Marine Le Pen

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Marine Le Pen
MP
Marine Le Pen (2017-03-24) 01 cropped.jpg
President of the National Rally
Assumed office
15 May 2017
Preceded bySteeve Briois (Acting)
In office
16 January 2011 – 25 April 2017
Preceded byJean-Marie Le Pen
Succeeded byJean-François Jalkh (Acting)
Chair of Europe of Nations and Freedom
In office
15 June 2015 – 19 June 2017
Serving with Marcel de Graaff
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byNicolas Bay
Member of the National Assembly
for Pas-de-Calais's 11th constituency
Assumed office
18 June 2017
Preceded byPhilippe Kemel
Member of the European Parliament
In office
14 July 2009 – 18 June 2017
ConstituencyNorth-West France
In office
20 July 2004 – 13 July 2009
ConstituencyÎle-de-France
Personal details
BornMarion Anne Perrine Le Pen
(1968-08-05) 5 August 1968 (age 50)
Neuilly-sur-Seine, France
Political partyNational Rally
Spouse(s)
Franck Chauffroy
(m. 1995; div. 2000)

Eric Lorio
(m. 2002; div. 2006)
Domestic partnerLouis Aliot (2009–present)
Relations
Children3
Alma materPanthéon-Assas University
Signature
WebsiteOfficial campaign website

Marion Anne Perrine "Marine" Le Pen (French: [maʁin lə pɛn]; born 5 August 1968) is a French politician and lawyer serving as President of the National Rally political party (previously named National Front) since 2011, with a brief interruption in 2017. She has been the member of the National Assembly for Pas-de-Calais's 11th constituency since 18 June 2017.

She is the youngest daughter of party founder Jean-Marie Le Pen and the aunt of former FN MP Marion Maréchal-Le Pen. Le Pen joined the FN in 1986 and was elected as a Regional Councillor (1998–present), a Member of European Parliament (2004–2017), and a municipal councillor in Hénin-Beaumont (2008–2011). She won the leadership of the FN in 2011, with 67.65% of the vote, defeating Bruno Gollnisch and succeeding her father, who had been president of the party since he founded it in 1972.[1][2][3] In 2012, she placed third in the presidential election with 17.90% of the vote, behind François Hollande and Nicolas Sarkozy.[4][5][6] She launched a second bid to become President of France at the 2017 presidential election. She finished second in the first round of the election, with 21.30% of the vote, and faced Emmanuel Macron of centrist party En Marche! in the second round of voting. On 7 May 2017, she conceded after receiving approximately 33.9% of the vote in the second round.[7]

Described as more republican than her nationalist father, Le Pen has led a movement of "de-demonization of the National Front" to soften its image,[8] based on renovated positions and renewed teams, and expelling controversial members accused of racism, antisemitism, or Pétainism. She expelled her father from the party on 20 August 2015, after he made new controversial statements.[9][10] She has also relaxed some political positions of the party, advocating for civil unions for same-sex couples instead of her party's previous opposition to legal recognition of same-sex partnerships, accepting unconditional abortion and withdrawing the death penalty from her platform.[11][12][13]

Le Pen was ranked among the most influential people in 2011 and 2015, by the Time 100.[14][15] In 2016, she was ranked by Politico as the second-most influential MEP in the European Parliament, after President of the European Parliament Martin Schulz.[16]

Early life and education[edit]

Childhood[edit]

Marion Anne Perrine Le Pen was born on 5 August 1968 in Neuilly-sur-Seine,[17] the youngest of three daughters of Jean-Marie Le Pen, a Breton politician and former paratrooper, and his first wife, Pierrette Lalanne. She was baptized 25 April 1969, at La Madeleine by Father Pohpot. Her godfather was Henri Botey, a relative of her father.

She has two sisters: Yann and Marie Caroline. In 1976, when Marine was eight, a bomb meant for her father exploded in the stairwell outside the family's apartment as they slept.[18] The blast ripped a hole in the outside wall of the building, but Marine, her two older sisters and their parents were unharmed.[19]

She was a student at the Lycée Florent Schmitt in Saint-Cloud. Her mother left the family in 1984, when Marine was 16. Le Pen wrote in her autobiography that the effect was "the most awful, cruel, crushing of pains of the heart: my mother did not love me."[20] Her parents divorced in 1987.[21][22]

Legal studies and work[edit]

Le Pen studied law at Panthéon-Assas University, graduating with a Master of Laws in 1991 and a Master of Advanced Studies (DEA) in criminal law in 1992.[23] Registered at the Paris bar association, she worked as a lawyer for six years (1992–1998),[23] appearing regularly before the criminal chamber of the 23rd district court of Paris which judges immediate appearances, and often acting as a public defender. She was a member of the Bar of Paris until 1998, when she joined the legal department of the National Front.

Personal life[edit]

Le Pen was raised Roman Catholic.[24] In 1995, she married Franck Chauffroy, a business executive who worked for the National Front. She has three children with Chauffroy (Jehanne, Louis, and Mathilde).[21] After her divorce from Chauffroy in 2000, she married Eric Lorio in 2002, the former national secretary of the National Front and a former adviser to the Regional election in Nord-Pas-de-Calais. They divorced in 2006.

Since 2009, she has been in a relationship with Louis Aliot, who is of ethnic French Pied-Noir and Algerian Jewish heritage.[25] He was the National Front general secretary from 2005 to 2010, then the National Front vice president.[26] She spends most of her time in Saint-Cloud, and has lived in La Celle-Saint-Cloud with her three children since September 2014. She has an apartment in Hénin-Beaumont. In 2010, she bought a house with Aliot in Millas.[27]

Early political career[edit]

1986–2010: Rise within the National Front[edit]

Marine Le Pen joined the FN in 1986, at the age of 18. She acquired her first political mandate in 1988 when she was elected a Regional Councillor for Nord-Pas-de-Calais. In the same year, she joined the FN's juridical branch, which she led until 2003.

In 2000, she became president of Generations Le Pen, a loose association close to the party which aimed at "de-demonizing the Front National".[21] She became a member the FN Executive Committee (French: bureau politique) in 2000, and vice-president of the FN in 2003.[21] In 2006, she managed the presidential campaign of her father, Jean-Marie Le Pen. She became one of the two executive vice-presidents of the FN in 2007, with responsibility for training, communication and publicity.[23]

2010–11: Leadership campaign[edit]

Early in 2010 Le Pen expressed her intention to run for leader of the FN, saying that she hoped to make the party "a big popular party that addresses itself not only to the electorate on the right but to all the French people".[3]

On 3 September 2010, she launched her leadership campaign at Cuers, Var.[28] During a meeting in Paris on 14 November 2010, she said that her goal was "not only to assemble our political family. It consists of shaping the Front National as the center of grouping of the whole French people", adding that in her view the FN leader should be the party's candidate in the 2012 presidential election.[29] She spent four months campaigning for the FN leadership, holding meetings with FN members in 51 departments.[30] All the other departments were visited by one of her official supporters.[31] During her final meeting of the campaign in Hénin-Beaumont on 19 December 2010, she claimed that the FN would present the real debate of the next presidential campaign.[32][33] Her candidacy was endorsed by a majority of senior figures in the party,[31] including Jean-Marie Le Pen, her father.[34][35]

On several occasions during her campaign she ruled out any political alliance with the Union for a Popular Movement.[36][37] She also distanced herself from some of Jean-Marie Le Pen's most controversial statements,[38] such as those relating to war-crimes, which was reported in the media as attempts to improve the party's image. While her father had attracted controversy by saying that the gas chambers were "a detail of the history of World War II", she described them as "the height of barbarism".[39][40]

In December 2010 and early January 2011, FN members voted by post to elect their new president and the members of the central committee. The party held a congress at Tours on 15–16 January.[41] On 16 January 2011, Marine Le Pen was elected as the new president of the FN, with 67.65% of the vote (11,546 votes to 5,522 for Bruno Gollnisch),[23][42] and Jean-Marie Le Pen became honorary chairman.

Controversy[edit]

Marine Le Pen received substantial media attention during the campaign as a result of comments, made during a speech to party members in Lyon on 10 December 2010, in which she compared the blocking of public streets and squares in French cities (in particular rue Myrha in the 18th arrondissement of Paris) for Muslim prayers with the Nazi occupation of France. She said:

For those who want to talk a lot about World War II, if it's about occupation, then we could also talk about it (Muslim prayers in the streets), because that is occupation of territory ... It is an occupation of sections of the territory, of districts in which religious laws apply ... There are of course no tanks, there are no soldiers, but it is nevertheless an occupation and it weighs heavily on local residents.[43]

Her comments were widely criticised by media commentators across the political spectrum.[44][45][46] The Representative Council of French Jewish Institutions (CRIF),[47] the French Council of Muslim Faith (CFCM)[48] and the International League against Racism and Anti-Semitism (LICRA)[49] condemned her statement, and groups including MRAP (Movement Against Racism and for Friendship between Peoples)[50] and the French Human Rights League (LDH)[51] declared their intention to lodge a formal complaint. The imam of the Great Mosque of Paris and former president of the CFCM, Dalil Boubakeur, commented that though her parallel was questionable and to be condemned, she had asked a valid question.[52]

Le Pen's partner Louis Aliot,[25] a member of the FN's Executive Committee, criticized "the attempted manipulation of opinion by communitarian groups and those really responsible for the current situation in France".[53] On 13 December 2010, Le Pen reasserted her statement during a press conference at the FN headquarters in Nanterre.[54][55][56] After Jean-François Kahn's comments on BFM TV on 13 December 2010, she accused the Élysée Palace of organising "state manipulation" with the intention of demonizing her in public opinion.[57][58]

