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A marine park is a designated park consisting of an area of sea (or lake) set aside to achieve ecological sustainability, promote marine awareness and understanding, enable marine recreational activities, and provide benefits for Indigenous peoples and coastal communities. Most marine parks are managed by national governments, and organized like 'watery' national parks, whereas marine protected areas and marine nature reserves are often managed by a subnational entity or non-governmental organization, such as conservation authority.
The largest marine park used to be the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park in Australia, at 350,000 km² until 2010, when the United Kingdom announced the opening of the Chagos Marine Park or Chagos Archipelago.
Although for many uses it is sufficient to designate the boundaries of the marine park and to inform commercial fishing boats and other maritime enterprises, some parks have gone to additional effort to make their wonders accessible to visitors. These can range from glass-bottomed boats and small submarines, to windowed undersea tubes.
List of marine parks
- Glorioso Islands Marine Natural Park, Glorioso Islands
- Kisite-Mpunguti Marine National Park, Kenya
- Mayotte Marine Natural Park, Mayotte
- Bonaire National Marine Park, Bonaire
- Half Moon Caye Natural Monument, Belize
- Hol Chan Marine Reserve, Belize
- Montego Bay Marine Park, Jamaica
- Pedra da Risca do Meio Marine State Park, Brazil
- Martinique Marine Natural Park, Martinique
- Saba National Marine Park, Saba
- Fathom Five National Marine Park
- Gwaii Haanas National Marine Conservation Area Reserve
- Lake Superior National Marine Conservation Area
- Saguenay–St. Lawrence Marine Park
- Alto Golfo de California Biosphere Reserve
- Arrecifes de Cozumel National Park
- Cabo Pulmo National Park, Mexico
- San Lorenzo Marine Archipelago National Park
- Allan H. Treman State Marine Park
- Dry Tortugas National Park
- John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park
- Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary
- Marine parks in Hong Kong:
- Cape D'Aguilar Marine Reserve
- Hoi Ha Wan Marine Park
- Sha Chau and Lung Kwu Chau Marine Park
- Tung Ping Chau Marine Park
- Yan Chau Tong Marine Park
- Karimunjawa National Park, Java
- Kepulauan Seribu National Park, Java
- Komodo National Park, Nusa Tenggara
- Bunaken National Park, Sulawesi
- Kepulauan Togean National Park, Sulawesi
- Kepulauan Wakatobi National Park, Sulawesi
- Taka Bone Rate National Park, Sulawesi
- Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, Papua
- Perhentian Islands
- Redang Island
- Pulau Tenggol
- Tioman Island
- Pulau Sibu
- Pulau Pemanggil
- Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park
- Tun Mustapha Marine Park
- Tun Sakaran Marine Park
- Turtle Islands National Park
- Karaburun-Sazan National Marine Park, Albania
- Marine Natural Park of Cap Corse and the Agriate, Cap Corse and the Agriates, Corsica
- Arcachon Bay Marine Natural Park, Arcachon Bay, France
- Gironde Estuary and Pertuis Sea Marine Natural Park, western France
- Gulf of Lion Marine Natural Park, Gulf of Lion, France
- Iroise Marine Natural Park, Brittany, France
- Marine Natural Park of the Picardy Estuaries and the Opal Sea, Picardy and Côte d'Opale, France
- Zakynthos Marine Park, Greece
- Alonnisos Marine Park, Greece
- Kosterhavet National Park, Bohuslän, Sweden
- Ytre Hvaler National Park, Norway
- Færder National Park, Norway
- Jomfruland National Park, Norway
- Raet National Park, Norway
- Pembrokeshire Coast National Park, Wales
- Plymouth Sound National Marine Park, England
- Ponta Do Pargo Marine Natural Park, Madeira, Portugal
- Cape Girão Marine Natural Park, Madeira, Portugal
As of April 2008 there are no high seas marine reserves, but Greenpeace is campaigning for the "doughnut holes" of the western pacific to be declared as marine reserves. They are also campaigning for 40 percent of the world’s oceans to be protected as marine reserves.
The Australian Government manages an estate of marine protected areas (MPA) that are Commonwealth reserves under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act).
