Mariology of the popes

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This article is about the views, directives and impacts of popes on Roman Catholic Mariology. For Anglican views, please see Anglican Marian theology. For a list of relevant Vatican documents, please see Marian papal encyclicals and Apostolic Letters.

The Mariology of the popes is the theological study of the influence that the popes have had on the development, formulation and transformation of the Roman Catholic Church’s doctrines and devotions relating to the Blessed Virgin Mary.

The development of Mariology over the centuries has been influenced by a number of factors, among which papal directives have often represented key milestones. Examples of papal influences include new Marian feast days, prayers, acceptance of new Marian congregations, indulgences, support for Marian apparitions (e.g. Lourdes and Fatima) and declaration of Marian dogmas.

A number of popes have made Marian themes a key part of their papacy, e.g. Leo XIII issued a record eleven encyclicals on the rosary, Pius XII invoked the first (and to date only) case of ex cathedra papal infallibility to establish a Marian dogma and John Paul II built his personal coat of arms around the Marian Cross.[1]

Popes have also highlighted the key Catholic Mariological theme of the link between the study of Mary and the development of a full Christology, e.g. as in Pius XII's Mystici corporis Christi and John Paul II's Redemptoris Mater.

Papal influences on Mariology[edit]

Popes were highly important for the development of doctrine and the veneration of the Blessed Virgin.[2] They made decisions not only in the area of Marian beliefs (Mariology) but also Marian practices and devotions. Popes promulgated Marian veneration and beliefs by authorizing: new Marian feast days, Marian prayers and initiatives, acceptance and support of Marian congregations, indulgences and special privileges, and support for Marian devotions.

The formal recognition of Marian apparitions (such as at Lourdes and Fatima) has also been influential. Since Pope Leo XIII, Popes have promoted Marian devotion through encyclicals, Apostolic Letters and with two dogmas (Immaculate Conception and Assumption), the promulgation of Marian years (Pius XII, John Paul II), visits to Marian shrines (Benedict XVI in 2007) and by actively supporting the fathers of Vatican II as they highlighted the importance of Marian veneration (Pope John XXIII and Paul VI) in Lumen gentium.

Popular views like the Assumption and the Immaculate Conception developed into Papal teaching over time. Popes have also limited and cautioned against some devotional practices. In 1674 Pope Clement X (1670–1676) indexed books on Marian piety.[3] After the Council of Trent, Marian fraternities were founded, fostering Marian piety,[4] not all of which were approved. Not all Popes took the same view on Marian beliefs and devotions.

First millennium[edit]

Leo the Great[edit]

To Leo the Great, Mariology is determined by Christology. He defended the teaching that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human.

  • The same eternal, only-begotten of the eternal begetter was born of the holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary. His birth in time in no way subtracts from or adds to that divine and eternal birth of his: but its whole purpose is to restore humanity, who had been deceived, so that it might defeat death and, by its power, destroy the devil who held the power of death. Overcoming the originator of sin and death would be beyond us, had not he whom sin could not defile, nor could death hold down, taken up our nature and made it his own. He was conceived from the holy Spirit inside the womb of the virgin mother. Her virginity was as untouched in giving him birth as it was in conceiving him.

13th to the 17th centuries[edit]

Clement IV[edit]

Pope Clement IV (1265–1268) created a poem on the seven joys of Mary, which in its form is considered an early version of the Franciscan rosary [5]:1159

Pius V[edit]

On September 17, 1569 Pope Pius V issued the papal bull Consueverunt Romani Pontifices which substantially established the rosary's present configuration.[6] Before the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 Pope Pius V requested to the people of Europe to pray the rosary. After the victory of the Holy League, he declared a commemorative feast that later became the Feast of Our Lady of the Rosary.[7]

Clement VIII[edit]

Pope Clement VIII (1592–1605) considered Marian piety the basis for Church reforms and issued the bull Dominici gregis (February 3, 1603) to condemn negations of the virginity of Mary. He promulgated Marian congregations and supported the rosary culture with 19 Papal bulls.[5]:1162

Clement X[edit]

Pope Clement X (1670–1676) furthered Marian piety with additional indulgences and privileges to religious orders and cities to celebrate special Marian feasts. He opposed the Marian piety of Louis de Montfort (canonized by Pope Pius XII) with a bull published on December 15, 1673 and outlawed some manifestations of Marian devotions. Several bulls supported the frequent citing of the rosary.[5]:1163

18th century[edit]

Clement XI[edit]