On 15 December 2015, a Lyon court acquitted her of "inciting hatred", ruling that her statement "did not target all of the Muslim community" and was protected "as a part of freedom of expression".[59]

Leadership of the National Front[edit]

De-demonization of the FN[edit]

From a general point of view, Marine Le Pen is often judged more moderate than her father. A part of the French electorate considers her positions more nuanced, polished and detoxified than Jean-Marie Le Pen's "provocations". Her smiling, calm image contrasts with much of the stereotypes generally attributed to her political family.[60] At the beginning of her media rise, she often talked about her particular treatment as the daughter of "Le Pen" and of the 1976 attack (then the biggest bomb explosion in France since World War II).[60][61] It has been seen as a way to humanize her party.[60][62]

Marine Le Pen in the traditional Jeanne d'Arc march, 3 May 2007

For example, Bernard-Henri Lévy, a strong opponent of the FN, talked about "a far-right with a human face".[63] Journalist Michèle Cotta claims that the fact she is a young woman condemning racism and refusing her father's "faults" (notably his enjoyment of shocking other people) contributed to her strategy of de-demonization of the National Front.[64] References to World War II or to the French colonial wars are absent from her speeches, which is often looked on as a generation gap.[65] She distanced herself from her father on the gas chambers he famously called "a detail in the history of World War II", saying that she "didn't share the same vision of these events".[66] L'Express wrote that the expulsion of Jean-Marie Le Pen in 2015 was the completion of her endeavour. The opponents of the FN denounce it as a more-dangerous strategy because of its evident success.[67]

In a 2010 RTL interview, Le Pen stated that her strategy was not about changing the FN's program but about showing it as it really is, instead of the image given to it by the media in the previous decades. The media and her political adversaries are accused of spreading an "unfair, wrong and caricatural" image of the National Front. She refuses the qualification of far-right or extreme-right, considering it a "pejorative" term: "How am I party of the extreme right? ... I don't think that our propositions are extreme propositions, whatever the subject".[68] However, the radical far-right (e.g., Minute, Rivarol, Patrick Buisson, Henry de Lesquen) reproached her for abandoning or softening her stances on immigration, gay marriage and abortion. In her speech in Lyon on 10 December 2010, she mentioned the fate of gays living in difficult neighbourhoods, victims of religious laws replacing the republican law.[69][70][71]

In 2014, the American magazine Foreign Policy mentioned her, along with four other French people, in its list of the 100 global thinkers of the year, underlining the way she "renovated the image" of her party, which had become a model for other right-wing parties in Europe after her success in the European elections.[72] At a European level, she stopped the alliance built by her father with some right-wing extremist parties and refused to be part of a group with the radical Jobbik or the neo-Nazi Golden Dawn. Her transnational allies share the fact that they have officially condemned antisemitism, accepted a more liberal approach toward social matters, and are sometimes pro-Israel such as the Dutch PVV. French historian Nicolas Lebourg concluded that she is looked upon as a compass for them to follow while maintaining local particularities.[73][74]

While other European populists embraced Donald Trump's candidacy as US President in 2016, she only supported him by saying: "For France, anything is better than Hillary Clinton". However, on 8 November 2016 she posted a tweet congratulating Trump on his presidential victory.[75] Nevertheless, her strategy has difficulties as her image seems to remain controversial: Germany's Angela Merkel has said she "will contribute to make other political forces stronger than the National Front" and Israel still holds a bad opinion of her party.[76][77] Nigel Farage has said: "I've never said a bad word about Marine Le Pen; I've never said a good word about her party".[78]

Her social program and her support of SYRIZA in the 2015 Greek general elections have led Nicolas Sarkozy to declare her a far-left politician sharing some of Jean-Luc Mélenchon's propositions. President François Hollande said she was talking "like a leaflet of the Communist Party". Eric Zemmour, journalist for the conservative newspaper Le Figaro, wrote during the 2012 presidential election that the FN had become a left-wing party under the influence of adviser Florian Philippot. She has also relaxed some political positions of the party, advocating for civil unions for same-sex couples instead of her party's previous opposition to legal recognition of same-sex partnerships, accepting unconditional abortion, and withdrawing the death penalty from her platform.[79][80][11]

First steps as a new leader: 2011[edit]

Supporters of Marine Le Pen in 2011

As a president of the Front National, Marine Le Pen currently sits as an ex officio member among the FN Executive Office (8 members),[81] the Executive Committee (42 members)[82] and the Central Committee (3 ex officio members, 100 elected members, 20 co-opted members).[83]

During her opening speech in Tours on 16 January 2011, she advocated to "restore the political framework of the national community" and to implement the direct democracy which enables the "civic responsibility and the collective tie" thanks to the participation of public-spirited citizens for the decisions. The predominant political theme was the uncompromising defence of a protective and efficient state, which favours secularism, prosperity and liberties. She also denounced the "Europe of Brussels" which "everywhere imposed the destructive principles of ultra-liberalism and free trade, at the expense of public utilities, employment, social equity and even our economic growth which became within twenty years the weakest of the world".[84] After the traditional Joan of Arc march and Labour Day march in Paris on 1 May 2011, she gave her first speech in front of 3,000 supporters.[85][86] On 11 August 2011, she held a press conference about the current systemic crisis.[87]

On 10 and 11 September 2011, she made her political comeback with the title "the voice of people, the spirit of France" in the convention center of Acropolis in Nice.[88] During her closing speech she addressed immigration, insecurity, the economic and social situation, reindustrialization and 'strong state'.[89] During a demonstration held in front of the Senate on 8 December 2011, she expressed in a speech her "firm and absolute opposition" to the right of foreigners to vote.[90] She regularly held thematic press conferences[91] and interventions[92] on varied issues in French, European and international politics.

First presidential candidacy: 2011–2012[edit]

Le Pen on 19 November 2011 in Paris announcing her presidential candidacy (top) and singing "La Marseillaise" at the conclusion of her presentation (bottom).

On 16 May 2011, Marine Le Pen's presidential candidacy was unanimously approved by the FN Executive Committee.[93] On 10 and 11 September 2011, she launched her presidential campaign in Nice.[89] On 6 October 2011, she held a press conference to introduce the members of her presidential campaign team.[94]

In a speech in Paris on 19 November 2011, Le Pen presented the main themes of her presidential campaign: sovereignty of the people and democracy, Europe, re-industrialisation and a strong state, family and education, immigration and assimilation versus communitarianism, geopolitics and international politics.[95][96][97] At a press conference on 12 January 2012,[98] she presented a detailed assessment of her presidential project,[99] and a plan to reduce France's debt.[100] At another press conference on 1 February 2012, she outlined her policies for the overseas departments and territories of France.[101] Many observers noted her tendency to focus on economic and social issues such as globalization and delocalisations, rather than immigration or law and order, which had until then been the central issues for the FN. On 11 December 2011, she held her first campaign meeting in Metz,[102][103] and from early January to mid-April 2012, she held similar meetings each week in the major French cities. On 17 April 2012, between 6,000 and 7,000 people took part in her final campaign meeting, held at the Zenith in Paris.[104][105]

On 13 March 2012, she announced that she had collected the 500 signatures required to take part in the presidential election.[106][107] On 19 March 2012, the Constitutional Council approved her candidacy, and those of nine competitors.[4] On 22 April 2012, she polled 17.90% (6,421,426 votes) in the first round, finishing in third position behind François Hollande and incumbent president Nicolas Sarkozy.[5][6] She achieved better results, in both percentage vote-share and number of votes, that Jean-Marie Le Pen in the 2002 presidential election (16.86%, 4,804,772 votes in the first round; 17.79%, 5,525,034 votes in the run-off).[108]

Marine Le Pen during her presidential campaign, on 15 April 2012
First round results: candidates with the most votes by departments (mainland France, overseas and French citizens living abroad). Marine Le Pen came first in Gard.

