|Province of Marinduque|
Location in the Philippines
|Region||Mimaropa (Region IV-B)|
|Founded||February 21, 1920|
|• Type||Sangguniang Panlalawigan|
|• Governor||Carmencita Reyes (Liberal)|
|• Vice Governor||Romulo Baccoro (Liberal)|
|• Representative||Lord Allan Jay Velasco (NUP)
|• Total||952.58 km2 (367.79 sq mi)|
|Area rank||76th out of 81|
|Highest elevation (Mount Malindig)||1,157 m (3,796 ft)|
|Population (2015 census)|
|• Rank||69th out of 81|
|• Density||250/km2 (640/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||37th out of 81|
|• Independent cities||0|
|• Component cities||0|
|• Districts||Lone district of Marinduque|
|Time zone||PHT (UTC+8)|
|IDD : area code||+63 (0)42|
|ISO 3166 code||PH-MAD|
Marinduque (Tagalog pronunciation: [maɾinˈduke]) is an island province in the Philippines located in Mimaropa (Region IV-B) region. Its capital is the municipality of Boac. Marinduque lies between Tayabas Bay to the north and Sibuyan Sea to the south. It is west of the Bondoc Peninsula of Quezon province; east of Mindoro Island; and north of the island province of Romblon.
The province of Marinduque was ranked number 1 by the Philippine National Police and Philippine Security Forces as the 2013 Most Peaceful Province of the country due to its low crime rate statistics alternately ranking with the province of Batanes yearly. Furthermore, for almost 200 years, the province is home to one of the oldest religious festivals of the country, the Moriones Festival celebrated annually every Holy Week.
Legend has it that the island of Marinduque was formed as a consequence of a tragic love affair between two people: Mariin and Gatduke. Mariin's father, a local chieftain, did not approve of this affair and ordered the beheading of Gatduke. Before this could be done, the couple sailed out to sea and drowned themselves, forming the island now called Marinduque.
During the Spanish and early American occupations, Marinduque was part of Balayan Province (now Batangas) in the 16th century, Mindoro in the 17th century, and had a brief period as an independent province in 1901, when the Americans arrived.
During the Philippine-American War, Marinduque was the first island to have American concentration camps. Marinduque is the site of the Battle of Pulang Lupa, where 250 Filipino soldiers under Colonel Maximo Abad, defeated a smaller force of 54 American Infantrymen. Col. Abad surrendered in 1901.:535
Four months later, the province became part of the province of Tayabas (now Quezon).
In 1945, combined American and Philippine Commonwealth troops attacked from the Japanese Troops liberated to the Battle of Marinduque in the Second World War.[incomprehensible] The general headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was active in 1935 to 1942 and 1945 to 1946 and Philippine Constabulary from 1945 to 1946 stationed in Marinduque after the war.[clarification needed]
Archaeology in the Philippines began in Marinduque. Prior to 1900, only one important archaeological investigation had been carried out in the country: the Antoine-Alfred Marche’s exploration of Marinduque from April to July 1881. According to anthropologist Henry Otley Beyer, while many other accidental discoveries and finds have been recorded from time to time and a few burial caves and sites had been casually explored by European and local scientists, no systematic work had been done anywhere else prior to these explorations. After Marche, the next important archaeological work was undertaken by Dr. Carl Gunthe in the Visayas Island Group in 1922.
An abundant yield of Chinese urns, vases, gold ornaments, skulls and other ornaments of pre-colonial origin was what Marche finds represented. He brought back to France the Marinduque artifacts he uncovered in 40 crates. Part of it now is said to be housed at the Musée de l'Homme in France. The finds also included a wooden image of the Marinduque anito called "Pastores" by the natives.
One of these artifacts also found its way into the National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. (Catalogue No. A127996-0, Department of Anthropology, NMNH, Smithsonian Institution). These fragile jarlets traveled from China to the pre-colonial Philippines. Buried in a cave in Marinduque for centuries, excavated in the late 19th century, brought to Paris and eventually one ended up at the Smithsonian Institution museum.
Part of Marinduque's history lies at the Marinduque Museum in Poblacion at Boac and in museums abroad. It will take some time to analyze these artifacts to piece together its pre-colonial past.
Marinduque is considered as the geographical center of the Philippine archipelago by the Luzon Datum of 1911, the mother of all Philippine geodetic surveys. The province is a "heart-shaped" island with a total land area of 952.58 square kilometres (367.79 sq mi), situated between Tayabas Bay in the north and Sibuyan Sea to the south. It is separated from the Bondoc Peninsula in Quezon by the Mompong Pass. West of Marinduque is Tablas Strait, which separates it from Mindoro Island. Some of the smaller islands to the northeast are Polo Island, Maniwaya Island, and Mompong Island. Southwest portion includes the Tres Reyes Islands and Elephant Island.