Pope Clement XI (1700–1721) prepared the groundwork for the dogma of the Immaculate Conception. He permitted the title “Immaculate Conception” and instructed the Holy Office in 1712 not to persecute anyone invoking Mary using this title. The Feast of the Immaculate Conception, which existed only regionally, was prescribed for the whole Church. The Pope recommended the teachings and piety of Louis de Montfort and named him “Apostolic Missionary of France”[5]:1163 On October 3, 1716, Clement XI extended the feast of Our Lady of the Rosary to the Universal Church.[5]:1163

Benedict XIII[edit]

Pope Benedict XIII (1724–1730) issued several indulgences in support of the rosary prayer, rosary processions and for praying the rosary on 15 “Marian Tuesdays”. He outlawed the Serafine rosary in 1727 and extended the feasts of Our Lady of Seven Sorrows and Our Lady of Mount Carmel to the whole Church.[5]:672

Clement XII[edit]

Pope Clement XII (1758–1769) banned all Marian litanies except the Litany of Loreto. In 1770 he permitted Spain to have the Immaculata as the main patron of the country and in 1767, he granted Spain the privilege of adding Mater Immaculata to the litany.

Benedict XIV[edit]

Pope Benedict XIV wrote books about the feast days of Christ and Mary - De festis Christi at BMV[8] He supported the Marian congregations for the Sodality of Our Lady with the bull Gloriosae Dominae, issued on September 27, 1748, and increased indulgences for all who pray the rosary.[5]:672

Clement XIV[edit]

Pope Clement XIV (1769–1775) had to deal with popular unrest in Southern Italy regarding celebrations and processions of the Immaculate Conception. He granted a privilege to the Franciscans in Palermo, that only they may celebrate the feast of the Immaculate Conception. Later he extended the privilege to other orders for private masses only. He outlawed the brotherhood of the Immaculate Conception but confirmed a knightly order with the same name. Allegedly, he had promised the King of Spain to dogmatize the IC.[9]

19th century[edit]

Pius IX[edit]

Pius IX dogmatized the Immaculate Conception in 1854. (Murillo 1660)

The Mariology of Pope Pius IX (1846–1878) represents a significant development of Roman Catholic theology, since it led to the promulgation of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception. Catholic theology in the 19th century was dominated by the issue of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary. During his pontificate petitions increased requesting the dogmatization of the Immaculate Conception. In 1848 Pius appointed a theological commission to analyze the possibility for a Marian dogma.[10]:245

In 1848 the Pope had to flee Rome, when a revolutionary movement took over the Papal States and city government. From his exile in Gaeta he issued the encyclical Ubi primum, seeking the opinions of the bishops on the Immaculate Conception, a novel approach of collegiality in the history of the papacy. Over 90 per cent of the bishops requested the dogmatization.[10]:245 Pius IX moved cautiously, on 10 May 1852 appointing a commission of twenty theologians to prepare a possible text of the dogma. Upon their completion, on 2 December 1852 he asked a commission of cardinals to finalize the text.

It also influenced the eventual promulgation of the dogma of the Assumption. Pius IX's approach of seeking collegial consensus was quoted by Pope Pius XII, when in Deiparae Virginis Mariae, he inquired of the bishops about a possible dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary.

1854 proclamation of the Immaculation Conception[edit]

It was not until 1854 that Pius IX, with the support of the overwhelming majority of Roman Catholic Bishops, proclaimed the Immaculate Conception.[11] Eight years earlier, in 1846, the Pope had granted the unanimous wish of the bishops from the United States, and declared the Immaculata the patron of the USA.[10]:245 During First Vatican Council, some 108 council fathers requested to add the words "Immaculate Virgin" to the Hail Mary.[12] Some fathers requested the dogma of the Immaculate Conception to be included in the Creed of the Church, which was opposed by Pius IX.[10]:566

Rejection of a dogma of the Assumption[edit]

During the First Vatican Council, nine Mariological petitions favored a possible assumption dogma, but this was strongly opposed by some council fathers, especially from Germany. On 8 May the fathers rejected a dogmatization at that time, a rejection shared by Pius IX. Council fathers highlighted the divine motherhood of Mary and called her the mother of all graces.[10]:566

Pius IX believed in the Assumption of Mary, and recognized the close relation between the Immaculate Conception of Mary and her being taken up into Heaven. He resisted attempts however, to issue a second Marian dogma within two decades. He attributed to Mary his narrow escape from Rome to Gaeta in 1848.[10]:245

Leo XIII[edit]