Le Pen polled first in Gard (25.51%, 106,646 votes), with Sarkozy and Hollande polling 24.86% (103,927 votes) and 24.11% (100,778 votes) respectively.[6][109] She also came first in her municipal stronghold of Hénin-Beaumont (35.48%, 4,924 votes), where Hollande and Sarkozy polled 26.82% (3,723 votes) and 15.76% (2,187 votes) respectively.[110] She achieved her highest results east of the line from Le Havre in the north to Perpignan in the south,[111] and conversely she won less votes in western France, especially big cities such as Paris, overseas and among French citizens living abroad (5.95%, 23,995 votes).[112] However, she polled well in two rural departments in western France: Orne (20.00%, 34,757 votes)[113] and Sarthe (19.17%, 62,516 votes).[114]

Her highest regional result was in Picardy (25.03%, 266,041 votes),[115] her highest departmental result in Vaucluse (27.03%, 84,585 votes),[116] and her highest overseas result in Saint Pierre and Miquelon (15.81%, 416 votes).[117]

First round results: candidates with the most votes by municipalities in metropolitan France (dark gray: Marine Le Pen)

She achieved her lowest regional result in Île-de-France (12.28%, 655,926 votes),[118] her lowest departmental result in Paris (6.20%, 61,503 votes),[119] and her lowest overseas result in Wallis and Futuna (2.37%, 152 votes).[120]

A French sociologist, Sylvain Crépon, who analysed the social and occupational groups of the FN voters in 2012, explained: "The FN vote is made up of the victims of globalisation. It is the small shopkeepers who are going under because of the economic crisis and competition from the out-of-town hypermarkets; it is low-paid workers from the private sector; the unemployed. The FN scores well among people living in poverty, who have a real fear about how to make ends meet."[111] Crépon also analysed the increase of the FN vote in "rural" areas and the recent sociological changes in these areas made up of small provincial towns and new housing-estate commuter belts built on the distant outskirts of the cities: "The rural underclass is no longer agricultural. It is people who have fled the big cities and the inner suburbs because they can no longer afford to live there. Many of these people will have had recent experience of living in the banlieues (high immigration suburbs) – and have had contact with the problems of insecurity."[111] Commentators also pointed that there were more young people and women voting for the party in 2012.[111]

On 1 May 2012, during a speech delivered in Paris after the traditional Joan of Arc and Labor Day march, Le Pen refused to back either incumbent president Sarkozy or socialist Hollande in the run-off on 6 May. Addressing the party's annual rally at Place de l'Opéra, she vowed to cast a blank ballot and told her supporters to vote with their conscience, saying: "Hollande and Sarkozy – neither of them will save you. On Sunday I will cast a blank protest vote. I have made my choice. Each of you will make yours." Accusing both candidates of surrendering to Europe and financial markets, she asked: "Who between Francois Hollande and Nicolas Sarkozy will impose the austerity plan in the most servile way? Who will submit the best to the instructions of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the European Central Bank (ECB) or the European Commission?".[121]

Electoral progress: 2012–2016[edit]

Following the increase in support for the FN in the presidential election, Le Pen announced the formation an electoral coalition to contest the June 2012 parliamentary elections called the Blue Marine Gathering. Standing as a candidate in the Pas-de-Calais' 11th constituency, Le Pen won 42.36% of the vote, well ahead of the Socialist representative Philippe Kemel (23.50%) and far-left candidate Jean-Luc Mélenchon (21.48%). She was beaten in the second round with 49.86% and filed an appeal with the Constitutional Council, which was rejected despite noting some irregularities. Nationally, the FN had two lawmakers elected: Le Pen's niece Marion Maréchal-Le Pen and Gilbert Collard.

In 2014, Le Pen led the party to further electoral advances in the municipal and senatorial elections: eleven Mayors and two Senators were elected, with the FN entering the upper chamber for the first time.

France's regional elections in 2015

On 24 May 2014, the FN won the European elections in France, with 24.90% of the vote. Marine Le Pen came in first place in her North-West constituency with 33.60%. 25 FN representatives were elected to the European Parliament from France. They voted against the Juncker Commission when it was formed in July 2014. One year later, Le Pen announced the formation of Europe of Nations and Freedom, a parliamentary grouping composed of the National Front, the Freedom Party of Austria, Lega Nord of Italy, the Dutch Party for Freedom, the Congress of the New Right from Poland, the Flemish Vlaams Belang of Belgium, and British independent MEP Janice Atkinson, formerly of UKIP. Le Pen's first attempt to assemble this grouping in 2014 had failed due to UKIP and the Sweden Democrats refusing to join, as well as some controversial statements from her father, Jean-Marie Le Pen. Le Pen sat on the commission for international trade. In 2016, Politico ranked her as the second most influential MEP after Martin Schulz.

In April 2015, Le Pen's father gave two interviews including controversial statements about World War II and about minorities in France, causing a political crisis in the FN. Marine Le Pen organised a postal vote to ask FN members to change the party's statutes in order to expel her father. J-M Le Pen pursued his movement and the justice cancelled the vote. On 25 August, the FN executive office voted to expel him from the party he had founded forty years earlier. Many observers noted Marine's dependence on her closest adviser, Florian Philippot, a former left-wing technocrat. The party instigated a purge to expel the members who had opposed the changes within the FN under Marine Le Pen's leadership.

Le Pen subsequently announced her candidacy for the presidency of the regional council of Nord-Pas-de-Calais-Picardie in the 2015 regional elections, though she expressed her regret over the proximity of these elections to the next presidential election. On 6 December, she finished first with 40.6% of the vote, but the Socialist candidate (third with 18.12%) withdrew and declared support for her right-wing opponent Xavier Bertrand, who won with 57.80% of the vote. Her niece Marion also lost, by a smaller margin.

Second presidential candidacy: 2016–2017[edit]

Leading candidate in polls[edit]

Marine Le Pen's 2017 campaign logo

Marine Le Pen announced her candidacy for the 2017 French presidential election on 8 April 2016, and from the start maintained high support in opinion polling. She appointed FN Senator David Rachline as her campaign manager. The FN had difficulty finding funding because of the refusal of French banks to provide credit. Instead, the NF borrowed 9 million from the First Czech-Russian Bank in Moscow in 2014, despite European Union sanctions placed on Russia following the annexation of Crimea. In February 2016, the FN asked Russia for another loan, this time of €27 million, but the second loan was not paid.[122]

Marine Le Pen during her presidential campaign, on 26 March 2017.

Political analysts suggested that Le Pen's strong position in opinion polls was due to the absence of a primary in her party (consolidating her leadership), the news of the migrant crisis and terrorist attacks in France (reinforcing her political positions) and the very right-wing campaign of Nicolas Sarkozy in the Republican primary (enlarging her themes). In a 2016 interview with the BBC, Le Pen said that Donald Trump's victory in the US Presidential election would help her, saying that Trump had "made possible what had previously been presented as impossible".[123] However, she said she would not officially launch her campaign before February 2017, waiting for the results of the Republican and Socialist primaries, and preferred to keep a low media profile and use thematic think tanks to expand and promote her political program. As a result, her rare media appearances attracted large audiences (2.3 million viewers for Vie politique on TF1 on 11 September 2016 and 4 million for Une ambition intime on M6 on 16 October).

The NF's communications also received media attention: a new Mitterrand-inspired poster depicting her in a rural landscape with the slogan "Appeased France" was a response to surveys indicating that she remained controversial for large parts of the French electorate. Satirical treatment of this poster led to the slogan being changed to: "In the name of the people". Meanwhile, the FN logo and the name Le Pen were removed from campaign posters.

Le Pen launched her candidacy on 4 and 5 February 2017 in Lyon, promising a referendum on France's membership of the European Union if she could not achieve her territorial, monetary, economic and legislative goals for the country within six months renegotiation with the EU. Her first campaign appearance on television, four days later, received the highest viewing figures on France 2 since the previous presidential election (16.70% with 3.7 million viewers).[124]

Campaign[edit]

On 2 March 2017, the European Parliament voted to revoke Le Pen's immunity from prosecution for tweeting violent imagery. Le Pen had tweeted an image of beheaded journalist James Foley in December 2015, which was deleted following a request from Foley's family. Le Pen also faced prosecution for allegedly spending EU Parliament funds on her own political party; the lifting of her immunity from prosecution did not apply to the ongoing investigation into the misuse of parliamentary funds by the FN.[125]

Marine Le Pen and Vladimir Putin in Moscow on 24 March 2017

Le Pen met with several incumbent heads of state including Lebanon's Michel Aoun,[126] Chad's Idriss Déby,[127] and Russia's Vladimir Putin.[128]

The ground floor of the building which housed Le Pen's campaign headquarters was targeted by an arson attempt during the early morning of 13 April 2017.[129][130]

In 2017, Le Pen argued that France as a nation bore no responsibility for the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup, in which Paris policemen arrested Jewish citizens for deportation to Auschwitz as part of the holocaust. She repeated a Gaullist thesis according to which France was not represented by the Vichy regime, but by Charles de Gaulle's Free France.[131]

On 20 April 2017, in the wake of a shooting targeting police officers that was treated as a suspected terrorist attack, Le Pen cancelled a planned campaign event. The next day, she called for the closure of all "extremist" mosques, a remark that was criticised by Prime Minister Bernard Cazeneuve, who accused her of attempting to "capitalise" on the incident. She also called for the expulsion of hate preachers and people on the French security services' watch list, and the revocation of their citizenship. The Guardian noted that the attack could serve as "ammunition" for right-wing candidates in the election, including Le Pen.[132]

On 21 April 2017, United States President Donald Trump wrote on Twitter that the shooting would have "a big effect on the presidential election."[133] Later that day, Trump said that Le Pen was the "strongest on borders, and she's the strongest on what's been going on in France."[134] Meanwhile, former US President Barack Obama phoned Emmanuel Macron to express his support.[135]

Second round[edit]

Results of the first round of the 2017 presidential election. Departments in which Le Pen received the largest share of the vote are shaded dark blue.

Le Pen won 21.3% of the vote (7.7 million votes) in the first round of the election on 23 April 2017, placing her second behind Macron, who received 24.0%,[136] meaning that they would face each other in the run-off on 7 May. On 24 April 2017, the day after the first round of voting, Le Pen announced that she would temporarily step down as the leader of the NF in an attempt to unite voters.[137] "The President of the Republic is the president of all the French people, they must bring them all together," she said.[138]

After progressing to the second round, she said that the campaign was now "a referendum for or against France" and tried to convince those voting for the hard-left candidate Jean-Luc Mélenchon to support her. This choice was later criticised by those in her party who believed that she had abandoned François Fillon's voters in spite of their conservative and anti-immigration stance. On 1 May 2017, a video emerged of Le Pen copying sections of a speech by Francois Fillon word-for-word.[139]

In the first days of the second round campaign, the gap in opinion polls began to narrow. On 25 April, Le Pen went to Amiens in an unexpected visit to meet workers at the Whirlpool factory while Macron was in a meeting with local officials at the same time, with Le Pen receiving a positive welcome. Macron then also visited the factory workers, but was booed by a hostile crowd.