The highest peak in Marinduque is Mount Malindig (formerly called Mt. Marlanga), a potentially active stratovolcano with an elevation of 1,157 metres (3,796 ft) above sea level, located at the southern tip of the island. Various cave systems occupy the province, which include the grand Bathala Cave; the newly discovered San Isidro Cave with its complex subterranean river; and Talao Caves with its 12 series of caves overlooking the western part of the island.
Marinduque has a Type III climate, having rainfall more or less evenly distributed throughout the year with no clear boundary between dry and wet seasons. The annual mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures were calculated at 27.0 °C (80.6 °F), 32.9 °C (91.2 °F) and 22.3 °C (72.1 °F) respectively. Humidity average is 78% year-round with an average annual rainfall totaling 2,034.6 mm (80.1 inches).
|Municipality [i]||Population||±% p.a.||Area||Density (2015)||Brgy.|
|(2015)||(2010)||km2||sq mi||/km2||/sq mi|
|Population census of
|Source: Philippine Statistics Authority|
The population of Marinduque in the 2015 census was 234,521 people, with a density of 250 inhabitants per square kilometre or 650 inhabitants per square mile.
Marinduque is resided by various religious groups, with Catholics belonging to the Latin Rite predominantly making up the greatest number with 70%. The Aglipayan Church has 25% of the population and the rest belongs to the different denominations such as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Iglesia ni Cristo, Members Church of God International (popularly called Ang Dating Daan) and various Mainline Protestant denominations which include Assemblies of God, Baptists, JIL, Methodists, Presbyterian, and Seventh-day Adventist Church (SDA).
The version of Tagalog spoken in Marinduque, known as the Marinduque Tagalog, has been described as "the root from which modern national forms of speech have sprung," where remnants of archaic Tagalog could be found, spoken in a lilting manner by its inhabitants. If this linguistic theory is accurate, Marinduque's Tagalog has contributed significantly to the development of the official Philippine national language.[improper synthesis?]
To this day, Marinduqueños speak an old variation of the Tagalog language that is very close to the way Tagalog was spoken before the Spanish colonization. According to language experts[who?], the Tagalog dialects of Marinduque are the most divergent, especially the Eastern Marinduque dialect, perhaps due to the relative isolation from the Tagalogs of Luzon and also perhaps due to the influence of the Visayan and Bikol migrants.[better source needed]
Linguist Rosa Soberano's 1980 The Dialects of Marinduque Tagalog goes into great depth concerning the dialects spoken there. The following is a verb chart which outlines the conjugation of the Eastern Marinduque dialect of Tagalog:
(past and present actions)
|Actor Focus 1||-um-
(gumawa) (future actions)
|Actor Focus 2||mag-
|Object Focus 1||-in
|Object Focus 2||i-
|Object Focus 3||-an
(tawagan) (future actions)
|ina- ... -an
|-in- ... -an
Linguist Christopher Sundita observed that some of the affixes in Marinduque Tagalog, particularly "a-" and "ina-," are affixes used in Asi (Bantoanon), a Visaya language spoken in Romblon, just south of Marinduque. Marinduque Tagalog, like the Tagalog spoken over two centuries ago, had an additional verb category, the imperative, which was used for commands and requests (e.g., Matulog ka na - Go to sleep). Even then, the imperative and the infinitive were used side by side in expressing commands; but in standard Tagalog, apparently the infinitive became used exclusively. And in the Eastern Marinduque dialect, the imperative affixes are very much alive.
Marinduque is an agricultural province, primarily growing rice and coconuts. Handicrafts from Marinduque are also exported to dıfferent parts of the world, and fishing is another important part of the economy. Mining was once an important player in the economy until a mining accident (the Marcopper Mining Disaster) occurred, bringing the industry to a standstill on the island and causing enormous damage to the inhabitants. The provincial government has just recently[when?] sued Marcopper's parent company, Placer Dome, for $100 million in damages. Placer Dome was purchased in 2006 by Barrick Gold, who has now been joined in the lawsuit.
A significant role in Marinduque's economy is also played by tourism, especially during the Lenten season. While this is not one of the larger parts of the island's economy, it has shown great growth. Recently,[when?] some residents are now engaged in butterfly farming. Butterflies are raised for export to countries in both Europe and the Americas. Locally, live butterflies are released in celebration on different occasions, such as birthdays, weddings, and some corporate events.
The Moriones Festival is a famous annual festival locally known as "Moryonan" in Marinduque. From March to April, parades and celebrations can be seen on the streets. In Santa Cruz, Gasan, Boac, and Mogpog, a parade of people dressed as "Moryons" can be seen on the main road connecting the towns of the island. Boac and Santa Cruz, the biggest towns in the province, shows a reenactment in the evening of the actual event when Longinus, a blind soldier, punctures Jesus with his spear and blood droplets from the wound restores Longinus'sight.
Marinduque is home to the kalutang, a musical instrument made of two pieces of wood that produce different note ranges depending on its size. A band of 10 to 12 can create music with this instrument.