- Ashmore Reef Marine National Nature Reserve
- Cartier Island Marine Reserve
- Cod Grounds Commonwealth Marine Reserve
- Coringa-Herald National Nature Reserve
- Elizabeth and Middleton Reefs Marine National Nature Reserve
- Great Australian Bight Commonwealth Marine Reserve
- Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
- Heard Island and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve
- Lihou Reef National Nature Reserve (Coral Sea Island Territory)
- Lord Howe Island Marine Park (Commonwealth Waters)
- Macquarie Island Marine Park
- Mermaid Reef Marine National Nature Reserve
- Ningaloo Marine Park (Commonwealth waters)
- Solitary Islands Marine Reserve (Commonwealth Waters)
- South-east Commonwealth Marine Reserve Network
New South Wales
As of December 2013, the following marine parks have been declared under the Marine Parks Act 2007 (SA) :
- Eastern Spencer Gulf Marine Park
- Encounter Marine Park
- Far West Coast Marine Park
- Franklin Harbor Marine Park
- Gambier Islands Group Marine Park
- Investigator Marine Park
- Lower South East Marine Park
- Lower Yorke Peninsula Marine Park
- Neptune Islands Group Marine Park
- Nuyts Archipelago Marine Park
- Sir Joseph Banks Group Marine Park
- Southern Kangaroo Island Marine Park
- Southern Spencer Gulf Marine Park
- Thorny Passage Marine Park
- Upper Gulf St Vincent Marine Park
- Upper South East Marine Park
- Upper Spencer Gulf Marine Park
- West Coast Bays Marine Park
- Western Kangaroo Island Marine Park
The state of Victoria has protected approximately 5.3% of coastal waters. In June 2002, legislation was passed to establish 13 Marine National Parks and 11 Marine Sanctuaries. Victoria is the first jurisdiction in the world to create an entire system of highly protected Marine National Parks at the same time. Additional areas are listed as Marine Parks or Marine Reserves, which provides a lower level of protection and allows activities such as commercial and recreational fishing.
The marine national parks are:
- Bunurong Marine National Park
- Cape Howe Marine National Park
- Churchill Island Marine National Park
- Corner Inlet Marine National Park
- Discovery Bay Marine National Park
- French Island Marine National Park
- Ninety Mile Beach Marine National Park
- Point Addis Marine National Park
- Point Hicks Marine National Park
- Port Phillip Heads Marine National Park
- Twelve Apostles Marine National Park
- Wilsons Promontory Marine National Park
- Yaringa Marine National Park
- Bardi Jawi Marine Park (proposed), in Bardi Jawi country.
- Lalang-gaddam Marine Park (in planning stages; formerly Great Kimberley Marine Park), which will cover Dambimangari waters:
- North Kimberley Marine Park, in Uunguu waters.
- Enipein Pah, near Pohnpei
Papua New Guinea
- ""National Marine Conservation Areas"". Parks Canada. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- ""Conservation Authorities"". Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "Type 1 Marine Protected Areas: Marine reserves". www.doc.govt.nz. New Zealand Department of Conservation. Retrieved 2021-01-18.
- "Délibération 2020-06" (PDF). Office Français de la Biodiversité (in French). 2020-03-03.
- "Les parcs naturels marins français" (PDF) (in French). Institut océanographique. December 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
- Jones, Nicola (2011). "Little Mexican reserve boasts big recovery". Nature. Retrieved 2011-08-23.
- "Parque Natural Marinho Da Ponta Do Pargo". dopa-explorer.jrc.ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
- "Parque Natural Marinho Do Cabo Girão". Protected Planet. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
- "The Pacific Commons -- first high seas marine reserve?". Greenpeace Australia Pacific. 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-27.
The Western and Central Pacific Ocean is the world's largest tuna fishery. Over half of the tuna consumed worldwide is taken from this area. Rampant overfishing is destroying this fishery; relatively healthy just a few years ago. Today, two key Pacific species, Bigeye and Yellowfin could face collapse unless urgent action is taken.
- "Marine reserves". Greenpeace Australia Pacific. 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-27.
A growing body of scientific evidence that demonstrates what we at Greenpeace have been saying for a long time: that the establishment of large-scale networks of marine reserves, urgently needed to protect marine species and their habitats, could be key to reversing global fisheries decline.
- "MARINE PARKS ACT 2007: SECTION 14" (PDF). The South Australian Government Gazette. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- Victoria’s System of Marine National Parks and Marine Sanctuaries. Management Strategy 2003–2010 (PDF), Parks Victoria, 2003, retrieved 2012-02-04
- Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions (WA) (2020). Lalang-gaddam Marine Park amended joint management plan for the Lalang-garram / Camden Sound, Lalang-garram / Horizontal Falls and North Lalang-garram marine parks and indicative joint management plan for the proposed Maiyalam Marine Park 2020 (PDF). Government of Western Australia. ISBN 978-1-925978-20-9. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
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