Le Pen was generally regarded as the loser of the televised debate between the two candidates. Her performance was strongly criticised by politicians, commentators, and members of her own party, and described as a "sabotage" by conservative journalist Eric Zemmour. Le Pen herself subsequently acknowledged that she had "misfired" during the debate. In the following days, she began to fall back in opinion polls.

On 7 May, she conceded defeat to Emmanuel Macron. Her vote share of 33.9% was lower than any polls had predicted, and was attributed to her poor performance in the debate. She immediately announced a "full transformation" of the FN in the following months.[7]

Member of Parliament: 2017–present[edit]

On 18 May 2017, Le Pen announced that she would run as a candidate at the parliamentary elections in the Pas-de-Calais's 11th constituency, in her fifth attempt to be elected as a deputy. She received just under 46% of the vote in the first round, and won the second with just under 58% against Anne Roquet of En Marche. She became a member of the Foreign Affairs Commission in the National Assembly. She then resigned as a Member of the European Parliament (MEP).[140]

Political positions[edit]

Marine Le Pen contends that the FN's immigration programme is better known among the voters; she has thus concentrated on the party's economic and social programmes.[141][142]

Described as more democratic and republican than her nationalist father, Jean-Marie Le Pen, the previous leader of the FN, she has attempted to detoxify and soften the party's image, based on reformulated policy positions, and has relaxed some political positions of the party, advocating for civil unions for same-sex couples, accepting unconditional abortion and withdrawing the death penalty from her platform.[11][12]

On economic policy, Le Pen favours protectionism as an alternative to free trade.[29] She supports economic nationalism,[143] the separation of investment and retail banking,[144] and energy diversification,[145] and is opposed to the privatization of public services and social security,[146] speculation on international commodity markets,[146] and the Common Agricultural Policy.[147]

Le Pen is opposed to globalization, which she blames for various negative economic trends, and opposes European Union supranationalism and federalism, instead favouring a loosely confederate 'Europe of the Nations'.[148] She has called for France to leave the Eurozone[149] and for a referendum on France leaving the EU.[150] She has been a vocal opponent of the Treaty of Lisbon,[151] and opposes EU membership for Turkey and Ukraine.[152][153] Le Pen has pledged to take France out of NATO and the US sphere of influence.[154] She proposes the replacement of the World Trade Organization[155][156] and the abolition of the International Monetary Fund.[157]

Le Pen and the NF believe that multiculturalism has failed,[158] and argue for the "de-Islamisation" of French society.[159] Le Pen has called for a moratorium on legal immigration.[160] She would repeal laws allowing illegal immigrants to become legal residents,[89] and has argued that benefits provided to immigrants be reduced to remove incentives for new immigrants.[161] Following the beginning of the Arab Spring and the European migrant crisis, she called for France to withdraw from the Schengen Area and reinstate border controls.[162][163]

On foreign policy, Le Pen supports the establishment of a privileged partnership with Russia,[154] and believes that Ukraine has been "subjugated" by the United States.[164] She is strongly critical of NATO policy in the region, Eastern European anti-Russian sentiment,[164] and threats of economic sanctions.[153]

Marine has voiced her support for Rattachism.[165]

Media image[edit]

National media[edit]

Marine Le Pen in May 2005

Le Pen's appearances on television and radio have played an important role in her political career, and her political activities are regularly covered in the French media.[166][167]

During an appearance on the programme Mots croisés (Crossed Words) on France 2 on 5 October 2009,[168] Le Pen quoted sections of Frédéric Mitterrand's autobiographical novel The Bad Life, accusing him of having sex with underage boys and engaging in sex tourism, and demanding his resignation as Minister of Culture.[169][170] According to French political commentator Jérôme Fourquet, the Mitterrand case was Le Pen's media breakthrough.[171]

Le Pen appeared several times on À vous de juger (You Be The Judge), a political discussion show on France 2 hosted by journalist and commentator Arlette Chabot. In her first appearance, on 14 January 2010, Marine Le Pen appeared opposite Éric Besson, Minister of Immigration, Integration, National Identity and Mutually Supportive Development.[172]

Marine Le Pen in 2008

In her first appearance as a main guest on À vous de juger, on 9 December 2010, she was questioned on economic, social and immigration issues by Chabot and political commentator Alain Duhamel; she then took part in debates, first with the socialist Mayor of Évry Manuel Valls and then Rachida Dati, Minister of Justice.[173] The broadcast was viewed by 3,356,000 viewers (14.6% of the television audience),[174] the highest viewing figures for 2010 and the fourth highest since the series first aired in September 2005.[175]

In December 2010, French journalist Guillaume Tabard described her as the "revelation of the year", and as "first an electoral phenomenon" and "a media phenomenon after".[176]

À vous de juger was replaced on France 2 by Des paroles et des actes (Words and Acts), hosted by journalist and anchorman David Pujadas. In her first appearance as a main guest on 23 June 2011, Le Pen appeared opposite Cécile Duflot, national secretary of The Greens.[177][178] The broadcast was viewed by 3,582,000 viewers (15.1% of the television audience.[179][180]

Le Pen has also appeared on Parole directe (Direct Speech) on TF1, hosted by Laurence Ferrari and political commentator François Bachy. Her first appearance as a sole guest on 15 September 2011 was viewed by an average of 6 million viewers (23.3% of the television audience) with a peak of 7.3 million in the second half of the programme.[181][182]

International media[edit]

Le Pen has appeared in the news media of other European countries,[22][183] Russia,[184] the Middle East,[185] and the United States.[186][187] She appeared on Quebec web-radio station Rockik in December 2008,[188] Radio Canada in May 2010,[189] and the Israeli radio station 90FM in March 2011.[190] In March 2011, she appeared on the front cover of The Weekly Standard magazine.[191] She spoke to international journalists at a press conference on 13 January 2012, organised by the European American Press Club.[192]

On 21 April 2011, she was featured in the 2011 Time 100[14] with a commentary from Vladimir Zhirinovsky, leader of the far-right Liberal Democratic Party of Russia and vice chairman of the State Duma.[193]

In October 2011, she launched her book in Verona, Italy, and met Assunta Almirante, the widow of Giorgio Almirante, leader of the far-right Italian Social Movement (MSI).[194]

In February 2013, she spoke at the Cambridge Union Society, the debating society of the University of Cambridge. Her appearance sparked controversy, with anti-fascist group Unite Against Fascism opposing her invitation on a No Platform basis and organising a demonstration outside the venue, attended by around 200 people.[195][196] The protests were supported by numerous Cambridge societies, including Cambridge University Students' Union and Cambridge Universities Labour Club; other groups, such as the Cambridge Libertarians, supported her invitation.[197]

Elections contested[edit]

European elections[edit]

In the 2004 European Parliament election, Le Pen led the FN list in the Île-de-France constituency. The list polled 8.58% (234,893 votes), winning one of fourteen available seats.[198]

In the 2009 European parliament election, Le Pen led the FN list in the North-West France constituency. The party polled 10.18% (253,009 votes),[199] the highest FN vote share of French constituencies, and won one of the ten seats.[200] The FN's constituency list received its highest regional result in Picardy (12.57%, 63,624 votes),[201] its highest departmental result in Aisne (13.40%, 19,125 votes),[202] and its highest municipal results in Pas-de-Calais: Hénin-Beaumont (27.92%, 1,799 votes),[203] Courcelles-lès-Lens (26.57%),[204] Noyelles-Godault (24.72%).[205]

Parliamentary elections[edit]

Paris in 1993[edit]

Le Pen first stood for parliament in the 1993 legislative election, in Paris' 16th constituency (17th arrondissement of Paris). She finished third with 11.10% (3,963 votes), and Bernard Pons (UDR) was re-elected as the MP with 63.14% (22,545 votes) in the first round.[206]

Lens in 2002[edit]

She stood in the 2002 election in Pas-de-Calais' 13th constituency, Lens, an economically deprived socialist stronghold. Le Pen polled 24.24% (10,228 votes) in the first round, qualifying for the run-off against socialist Jean-Claude Bois, in which Le Pen received 32.30% (12,266 votes); Bois was re-elected as the MP with 67.70% (27,510 votes).[207]

Hénin-Beaumont in 2007[edit]

Marine Le Pen during a presidential rally in Lille, 25 February 2007

In the 2007 election, Le Pen and her substitute Steeve Briois[clarification needed] stood for the FN in the Pas-de-Calais' 14th constituency, Hénin-Beaumont, a former coal mining area with high unemployment. Le Pen expressed the view that due to unemployment, offshoring and insecurity, the constituency symbolised the major problems of France.[208] Le Pen's campaign committee was led by Daniel Janssens, who had previously served for 24 years as the socialist deputy mayor of Leforest.