In his encyclical on the fiftieth anniversary of the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception, Pope Leo XIII stresses Mary's role in the redemption of humanity. His mariology was greatly influenced by Thomas Aquinas, especially his view of Mary's role in the Annunciation.[10]:97 Leo's emphasis on the path through Mary to Christ has been a key direction in Roman Catholic Mariology, with Mariology viewed as inherent in Christology, and the rosary paving that path.[13]

Pope Leo XIII

Pope Leo XIII (1878–1903) issued a record number of encyclicals on the rosary, instituted the Catholic custom of daily rosary prayer during the month of October, and created in 1883 the Feast of Queen of the Holy Rosary. Leo XIII promulgated Marian devotions via eleven encyclicals on the rosary.[10]:41 A centennial after his death, Leo XIII is often quoted, most recently by Pope Benedict XVI and John Paul II.

He applied the Marian analysis of Louis de Montfort to the analysis of the Church as a whole.[14] Leo actively employed his papal authority to support the veneration of Mary in places of her apparitions. Upon the blessing and opening of the Church of our Lady in Lourdes, he issued an apostolic writing, Parte humanae generi supporting pilgrimages to Lourdes and other Marian shrines.

Leo XII declared the Virgin of Montserrat to be the patron of Catalonia, and instituted the Feast of the Miraculous Medal in 1894. He condemned heresies about the Immaculate Conception[15] and discussed the relation of Saint Joseph to Mary in encyclical Quanquam Pluries (August 15, 1889).[16]

Leo XIII explained the importance of the rosary as the one road to God, from the father to the Son, to his Mother, and from her to the human race. The rosary is a vital means to participate in the life of Mary and to find the way to Christ.[17]

No. Title (Latin) Title (English translation) Subject Date
1. Supremi apostolatus officio The Supreme Apostolic Office On Devotion to the Rosary 1 September 1883
2. Superiore anno Last year On the Recitation of the Rosary 30 August 1884
3. Vi è ben noto English Translation on Vatican Web Site On the Rosary and Public Life 20 September 1887
4. Octobri mense The Month of October On the Rosary 22 September 1891
5. Magnae Dei Matris Of the great Mother of God On the Rosary 8 September 1892
6. Laetitiae sanctae Of holy praise Commending Devotion to the Rosary 8 September 1893
7. Iucunda semper expectatione English translation on Vatican Web Site On the Rosary 8 September 1894
8. Adiutricem Adjutrix On the Rosary 5 September 1895
9. Fidentem piumque animum English translation on Vatican Web Site On the Rosary 20 September 1896
10. Augustissimae Virginis Mariae Of the Most August Virgin Mary On the Confraternity of the Holy Rosary 12 September 1897
11. Diuturni temporis English translation on Vatican Web Site On the Rosary 5 September 1898

Mediatrix[edit]

Leo XIII was devoted to Our Lady of Good Counsel, and included her invocation in the Litany of Loreto. This image is by Pasquale Sarullo, the original being in Genazzano, near Rome. Pius XII also placed his pontificate under the maternal care of Our Lady of Good Counsel and composed a prayer to her.[18][19]

Leo XIII was the first Pope to fully embrace the concept of Mary as mediatrix. In his rosary encyclicals, he described the Virgin Mary as mediating all graces. In 1883 he wrote that nothing is as salvific and powerful as asking for the support of the Virgin, the mediator of peace with God and of heavenly graces.[20]:30 In his rosary encyclical Octobri Mense, he stated, that Mary is administrator of graces on earth, part of a new salvation order.[20]:48

In Dei Matris he noted, that Mary is mediator because Christ the Lord is also our brother[20]:62 And, in Jucunda Semper, he stated, that the deepest reason, why Roman Catholics look for the protection of Mary through prayer, is most certainly her office as mediator of divine grace.[20]:83 In Augustissimae Virginis Mariae, he wrote that calling on Mary is the best way to be heard by God, and to find his grace.[20]:115

From Thomas Aquinas Leo borrows the notion that Mary, in the hour of Annunciation, assumed the role of a helper in the mystery of redemption. Thus all Christians are born through Mary. With Jesus, Mary carried all in her womb. Therefore, all Christians are her children.[10]:96

Scapulars[edit]

More than any other pope, Leo XIII, who was himself a member of the Pious Union of Our Lady of Good Counsel, was deeply attached to Our Lady of Good Counsel.[21] The small Scapular of Our Lady of Good Counsel (the White Scapular) was presented by the Hermits of St. Augustine to Leo XIII who, in December 1893, approved it and endowed it with indulgences. On April 22, 1903, Leo XIII included the invocation "Mater boni consilii" in the Litany of Loreto.

