly Asian Spirit). The Marinduque Airport is located in Barangay Masiga, roughly between Gasan and Boac.

By water

Montenegro Lines - plying the sea routes from Dalahican Pier in Barangay Talao-Talao in Lucena City to Marinduque via Balanacan Port in Mogpog (5 trips daily going to Marinduque including the Cawit Pier in Boac or 10 to 14 trips daily back and forth)).(See Schedule of Montenegro Shipping Lines - Source: Google or MSLI Website)

Star Horse Shipping Lines - plying the sea routes from Talao Talao Port in Lucena City to Balanacan, Marinduque - (See Schedule of Star Horse Shipping - Source: Google or SHSLI Website).

JAC Liner Inc. serves a direct bus route from Cubao in Quezon City to Marinduque via roll-on/roll-off ship.

Schools/Educational institutions[edit]

Tertiary
  • Buyabod School of Arts and Trades (BSAT) — Buyabod, Santa Cruz
  • Educational Systems Technological Institute (ESTI) — Murallon, Boac
  • Lighthouse Maritime Schools, Inc. (LMSI) — Boac
  • Malindig Institute (MI) — Lapu-Lapu, Santa Cruz
  • Marinduque Midwest College (MMC) — Dili, Gasan
  • Marinduque State College (MSC) — College of Agriculture in Poctoy, Torrijos
  • Marinduque State College (MSC) — College of Fisheries in Banuyo, Gasan
  • Marinduque State College (MSC) — Main College Campus in Tanza, Boac
  • Marinduque State College (MSC) — Marinduque Community College in Matalaba, Santa Cruz
  • Marinduque State College (MSC) — Santa Cruz Annex, Santa Cruz
  • Marinduque Victorian College (MVC) — Buenavista
  • Saint Mary's College of Boac (SMCB) — Isok, Boac
  • Santa Cruz Institute (SCI) — Banahaw, Santa Cruz
  • Torrijos Poblacion School of Arts and Trades (TPSAT) — Poctoy, Torrijos