Le Pen finished second of fourteen candidates in the first round with 24.47% (10,593 votes), behind incumbent Socialist MP Albert Facon with 28.24% (12,221 votes).[209] Le Pen was the only FN candidate in France to qualify for the run-off.[210] After the first round, Le Pen was endorsed by Gaullist politicians Alain Griotteray and Michel Caldagués and the souverainiste MEP Paul-Marie Coûteaux.[211]

In the run-off, Le Pen received 41.65% (17,107 votes), and Facon was re-elected as the MP with 58.35% (23,965 votes).[209] Her strongest results came in Courcelles-lès-Lens (48.71%),[212] Noyelles-Godault (47.85%),[213] and Hénin-Beaumont (44.54%, 4,729 votes).[214] According to political analysts, Le Pen's strong showing in the constituency was a result of economic and social issues like de-industrialization, unemployment and a feeling of abandonment, rather than immigration or security.[210]

Hénin-Beaumont in 2012[edit]

In the 2012 election, Le Pen, now leader of the FN, stood in Pas-de-Calais' 11th constituency, which now contained Henin-Beaumont following redistricting, where she had got her best results in the presidential election.[215] Her opponents were Philippe Kemel and Jean-Luc Mélenchon.[216] She finished first in the first round on 10 June 2012, with 42.36% (22,280 votes),[217] and was defeated in the second round by Philippe Kemel.

In 2014, the Criminal Court of Bethune found Marine Le Pen guilty of electoral fraud, for producing and distributing flyers during the 2012 election purporting to be from electoral opponent Jean-Luc Mélenchon, calling for 'Arab' votes. She was ordered to pay a €10,000 fine.[218][219][220]

Regional elections[edit]

Nord-Pas-de-Calais in 1998[edit]

In the 1998 elections, she was included in the FN list in Nord-Pas-de-Calais and was a regional councillor for six years (1998–2004).[21]

Île-de-France in 2004[edit]

In the 2004 elections, she led the FN regional list in Île-de-France and the departmental list in Hauts-de-Seine.

Her list polled 12.26% (448,983 votes) in the first round and achieved 10.11% (395,565 votes) with fifteen councillors elected in the run-off.[221][222]

Le Pen led the regional group for five years, stepping down in February 2009 to concentrate on the European election campaign in the North-West France constituency.[223] A member of the standing committee, she led opposition to the left-wing regional executive managed by Jean-Paul Huchon.

Nord-Pas-de-Calais in 2010[edit]

In the 2010 elections, Marine Le Pen led the FN regional list in Nord-Pas-de-Calais and the departmental list in Pas-de-Calais.[224]

In the first round, her list polled 18.31% (224.871 votes) and finished in third position in Nord-Pas-de-Calais.[225] In Pas-de-Calais, her list polled 19.81% (96,556 votes), ahead of the UMP (15.91%, 77,550 votes),[226] and won by a large margin in Hénin-Beaumont (39.08%, 2,949 votes).[227] Le Pen's list achieved the second-highest result of FN regional lists in the country, behind her father Jean-Marie Le Pen's list in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, which received 20.30% (296,283 votes).[228] In Pas-de-Calais, she received a higher share of the vote than Jean-Marie Le Pen had received in the first round of the 2002 presidential election (18.41%, 135,330 votes).[229]

In the run-off, her list polled 22.20% (301,190 votes) in Nord-Pas-de-Calais, finishing in third position.[225] Eighteen FN councillors were elected among the 113 of Nord-Pas-de-Calais' regional council.[230] Le Pen's list had the second highest vote share of NF regional lists in France, behind Jean-Marie Le Pen's list which received 22.87% (387,374 votes) with 21 councillors elected.[228] In Pas-de-Calais, her list polled 24.37% (130,720 votes), finishing ahead of the UMP (22.63%, 121,365 votes),[226] and achieved its highest municipal results in Hénin-Beaumont (44.23%, 3,829 votes)[227] and Courcelles-lès-Lens (40.60%).[231] Her list achieved the second-highest departmental FN result in the country behind Vaucluse (26.54%).[232] Her regional vote share and the vote share in Pas-de-Calais were higher than those of Jean-Marie Le Pen in the run-off of the 2002 presidential election (21.89%, 445,357 votes;[233] 22.17%, 170,967 votes).[229]

Le Pen's success in these elections reinforced her internal position within the FN. As a member of the standing committee and a president of the regional group (Front National/Gathering for the Nord-Pas-de-Calais), she led opposition to the left-wing regional executive managed by Daniel Percheron.

Municipal elections[edit]

Marine Le Pen and Steeve Briois holding a press conference at Hénin-Beaumont, Pas-de-Calais, for the launch of the 2008 municipal election

Hénin-Beaumont in 2008[edit]

Since 2001, Gérard Dalongeville has been the Mayor of Hénin-Beaumont, an economically deprived town in a former coal mining area.

A municipal councillor since 1995,[234] Steeve Briois led the FN list with Marine Le Pen in second position. The FN list came second with 28.53% (3,650 votes) in the first round and achieved 28.83% (3,630 votes) with five councillors elected in the run-off.[235][236]

Following the election, Briois and Le Pen sat in opposition against the re-elected mayor Gérard Dalongeville and his first vice-mayor Marie-Noëlle Lienemann.

2009 Hénin-Beaumont by-election[edit]

A municipal by-election was held in Hénin-Beaumont on 28 June and 5 July 2009. As in 2008, Steeve Briois was the FN top candidate with Le Pen in second position.

The FN list led by a large margin after the first round, with 39.33% (4,485 votes), and received 47.62% (5,504 votes) in the run-off, with eight councillors elected,[237] though the FN again failed to win the municipality.[238]

Briois, Le Pen and the six other FN councillors formed the opposition against the new mayor Daniel Duquenne and his successor Eugène Binaisse.

On 24 February 2011, Le Pen resigned as a municipal councillor because of the law on the accumulation of mandates ("cumul des mandats").[239] In a letter entitled "I stay in Hénin-Beaumont!", she expressed the view that her political activities would be more effective for the city at regional and European levels than in the municipal council.[240]

Political mandates[edit]

Local mandates[edit]

  • Regional councillor of Nord-Pas-de-Calais: (15 March 1998 – 28 March 2004); since 26 March 2010: member of the standing committee, leader of the FN group.
  • Regional councillor of Île-de-France (28 March 2004 – 21 March 2010): member of the standing committee, leader of the FN group until February 2009.
  • Municipal councillor of Hénin-Beaumont (23 March 2008 – 24 February 2011).

European mandates[edit]

Member of the European Parliament in the Île-de-France constituency (20 July 2004 – 13 July 2009): Non-Inscrits (20 July 2004 – 14 January 2007/14 November 2007 – 13 July 2009); Identity, Tradition, Sovereignty (15 January 2007 – 13 November 2007).

Member of the European Parliament in the North-West France constituency: Non-Inscrits (14 July 2009 – 16 June 2015); ENF

Bibliography[edit]