During predecessor Pius's reign, the Scapular of Our Lady of Ransom was yet approved in 1868.

20th century[edit]

Pius X[edit]

Pope Saint Pius X (1903–1914) promoted daily communion. In his 1904 encyclical Ad diem illum, he views Mary in context of "restoring everything in Christ". Spiritually we all are her children and she is the mother of us Therefore, she must be adored like a mother[22] Christ is the Word made Flesh and the Savior of mankind. He had a physical body like every other man: and as Savior of the human family, he had a spiritual and mystical body, the Church. This, the Pope argues, has consequences for our view of the Blessed Virgin.

She did not conceive the Eternal Son of God merely that He might be made man taking His human nature from her, but also, by giving him her human nature, that He might be the Redeemer of men. Mary, carrying the Savior within her, also carried all those whose life was contained in the life of the Savior. Therefore, all the faithful united to Christ, are members of His body, of His flesh, and of His bones[23] from the womb of Mary like a body united to its head. Though a spiritual and mystical fashion, all are children of Mary, and she is their Mother. Mother, spiritually, but truly Mother of the members of Christ. (S. Aug. L. de S. Virginitate, c. 6).[24]

Benedict XV[edit]

Pope Benedict XV (1914–1922) was an ardent mariologist, devoted to Marian veneration and open new theological perspectives. He personally addressed in numerous letters the pilgrims at Marian sanctuaries. He named Mary, the Patron of Bavaria and permitted in Mexico the Feast of the IC of Guadaloupe. To underline his support for the mediatrix theology, he authorized the Feast of Mary Mediator of all Graces.[25] He condemned the misuse of Marian statues and pictures, dressed in priestly robes, which he outlawed April 4, 1916.[5]:673[26]

During World War I, Benedict placed the world under the protection of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Roman Catholic) and added the invocation Mary Queen of Peace to the Litany of Loreto. He promoted Marian veneration throughout the world by elevating twenty well known Marian shrines such as Ettal Abbey in Bavaria into Basilica Minor's. He also promoted Marian devotions in the month of May in the spirit of Grignon de Montfort[27] The dogmatic constitution on the Church issued by the Second Vatican Council quotes the Marian theology of Benedict XV.[28]

In his encyclical on Ephraim the Syrian he depicts Ephraim as a model of Marian devotion to our mother who uniquely was predestined by God. Pope Benedict did not issue a Marian encyclical but addressed the issue of Co-Redemptrix in his Apostolic Letter, Inter Soldalica, issued March 22, 1918.[29]

  • As the blessed Virgin Mary does not seem to participate in the public life of Jesus Christ, and then, suddenly appears at the stations of his cross, she is not there without divine intention. She suffers with her suffering and dying son, almost as if she would have died herself. For the salvation of mankind, she gave up her rights as the mother of her son and sacrificed him for the reconciliation of divine justice, as far as she was permitted to do. Therefore, one can say, she redeemed with Christ the human race.[29]

Pius XI[edit]

Pope Pius XI ruled the Church from 1922 to 1939. During his pontificate, a possible dogma of the assumption was being discussed. He granted France the patron “Our lady assumed into heaven patron”[30] In 1930, he sent a Papal delegate to the celebration of the house of Mary in Loreto, and in 1931, 1500 years after the Council of Ephesus, he issued a call to the separated Orthodox Church to venerate Mary together and to overcome the schism. In several apostolic writings he supported the rosary prayer. In 1931, he instituted the fest of motherhood of Mary. Pope Pius XI liked to quote Bernard of Clairvaux: “We have everything through Mary”.[10]:246

Pius XII[edit]

Pope Pius XII

Eugenio Pacelli was devoted to the Virgin Mary and as a young boy, two images in Rome received particular veneration: the Madonna Della Strada, and Salus Populi Romani.[31][32]

Pope Pius XII was called the most Marian pope in Church history.[10] He placed his pontificate under the protection of the Virgin.[33]

In the 1943 encyclical Mystici corporis, Pope Pius XII speaks to the 1854 dogma of the Immaculate Conception promulgated by Pius IX in 1854. Mary, whose sinless soul was filled with the divine spirit of Jesus Christ above all other created souls, "in the name of the whole human race" gave her consent "for a spiritual marriage between the Son of God and human nature.",[34] thus elevating human nature beyond the realm of the purely material. Through her powerful prayers, she obtained that the spirit of our diviner redeemer should be bestowed on the newly founded Church at Pentecost.[35] She is Most Holy Mother of all the members of Christ, and reigns in heaven with her Son, her body and soul refulgent with heavenly glory.[35]

Many of the saints canonized by Pius XII were deeply devoted to Mary, such as Peter Chanel, Jeanne de Lestonnac, Pope Pius X, Catherine Labouré, and Anthony Mary Claret.