Secondary
Private schools
  • Educational Systems Technological Institute (High School Department) — Murallon, Boac
  • Escuela de Gratia Plena, Inc. Santa Cruz
  • Escuela de Gratia Plena, Inc. Torrijos
  • Lord of Lords Christian School — Cawit, Boac
  • Malindig Institute Foundation Inc. — The Pioneer School in the field of Private Education in the province (founded 1922) — Osmena St., Barangay Lapu-Lapu Santa Cruz
  • Marcopper High School — Kilo-Kilo, Santa Cruz
  • Marinduque Academy — Gitnang Bayan, Mogpog
  • Marinduque Christian Academy (High School Division) — Private — Dawis, Gasan
  • Marinduque Midwest College (High School Division) — Dili, Gasan
  • Marinduque State College — School of Secondary Teacher Education — Laboratory High School (2012)
  • Marinduque Victorians College (High School Division) — Poblacion, Buenavista
  • Our Mother of Perpetual Succor Academy (OMPSA) (Catholic private school) — Poblacion, Torrijos
  • Quezon-Roxas High School — Dulong Bayan, Mogpog
  • Saint Joseph the Worker Academy Of Marinduque, Inc. (formerly Saint Joseph Academy) — Malabon (Napo), Santa Cruz
  • Saint Mary's College of Marinduque (formerly Immaculate Concepcion College) (High School Department) (founded 1953) — Brgy. Isok, Boac
  • Santa Cruz Institute (Marinduque) Inc. (founded 1951 as Quezon Memorial School) — Bonifacio St., Santa Cruz
Public schools
  • Alobo National High School — Alobo, Santa Cruz
  • Argao National High School — Argao, Mogpog
  • Bagtingon National High School — Bagtingon, Buenavista
  • Balanacan National High School — Balanacan, Mogpog
  • Bangbang National High School — since 1968 — Bangbang, Gasan
  • Bognuyan National High School — Bognuyan, Gasan
  • Bonliw National High School — Bonliw, Torrijos
  • Botilao National High School — Botilao, Santa Cruz
  • Buenavista National High School Bagacay Annex — Bagacay, Buenavista
  • Buenavista National High School Daykitin Annex — Daykitin, Buenavista
  • Buenavista National High School Lipata-Tungib Annex — Tungib-Lipata, Buenavista
  • Buenavista National High School Main Campus — Poblacion, Buenavista
  • Buenavista National High School Sihi Annex — Sihi, Buenavista
  • Butansapa National High School — Butansapa, Mogpog
  • Cawit Comprehensive National High School — Cawit, Boac
  • Dolores National High School — Dolores, Santa Cruz
  • Hupi National High School — Hupi, Santa Cruz
  • Ilaya National High School — Balimbing, Boac
  • Ipil National High School — Ipil, Santa Cruz
  • Kasily National High School — Kasily, Santa Cruz
  • Kilo Kilo National High School — Kilo Kilo, Santa Cruz
  • Landy National High School — Landy, Santa Cruz
  • Makapuyat National High School — since 1968 — Napo, Santa Cruz
  • Malibago National High School — Malibago, Torrijos
  • Maniwaya National High School — Maniwaya, Santa Cruz
  • Maranlig National High School — Maranlig, Torrijos
  • Marinduque National High School, Boac — The premier public school in Marinduque, once was used as a camp for Spaniards, Japanese, American, and Filipino armies during World War II. It offers a Science Class Curriculum wherein students who qualified in the series of examinations prepared by DepEd are expected to maintain an 85% remark on the 3 core subjects.
  • Marinduque State College (High School Division) — Tanza, Boac
  • Masaguisi National High School — Masaguisi, Santa Cruz
  • Matalaba National High School — Matalaba, Santa Cruz
  • Matuyatuya National High School — Matuyatuya, Torrijos
  • Mogpog Comprehensive National High School — Ino, Mogpog
  • Mompong National High School — Mompong, Santa Cruz
  • Paciano A. Sena Memorial High School — Tabionan, Gasan
  • Poctoy National High School — Poctoy, Torrijos
  • Polo National High School — Polo, Santa Cruz
  • Punong National High School — Punong, Santa Cruz
  • Puting Buhangin National High School — Puting Buhangin, Santa Cruz
  • Sayao National High School — Sayao, Mogpog
  • Sibuyao National High School — Sibuyao, Torrijos
  • Tagum National High School — Tagum, Santa Cruz
  • Tambangan National High School — since 1977 — Tambagan, Santa Cruz
  • Tapuyan National High School — Tapuyan, Gasan
  • Tiguion National High School — Tiguion, Gasan
  • Tigwi National High School — Tigwi, Torrijos
  • Yook National High School — Yook, Buenavista

References[edit]

  1. ^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 20 February 2013. 
  2. ^ "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010" (PDF). 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  3. ^ Birtle, p. 272
  4. ^ Foreman, J., 1906, The Philippine Islands, A Political, Geographical, Ethnographical, Social and Commercial History of the Philippine Archipelago, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons
  5. ^ Birtle, Andrew J. (April 1997). "The U.S. Army's Pacification of Marinduque, Philippine Islands, April 1900 – April 1901". The Journal of Military History (at JSTOR) (Society for Military History) 61 (2): 255–282. doi:10.2307/2953967. JSTOR 2953967. 
    Jessup, Philip Caryl (1938). Elihu Root. Dodd, Mead, & Co./Reprint Services Corp. ISBN 0-7812-4908-2. http://www.namria.gov.ph
  6. ^ a b c d "Province: Marinduque". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority - National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 27 December 2015. 
  7. ^ "2010 Census of Population and Housing: Population Counts (MIMAROPA)" (PDF). National Statistics Office (Philippines), April 4, 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2015. 
  8. ^ "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities" (PDF). 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  9. ^ http://www.travelblog.org/Asia/Philippines/Marinduque/blog-462972.html
  10. ^ http://salitablog.blogspot.com/2007/03/tagalog-verbs.html
  11. ^ http://salitablog.blogspot.com
  12. ^ http://fil.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Imahen:Moriones_festival1.jpg
  13. ^ Pasaylo, Jun (15 April 2012). "Unveiling other treasures of Marinduque". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 27 December 2015. 

External links[edit]