  • À contre flots, Jacques Grancher, 2006 ISBN 2-7339-0957-6 (autobiography)(in French)
  • Pour que vive la France, Jacques Grancher, 2012, 260 pages (in French)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Steven Erlanger (21 May 2010). "Child of France's Far Right Prepares to Be Its Leader". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 November 2010.
  2. ^ Robert Marquand (25 June 2010). "France's National Front: will Marine Le Pen take the reins ?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 17 November 2010.
  3. ^ a b "Marine Le Pen in bid to head France's National Front". BBC News. 13 April 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2010.
  4. ^ a b "Decision: list of the 2012 candidates" (in French). Constitutional Council. 19 March 2012. Archived from the original on 22 April 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
  5. ^ a b "2012 French presidential election : Constitutional Council's statement after the official proclamation of the results in the first round" (PDF) (in French). Constitutional Council. 25 April 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  6. ^ a b c "2012 French presidential election : first round results in the departments after the official proclamation by the Constitutional Council" (PDF) (in French). Constitutional council. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  7. ^ a b "En direct, Emmanuel Macron élu président : " Je défendrai la France, ses intérêts vitaux, son image "". Le Monde. 7 May 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
  8. ^ 4:34 PM ET (2017-04-21). "Marine Le Pen's 'Brutal' Upbringing Shaped Her Worldview". NPR. Retrieved 2018-05-06.
  9. ^ Francetv info. "Défilé du FN : comment Marine Le Pen va marginaliser son père". Francetvinfo.fr. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
  10. ^ "L'after RMC: " Jean-Marie Le Pen est assez marginalisé et esseulé dans sa tentative de combattre le Front national ", Louis Aliot". Bfmtv.com. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
  11. ^ a b c "The de-demonisation of the Front National". Policy Network. 26 March 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  12. ^ a b "Marine Le Pen "pour un Pacs amélioré" pour les homosexuels". BFM TV. 6 October 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  13. ^ "IVG : Marion Maréchal-Le Pen recadrée par sa tante". Le Figaro. 6 December 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
  14. ^ a b "The 2011 Time 100 : full list". Time. 21 April 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  15. ^ "Thomas Piketty et Marine Le Pen parmi les 100 personnalités influentes du " Time "". 16 April 2015.
  16. ^ "The 40 MEPs who actually matter: the ranking". Politico. 19 May 2016.
  17. ^ "Marine Le Pen : Biographie et articles – Le Point". Le Point (in French). Retrieved 5 February 2017.
  18. ^ "Welcome to a ruthless world" (PDF) (in French). xooimage.com. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  19. ^ Mathieu von Rohr (7 July 2011). "Marine Le Pen's Populism for the Masses (Part 2: The Divide Between the Governing and the Governed)". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
  20. ^ Schofield, Hugh (14 March 2017). "Marine Le Pen. Is France's National Front leader far-right?". BBC. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
  21. ^ a b c d e "Marine Le Pen's biography" (in French). Élections présidentielles 2012. 20 November 2009. Archived from the original on 20 November 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2010.
  22. ^ a b Angelique Chrisafis (21 March 2011). "Marine Le Pen emerges from father's shadow". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  23. ^ a b c d "FN : the new president elected by the members !" (in French). Front National. 16 January 2011. Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
  24. ^ Delphine Legouté (14 July 2015). "Marion Maréchal-Le Pen évoque ses racines protestantes pour se rabibocher avec la Fédération protestante de France". Europe 1. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  25. ^ a b Saïd Mahrane, « Marine Le Pen fait la cour aux juifs », Le Point, 3 décembre 2011. Consulté le 3 décembre 2011.
  26. ^ "Leading Sarkozy to the Guillotine". The New York Times. 6 May 2012.
  27. ^ "Marine Le Pen achète à Millas : "Cela relève de ma vie privée" : Millas". Millas.blogs.lindependant.com. 13 September 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  28. ^ "500 people were at Cuers for Marine Le Pen". Nations Presse Info (in French). 4 September 2010. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
  29. ^ a b "The 2012 great alternation is built in 2011". Nations Presse Info (in French). 15 November 2010. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 23 November 2010.
  30. ^ "Timetable of Marine Le Pen's campaign trail for the 2011 Congress" (PDF) (in French). Front National. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
  31. ^ a b "Marine Le Pen's support committee" (PDF) (in French). Front National. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
  32. ^ "AFP : according to Marine Le Pen, the FN presents the "real debates" of the presidential election" (in French). Agence France-Presse (Steeve Briois' website). 20 December 2010. Archived from the original on 22 December 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
  33. ^ "FN leadership : Marine Le Pen's final meeting at Hénin-Beaumont" (in French). Agence France-Presse (Nations Presse Info). 21 December 2010. Archived from the original on 23 December 2010. Retrieved 21 December 2010.
  34. ^ Henry Samuel (11 September 2008). "French far-right leader Jean-Marie Le Pen sets retirement date". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Retrieved 17 November 2010.
  35. ^ "Jean-Marie Le Pen sides with his daughter Marine against Gollnisch" (in French). RMC. 30 June 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  36. ^ "Marine Le Pen : "No alliance with the UMP"". Le Figaro (in French). 30 October 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2010.
  37. ^ "Marine Le Pen refuses the idea of an alliance with the UMP". Le Monde (in French). 31 October 2010. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
  38. ^ "Marine Le Pen : mightier than her père?". The Independent. UK. 13 September 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2010.
  39. ^ "Marine Le Pen again distances herself from her father". Le Figaro (in French). 28 April 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
  40. ^ "Michel Thooris, l'homme qui veut faire voter les juifs pour Marine Le Pen". Slate (in French). 18 May 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  41. ^ "Official programme of the XIVth congress of the National Front" (PDF) (in French). Front National. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
  42. ^ Sebastian Moffett (17 January 2011). "Le Pen's Daughter Takes Party Helm". The Wall Street Journal Europe. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
  43. ^ "Marine Le Pen: Muslims in France 'like Nazi occupation'". The Telegraph (UK). 12 December 2010. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  44. ^ "Marine Le Pen shocks on street prayers". Le Figaro (in French). 11 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  45. ^ "Marine Le Pen "reveals fascist banner" according to PS officials". Le Parisien (in French). 11 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  46. ^ "Marine Le Pen compares the "Muslims' street prayers" to an "occupation"". Le Monde (in French). 11 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  47. ^ "The CRIF denounces Marine Le Pen". Nations Presse Info (in French). 14 December 2010. Archived from the original on 29 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  48. ^ "Marine Le Pen : "irresponsible" words". Le Figaro (in French). 11 December 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
  49. ^ "The Licra condemns Marine Le Pen's language". Le Figaro (in French). 14 December 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
  50. ^ "The MRAP lodges a formal complaint against Marine Le Pen for racial hatred". Le Nouvel Observateur (in French). 12 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  51. ^ "Marine Le Pen : the LDH lodges a formal complaint". Le Figaro (in French). 13 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  52. ^ "Marine Le Pen asked a valid question". France Soir (in French). 14 December 2010. Archived from the original on 16 December 2010. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
  53. ^ Louis Aliot (16 December 2010). "Statement about communitarianism and those really responsible for the current situation in France" (in French). Front National. Archived from the original on 8 April 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
  54. ^ "Our occupied streets : Marine Le Pen's press conference" (in French). Front National. 14 December 2010. Archived from the original on 25 August 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  55. ^ "Marine Le Pen "confirms and signs" for "the Occupation"". Le Point (in French). 13 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  56. ^ "Marine Le Pen confirms and signs". BFM TV (Nations Presse Info) (in French). 14 December 2010. Archived from the original on 29 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  57. ^ "Controversy of the street prayers. This is state manipulation : the proof !" (in French). Front National. 14 December 2010. Archived from the original on 19 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  58. ^ "Revelations : Marine Le Pen badmouthed by the Elysée" (in French). BFM TV (Nations Presse Info). 14 December 2010. Archived from the original on 29 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  59. ^ "French far-right leader Marine Le Pen acquitted of inciting hatred" (in French). France 24. 15 December 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  60. ^ a b c Titiou Lecoq (19 March 2010). "Marine Le Pen, the Front's new stance (in French)". Slate.fr. Archived from the original on 26 September 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  61. ^ "Interview of Marine Le Pen in 2006 (in French)". INA. 18 October 2010. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  62. ^ Julie Boudillon (2005). "A far-right woman in the media (in French)". Mots. Les langages du politique. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  63. ^ Bernard-Henri Lévy (26 March 2010). "Now, Marine Le Pen (in French)". Le Point. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  64. ^ Michèle Cotta (10 December 2010). "The de-demonization of the National Front (in French)". lenouveleconomiste.fr. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  65. ^ Gérald Andrieu (14 April 2010). "J.Fourquet: "Marine Le Pen has irrupted during the Mitterrand scandal" (in French)". Marianne. Archived from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  66. ^ "Marine Le Pen: "Gas chambers are not a detail of World War II"". Le Parisien. 27 March 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  67. ^ Maurice Szafran (15 March 2015). "When Marine Le Pen's strategy turns down (in French)". Challenges. Archived from the original on 9 August 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  68. ^ Angelique Chrisafis (21 March 2011). "Marine Le Pen emerges from father's shadow". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  69. ^ Bernard Poirette (16 April 2010). "Marine Le Pen: "the FN ideas are extremely modern" (in French)". RTL.fr. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  70. ^ Olivier de Granvil (24 November 2008). "Open letter from Marine Le Pen to Carl Lang (in French)". Nations Presse Info. Archived from the original on 29 March 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  71. ^ Gays in Lyon, 18 December 2010
  72. ^ Jean-Marie Pottier (26 November 2014). "Five Frenchmen, including Marine Le Pen, in the 2014 Foreign Policy list (in French)". Slate. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  73. ^ Sylvain Crépon, Alexandre Dézé, Nonna Mayer, Les Faux-semblants du Front national : sociologie d'un parti politique, Presses de Sciences Po, 2015, p. 64-65.
  74. ^ Hugo Domenach and Nicolas Lebourg (10 October 2016). "Marine Le Pen have taken the leadership of the European far-right (in French)". Le Point. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  75. ^ "Marine Le Pen on Twitter". Twitter. 8 November 2016.
  76. ^ Olivier Faye (26 April 2016). "On the foreign stage, Marine Le Pen victim of the demonization". Le Monde. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  77. ^ "Angela Merkel wants to fight against the rise of the National Front (in French)". Le Monde. 26 April 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  78. ^ "The Secret Diary of Nigel Farage: Why He Thinks Marine Le Pen Is Left Wing". LBC. 26 December 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  79. ^ Abel Mestre (6 November 2014). "When Marine Le Pen goes on her left (in French)". Le Monde. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  80. ^ Abel Mestre (20 January 2015). "Marine Le Pen : " Yes, we expect SYRIZA's victory" (in French)". Le Monde. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  81. ^ "The Executive Office". Front National (in French). Archived from the original on 25 October 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