Marinduque has had its own Governor since becoming a sub-province of Tayabas (now Quezon) in 1902 and after gaining its independence from Tayabas in 1920.
|As a sub-province under Tayabas|
|1898 — 1901||Martin Lardizabal|
|1901 — 1907||Ricardo Paras|
|1907 — 1916||Juan Nieva|
|1916 — 1919||Pedro Madrigal|
|1919 — 1920||Vicente Trivino|
|As an independent province|
|1920 — 1922||Vicente Trivino|
|1922 — 1925||Miguel Villamayor|
|1925 — 1929||Damian J. Reyes|
|1929 — 1933||Leon Pelaez|
|1933 — 1936||Pedro del Mundo|
|1936 — 1938||Leon Pelaez|
|1938 — 1941||Ramon Reynoso|
|1941 — 1945||Jose L. Basa|
|1945 — 1946||Ricardo Nepomuceno|
|1946 — 1951||Cesar L. Nepomuceno|
|1951 — 1963||Miguel M. Manguera|
|1963 — 1967||Celso L. Preclaro|
|1967 — 1988||Aristeo Marasigan Lecaroz|
|1988 — 1995||Luisito Mercader Reyes|
|1995 — 1998||Jose Antonio Nieva Carrion|
|1998 — 2007||Carmencita Ongsiako Reyes|
|2007 — 2010||Jose Antonio Nieva Carrion|
|2010 — present||Carmencita O. Reyes|
Currently, Marinduque is served by direct daily flights to-and-fro Manila by Zest Airways (formerly Asian Spirit). The Marinduque Airport is located in Barangay Masiga, roughly between Gasan and Boac.
- Montenegro Lines — plying the sea routes from Dalahican Pier in Barangay Talao-Talao in Lucena City to Marinduque via Balanacan Port in Mogpog (5 trips daily going to Marinduque including the Cawit Pier in Boac, or 10 to 14 trips daily back and forth).(See Schedule of Montenegro Shipping Lines - Source: Google or MSLI Website)[full citation needed]
- Star Horse Shipping Lines — plying the sea routes from Talao Talao Port in Lucena City to Balanacan, Marinduque - (See Schedule of Star Horse Shipping - Source: Google or SHSLI Website).[full citation needed]
- JAC Liner Inc. serves a direct bus route from Cubao in Quezon City to Marinduque via roll-on/roll-off ship.
||This section is written like a directory.|
- Buyabod School of Arts and Trades (BSAT) — Buyabod, Santa Cruz
- Educational Systems Technological Institute (ESTI) — Murallon, Boac
- Lighthouse Maritime Schools, Inc. (LMSI) — Boac
- Malindig Institute (MI) — Lapu-Lapu, Santa Cruz
- Marinduque Midwest College (MMC) — Dili, Gasan
- Marinduque State College (MSC) — College of Agriculture in Poctoy, Torrijos
- Marinduque State College (MSC) — College of Fisheries in Banuyo, Gasan
- Marinduque State College (MSC) — Main College Campus in Tanza, Boac
- Marinduque State College (MSC) — Marinduque Community College in Matalaba, Santa Cruz
- Marinduque State College (MSC) — Santa Cruz Annex, Santa Cruz
- Marinduque Victorian College (MVC) — Buenavista
- Saint Mary's College of Boac (SMCB) — Isok, Boac
- Santa Cruz Institute (SCI) — Banahaw, Santa Cruz
- Torrijos Poblacion School of Arts and Trades (TPSAT) — Poctoy, Torrijos
- "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- Census of Population (2015): Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population (Report). PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- Birtle, p. 272
- Foreman, J., 1906, The Philippine Islands, A Political, Geographical, Ethnographical, Social and Commercial History of the Philippine Archipelago, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons
- "Province: Marinduque". PSGC Interactive. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- Birtle, Andrew J. (April 1997). "The U.S. Army's Pacification of Marinduque, Philippine Islands, April 1900 – April 1901". The Journal of Military History (at JSTOR). Society for Military History. 61 (2): 255–282. doi:10.2307/2953967. JSTOR 2953967.
Jessup, Philip Caryl (1938). Elihu Root. Dodd, Mead, & Co./Reprint Services Corp. ISBN 0-7812-4908-2.http://www.namria.gov.ph
- Census of Population and Housing (2010): Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities (PDF) (Report). NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- "Region IV-B (MIMAROPA)". Census of Population and Housing (2010): Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay (Report). NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- "Fact Sheet; Region IV-B; MIMAROPA' 2007 Census of Population" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority - Region IV-B. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
- Pasaylo, Jun (15 April 2012). "Unveiling other treasures of Marinduque". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Media related to Marinduque at Wikimedia Commons
- Marinduque travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Geographic data related to Marinduque at OpenStreetMap
- Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay as of August 1, 2007
||Batangas / Tayabas Bay||Quezon
|Oriental Mindoro / Sibuyan Sea||Sibuyan Sea / Quezon|