  82. ^ "The Executive Committee" (in French). Front National. Archived from the original on 25 October 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
  83. ^ "The Central Committee" (in French). Front National. Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
  84. ^ "FN Congress in Tours : Marine Le Pen's opening speech" (in French). Front National. 17 January 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
  85. ^ "1 May march: Marine Le Pen's speech" (in French). Front National. 1 May 2011. Archived from the original on 25 November 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
  86. ^ "Marine Le Pen stakes out mainstream in speech". The Washington Times. 1 May 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
  87. ^ "Marine Le Pen's exceptional press conference about the systemic crisis" (in French). Front National. 11 August 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
  88. ^ "Programme of the "Summer days Marine 2012"" (PDF) (in French). Front National. Retrieved 11 September 2011.[dead link]
  89. ^ a b c "Speech at the "Summer days of Marine Le Pen"" (in French). Front National. 11 September 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
  90. ^ "Against the right of foreigners to vote: Marine Le Pen's speech" (in French). Front National. 8 December 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
  91. ^ "Press conferences" (in French). Front National. Archived from the original on 27 November 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2011.
  92. ^ "Thematic videos" (in French). Front National. Archived from the original on 27 November 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2011.
  93. ^ "Marine Le Pen's candidacy validated by the FN". Le Figaro (in French). AFP. 16 May 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2011.
  94. ^ "Marine Le Pen: presentation of her presidential campaign team" (in French). Front National. 6 October 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2011.
  95. ^ "Marine Le Pen's speech: presentation of her presidential project" (in French). Front National. 19 November 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2011.
  96. ^ "French far-right leader Le Pen unveils presidential programme". Monsters and Critics. 19 November 2011. Archived from the original on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
  97. ^ Thibault Leroux (19 November 2011). "Marine Le Pen, France Far-Right Presidential Candidate, Advocates Euro Exit". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
  98. ^ "Between "good" and "bad" expenditures, Marine Le Pen assesses her project". LCI (in French). 12 January 2012. Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  99. ^ "Assessment of the presidential project" (in French). Front National. 12 January 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
  100. ^ "Plan of debt paydown of France" (in French). Front National. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
  101. ^ "Presentation of the presidential project for overseas" (in French). Front National. 1 February 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  102. ^ "Meeting in Metz: Marine Le Pen's closing speech". Front National (in French). 12 December 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
  103. ^ "In Lorraine, Marine Le Pen wants to make listen the voice of "forgotten" people". La Chaîne Info (LCI, The News Channel) (in French). 11 December 2011. Archived from the original on 11 December 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
  104. ^ "Marine Le Pen's big meeting at the Zenith in Paris" (in French). Front National. 17 April 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
  105. ^ "Le Pen wants "show them that they are wrong"". Le Figaro (in French). 18 April 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
  106. ^ "Marine Le Pen gets (at last) her 500 endorsements". Le Point (in French). 13 March 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
  107. ^ "Endorsements – Marine Le Pen, Act II". Le Point (in French). 13 March 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
  108. ^ "2002 French presidential election: national results (first round and run-off)" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  109. ^ "2012 French presidential election: first round results in Gard" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  110. ^ "2012 French presidential election: first round results in Hénin-Beaumont" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  111. ^ a b c d Hugh Schofield (24 April 2012). "What next for Marine Le Pen's National Front?". BBC News. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
  112. ^ "2012 French presidential election: first round results among the French citizens living abroad" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
  113. ^ "2012 French presidential election: first round results in Orne" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
  114. ^ "2012 French presidential election : first round results in Sarthe" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
  115. ^ "2012 French presidential election: first round results in Picardy" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
  116. ^ "2012 French presidential election: first round results in Vaucluse" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
  117. ^ "2012 French presidential election: first round results in Saint Pierre and Miquelon" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
  118. ^ "2012 French presidential election: first round results in Île-de-France" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
  119. ^ "2012 French presidential election: first round results in Paris" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
  120. ^ "2012 French presidential election: first round results in Wallis and Futuna" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
  121. ^ "France election: Le Pen 'to cast blank vote' in run-off". BBC News. 1 May 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
  122. ^ Walt, Vivienne. "Why France's Marine Le Pen Is Doubling Down on Russia Support". Time. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  123. ^ "Marine Le Pen: Trump win boosts my chances". BBC News. 13 November 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  124. ^ "Marine Le Pen explose les records de "L'Émission politique" (in French)". Le Progrès. 10 February 2017. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  125. ^ McAuley, James (2 March 2017). "European Parliament lifts Marine Le Pen's immunity for tweeting gruesome images of violence". Washington Post.
  126. ^ "French far-right leader Le Pen visits Beirut as she eyes Elysée Palace – France 24". 20 February 2017.
  127. ^ "France's Le Pen focuses on terrorism in Chad leader visit". 21 March 2017 – via Reuters.
  128. ^ Nossiter, Adam (24 March 2017). "Marine Le Pen of France Meets With Vladimir Putin in Moscow" – via NYTimes.com.
  129. ^ "Le QG de campagne de Marine Le Pen visé par une tentative d'incendie". Le Monde. Agence France-Presse. 13 April 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  130. ^ Samuel, Henry (13 April 2017). "Marine Le Pen's Campaign HQ Target of 'Arson Attack'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  131. ^ Masters, James; Deygas, Margaux. "Marine Le Pen sparks outrage over Holocaust comments". CNN. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  132. ^ Willsher, Kim (20 April 2017). "Fears that Paris shooting will affect presidential election as first round looms". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
  133. ^ Jacobs, Peter (21 April 2017). "Trump Predicts the Attack in Paris Will Have a 'Big Effect on Presidential Election!'". Business Insider. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
  134. ^ Quigley, Aidan (21 April 2017). "Trump Expresses Support for Le Pen". Politico. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
  135. ^ Amaro, Silvia (21 April 2017). "Obama Wishes French Presidential Hopeful Macron Good Luck Ahead of Key Vote". CNBC. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
  136. ^ "Election présidentielle 2017". French Ministry of the Interior. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  137. ^ "Marine Le Pen steps down as Front National leader". The Irish Times. 24 April 2017.
  138. ^ "Marine Le Pen on Twitter". Twitter. 24 April 2017.
  139. ^ Willsher, Kim (2 May 2017). "Marine Le Pen accused of plagiarising Fillon in May Day speech". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  140. ^ Rebecca Flood (18 June 2017). "Marine Le Pen elected to French parliament in her fifth attempt". Express.
  141. ^ "Marine Le Pen : "Social issues—the National Front's policies"". Front National (in French). 24 September 2010. Archived from the original on 6 May 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2010.
  142. ^ Andrea Bambino (9 December 2010). "Marine Le Pen involves in economics" (in French). Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
  143. ^ "In order to absorb our debt: repeal the 1973 Law!". Front National (in French). 30 November 2010. Archived from the original on 1 December 2010. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
  144. ^ "Dexia fall: Marine Le Pen's proposals in order to get over the banking stagnation" (in French). Front National. 5 October 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2011.[dead link]
  145. ^ "Marcoule's nuclear accident: the urgency to secure the plants" (in French). Front National. 12 September 2011. Archived from the original on 27 February 2016. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
  146. ^ a b "New scandalous rise in gas prices : the state must regain the control of the situation" (in French). Front National. 1 March 2011. Archived from the original on 25 August 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
  147. ^ "Marine Le Pen visits the Paris International Agricultural Show". Le Journal du Dimanche (in French). 25 February 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
  148. ^ "Sarkozy dupes the French while with his cronies at Davos" (in French). Front National. 27 January 2010. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
  149. ^ "Marine Le Pen: "The real problem is the Euro!"". Front National (in French). 4 May 2010. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
  150. ^ "Brexit 'most important moment since Berlin Wall': Le Pen". BBC News. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  151. ^ "Reform of the French Post's statute: a serious undermining of the public utilities" (in French). Front National. 3 October 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2010.
  152. ^ "European Parliament resolution on Turkey's progress report 2008 (explanations of vote)". European Parliament. 12 March 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
  153. ^ a b "Marine Le Pen: Ukraine's association with EU – best option". Ukrinform. 26 June 2013
  154. ^ a b "France to ditch NATO, embrace Russia if National Front comes to power". RIA Novosti. 13 April 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
  155. ^ "Protections at boundaries: how to revive industry and employment ?" (in French). Front National. 10 June 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
  156. ^ "Marine Le Pen's press conference at the National Press Club in Washington". Nations Presse Info (in French). 3 November 2011. Archived from the original on 4 November 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  157. ^ "Marine Le Pen launches the debate about the future of IMF" (in French). Front National. 20 May 2011. Archived from the original on 2 June 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
  158. ^ Peggy Hollinger (9 February 2011). "Le Pen daughter applauds Cameron". Financial Times. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
  159. ^ "Le Pen says she's no Wilders". Radio Netherlands Worldwide. 1 June 2011. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
  160. ^ "Marine Le Pen: "If I was president..."". Paris-Match (Nations Presse Info) (in French). 8 July 2010. Archived from the original on 13 March 2011. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  161. ^ "Marine Le Pen's open letter to policemen, gendarmes and customs officers concerning the policy of fight against illegal immigration" (PDF). Nations Presse Info (in French). 5 July 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  162. ^ "Schengen : Sarkozy admits the extent of the disaster but does not act ! We must leave Schengen Area" (in French). Front National. 23 April 2011. Archived from the original on 7 November 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
  163. ^ "The French-Italian summit of 26 April will be no use if France does not announce that it definitively breaks with Schengen Agreement" (in French). Front National. 25 April 2011. Archived from the original on 24 August 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
  164. ^ a b "L'Ukraine de l'Ouest désormais " ouvertement " vassalisée par Washington". Front National.
  165. ^ http://www.lefigaro.fr/vox/monde/2014/08/04/31002-20140804ARTFIG00073-belgique-chronique-d-une-implosion-annoncee.php
  166. ^ Philippe Cohen (31 July 2010). "Marine Le Pen". Marianne (in French). Archived from the original on 8 November 2010. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
  167. ^ Michèle Cotta (24 August 2010). "The arch-enemy of the French political parties". Le Nouvel Économiste (in French). Retrieved 20 November 2010.
  168. ^ "Marine Le Pen during the Mots croisés programme on France 2 (Theme: sex crimes – How to prevent subsequent offences ?)" (in French). Front National. 8 October 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  169. ^ Henry Samuel (7 October 2009). "Frédéric Mitterrand admitted to paying for sex with 'young boys' in Thailand". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  170. ^ John Lichfield (8 October 2009). "Mitterrand fights for his job after rent boy admission". The Independent. UK. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  171. ^ "J. Fourquet: "Marine Le Pen has broken through the Mitterrand case"". Marianne (in French). 14 April 2010. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  172. ^ "À vous de juger: debate between Marine Le Pen and Éric Besson" (in French). Front National. 15 January 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
  173. ^ "Marine Le Pen in À vous de juger: replies to Arlette Chabot (1st part), replies to Alain Duhamel (2nd part), talks with Manuel Valls (3rd part), debate with Rachida Dati (4th part)" (in French). Front National. 10 December 2010. Archived from the original on 7 September 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
  174. ^ "Marine Le Pen boosts the audience of À vous de juger". Nations Presse Info (Médiamétrie) (in French). 10 December 2010. Archived from the original on 30 December 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
  175. ^ Emmanuel Berretta (10 December 2010). "Marine Le Pen got a high score in À vous de juger". Le Point (in French). Retrieved 27 December 2010.
  176. ^ Guillaume Tabard (31 December 2010). "Le Pen, bis repetita". Les Echos (in French). Archived from the original on 10 July 2012. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  177. ^ "Marine Le Pen on France 2" (in French). Front National. 24 June 2011. Archived from the original on 27 June 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2011.
  178. ^ "Marine Le Pen revives the machine". France Soir (in French). 24 June 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2011.
  179. ^ "Des paroles et des actes on France 2: viewers and televised audience (statistics)". Première (in French). 24 June 2011. Archived from the original on 27 June 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2011.
  180. ^ "Marine Le Pen still champion of the ratings". Le Journal du Dimanche (in French). 24 June 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2011.
  181. ^ ""Direct speech" with Marine Le Pen" (in French). TF1. 15 September 2011. Archived from the original on 24 September 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  182. ^ "TV audience: Marine Le Pen followed on TF1 by 6 millions of viewers" (in French). PureMédias. 16 September 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  183. ^ Mathieu von Rohr (7 July 2011). "Madame Rage: Marine Le Pen's Populism for the Masses (Part 1: Marine Le Pen's Populism for the Masses, Part 2: The Divide Between the Governing and the Governed, Part 3: 'As a Woman, You Have a Close Relationship with Reality'". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
  184. ^ "France will pull out of NATO – Marine Le Pen speaks to Kommersant about her programme". Kommersant (in Russian). 13 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  185. ^ Adar Primor (7 January 2011). "The daughter as de-demonizer". Haaretz. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
  186. ^ Bruce Crumley (3 February 2011). "Marine Le Pen: Her Father's Daughter". Time. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
  187. ^ Devorah Lauter (17 January 2011). "A new Le Pen will lead the French far right". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
  188. ^ "Marine Le Pen on the Québec webradio Rockik". Nations Presse Info (Rockik) (in French). 8 December 2008. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
  189. ^ "Marine Le Pen on Radio Canada". Nations Presse Info (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation) (in French). 21 May 2010. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
  190. ^ "Marine Le Pen on the Israeli radio 90FM" (in French). Front National. 31 March 2011. Archived from the original on 24 August 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
  191. ^ "Cover Gallery". The Weekly Standard. March 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
  192. ^ "Marine Le Pen invited by the European American Press Club". Front National (in French). 19 January 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
  193. ^ Vladimir Zhirinovsky (21 April 2011). "Marine Le Pen (The 2011 TIME 100)". Time. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
  194. ^ "Marine Le Pen en Italie: l'ombre portée du MSI | Droite(s) extrême(s)". Droites-extremes.blog.lemonde.fr. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  195. ^ "Marine Le Pen sparks Cambridge protests". The Daily Telegraph. London: Telegraph Media Group. 19 February 2013.
  196. ^ Pilgrim, Sophie (19 February 2013). "Marine Le Pen sparks protest on Cambridge visit". France 24. Paris: France Médias Monde.
  197. ^ Root, James (17 February 2013). "No Platform for Marine Le Pen – A Response by Cambridge Libertarians" (Press release). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Libertarians. Archived from the original on 18 January 2014.
  198. ^ "2004 European election results: Île-de-France" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Archived from the original on 21 November 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
  199. ^ "2009 European election results: North-West France" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
  200. ^ "France: list of the 72 MEPs by constituency (2009–2014)" (PDF) (in French). Minister of the Interior. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
  201. ^ "2009 European election results: Picardy" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
  202. ^ "2009 European election results: Aisne" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
  203. ^ "2009 European election results: Hénin-Beaumont" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
  204. ^ "2009 European election results: Courcelles-lès-Lens" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
  205. ^ "2009 European election results: Noyelles-Godault" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
  206. ^ "1993 French legislative election results: Paris' 16th constituency". Le Figaro (in French). Archived from the original on 2008-12-19. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
  207. ^ "2002 French legislative election results: Pas-de-Calais' 13th constituency" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
  208. ^ "Marine Le Pen : Pas-de-Calais in her sights" (in French). boursier.com. Reuters. 6 June 2007. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
  209. ^ a b "2007 French legislative election results: Pas-de-Calais' 14th constituency" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
  210. ^ a b "Hénin-Beaumont, Marine Le Pen's Vitrolles ?" (PDF) (in French). CEVIPOF. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
  211. ^ "Marine Le Pen: support from two Gaullist stalwarts" (in French). Yves Daoudal's website. 13 June 2007. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
  212. ^ "2007 French legislative election results: Courcelles-lès-Lens" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  213. ^ "2007 French legislative election results: Noyelles-Godault" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  214. ^ "2007 French legislative election results: Hénin-Beaumont" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  215. ^ "Election présidentielle 2012 – Résultats du 1er tour par circonscription". Politiquemania. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  216. ^ "Le PS coincĂŠ entre deux Fronts ? – RĂŠgion – Nord Eclair". Nordeclair.fr. Archived from the original on 13 February 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  217. ^ "Résultats des élections législatives 2012 / Législatives / Les résultats / Elections – Ministère de l'Intérieur" (in French). Elections.interieur.gouv.fr. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  218. ^ Reuters Editorial (3 April 2014). "France's Le Pen fined 10,000 euros over 'Arab' vote flyer". Reuters. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  219. ^ "Faux tract de Jean-Luc Mélenchon: 10 000 euros d'amende pour Marine Le Pen – L'Express". Lexpress.fr. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  220. ^ "Faux tract de Mélenchon : Le Pen condamnée à 10000 euros d'amende – France 3 Nord Pas-de-Calais" (in French). Nord-pas-de-calais.france3.fr. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  221. ^ "2004 French regional elections results: Île-de-France" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
  222. ^ "Île-de-France: list of the 15 FN regional councillors (2004–2010)" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
  223. ^ "Île-de-France: Marine Le Pen has left the presidency of the FN group". Le Point (in French). 10 February 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
  224. ^ "Nord-Pas-de-Calais: list of the FN candidates in 2010" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  225. ^ a b "2010 French regional elections results: Nord-Pas-de-Calais" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  226. ^ a b "2010 French regional elections results: Pas-de-Calais" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  227. ^ a b "2010 French regional elections results: Hénin-Beaumont" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  228. ^ a b "2010 French regional elections results: Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  229. ^ a b "2002 French presidential election results: Pas-de-Calais" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Archived from the original on 26 October 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  230. ^ "Nord-Pas-de-Calais: list of the 18 FN regional councillors (2010–2014)" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  231. ^ "2010 French regional elections results: Courcelles-lès-Lens" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  232. ^ "2010 French regional elections results: Vaucluse" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
  233. ^ "2002 French presidential election results: Nord-Pas-de-Calais" (in French). Minister of the Interior. Archived from the original on 7 December 2009. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  234. ^ "Biography of Steeve Briois" (in French). Steeve Briois' website. Retrieved 15 November 2010.
  235. ^ "2008 municipal election results in Hénin-Beaumont : first round and run-off". Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 15 November 2010.
  236. ^ "Hénin-Beaumont: list of the 5 FN municipal councillors". Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 15 November 2010.
  237. ^ "2009 Hénin-Beaumont municipal by-election results : first round and run-off" (PDF) (in French). Minister of the Interior. 7 August 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
  238. ^ Steven Erlanger (6 July 2009). "Left Wins French Local Election With Backing of Center-Right". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
  239. ^ "Accumulation of mandates : Marine Le Pen leaves the municipal council of Hénin-Beaumont". Le Parisien (AFP) (in French). 24 February 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
  240. ^ "I stay in Hénin-Beaumont !" (PDF). Nations Presse Info (in French). 24 February 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
  241. ^ a b "Marine Le Pen MEP_Archives". European Parliament. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
  242. ^ "Marine Le Pen MEP". European Parliament. Retrieved 30 October 2010.

External links[edit]

Party political offices
Preceded by
Jean-Marie Le Pen
Leader of the National Front
2011–2017
Succeeded by
Jean-François Jalkh
Acting
Preceded by
Steeve Briois
Acting
Leader of the National Front
2017–present
Incumbent
Preceded by
Jean-Marie Le Pen
National Front nominee for President of France
2012 and 2017
Most recent
New office Chair of Europe of Nations and Freedom
2015–2017
Served alongside: Marcel de Graaff
Succeeded by
Nicolas Bay
European Parliament
New constituency Member of the European Parliament
for Île-de-France

2004–2009
Succeeded by
Pervenche Berès
Preceded by
Carl Lang
Member of the European Parliament
for North-West France

2009–2017
Succeeded by
Christelle Lechevalier
National Assembly of France
Preceded by
Philippe Kemel
Member of the French National Assembly
for Pas-de-Calais' 11th constituency

2017–present
Incumbent