Fatima[edit]

Pacelli was consecrated archbishop in the Sistine Chapel by Pope Benedict XV on May 13, 1917, the same day as the first purported apparition of Our Lady of Fatima. His Secretary of State, Cardinal Luigi Maglione would later say that the Pope had been deeply moved by the parallel of his episcopal consecration and the apparition in Fatima.[36] Referring to his episcopal consecration Pope Pius said:

  • At the same hour when the Lord placed the concern of the whole Church on our shoulders, at the mountain of Fatima appeared for the first time the White Queen of the Holy Rosary, as if the Mother of Mercy wanted to indicate, that in the stormy times of our pontificate, in the midst of the great crisis of human history, we will always have the motherly and vigilant assistance of the great conqueress , who would protect and guide us.[37]

Cardinal Tedeschini, who was present at the consecration in 1917, added his view to the coincidence: "The pontificate of Pius XII is focused on Fatima, May 13. It was our Lady of Fatima, who connected with the person and future of Eugenio Pacelli, having him consecrated through the hands of Pope Benedict XV to the fullness of priesthood at the very day and hour, in which the Most Blessed Virgin with her messages first descended to Fatima. May 13 is engraved in all our hearts, how much more in the heart of this Pope.[38]

On May 13, 1942, the 25th anniversary of the first apparition and, silver jubilee of the Episcopal consecration of Pope Pius XII, the Vatican published the Message and Secret of Fatima. In May 1946, he authorized his personal representative, Cardinal Masalla to preside over a canonical coronation of the image of Our Lady of Fatima, in Fatima, Portugal. The faithful virgin never disappointed the trust, put on her. She will transform into a fountain of graces, physical and spiritual graces, over all of Portugal, and from there, breaking all frontiers, over the whole Church and the entire world[39]

On May 18, 1950, the Pope sent a message to the people of Portugal: "May Portugal never forget the heavenly message of Fatima, which, before anybody else she was blessed to hear. To keep Fatima in your heart and to translate Fatima into deeds, is the best guarantee for ever more graces”[40]

Marian year[edit]

With the September 8, 1953 encyclical Fulgens corona, Pius XII became the first Pope to call for a Marian year, a practice continued by John Paul II in 1998. Set for 1954 Marian year included initiatives in the areas of mariology, cultural events, charity and social gatherings[10]:534

Lourdes[edit]

On April 1, 1899, Eugenio Pacelli said his first Holy Mass at the Salus Populi Romani fifty years later, he crowned this picture for the Marian year 1954 as shown here.

The encyclical Le pèlerinage de Lourdes, was issued on July 2, 1957. The encyclical represents the strongest pronouncement of the papal magisterium on Marian apparitions in the history of the Catholic Church. In it Pius recalls pleasant memories of the pilgrimage to Lourdes which he undertook while Papal delegate at the Eucharistic and Marian Celebrations in 1937. The Pope reminds the faithful of France, that every Christian land is a Marian land and that” there is not one nation redeemed in the blood of Christ which does not glory in proclaiming Mary its Mother and Patroness”[41] He then recalls the history of Marian veneration, the history of Lourdes and the contributions of the Popes to her veneration in Lourdes.

Christian families must remain faithful to their vital mission in society, and, consecrate themselves in this jubilee year to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. For married couples this consecration will be a valuable aid in their conjugal duties of chastity and faithfulness and keep pure the atmosphere in which children grow up.[42]

Professional and civic affairs offer a vast field of Marian action. Gathered at the Virgin's feet, and open to her teachings, self-searching will uproot any false judgments and selfish impulses. ...The quest for social and political peace among men is, above all, a moral problem, because no reform can bear fruit, no agreement lasting without a conversion and cleansing of heart. In this jubilee year the Virgin of Lourdes reminds all men of this truth[43]

Pius XII teaches, that Mary looks upon some of her children with a special affection, the lowly, the poor, and the afflicted whom Jesus loved so much.

  • Go to her, you who are crushed by material misery, defenseless against the hardships of life and the indifference of men. Go to her, you who are assailed by sorrows and moral trials. Go to her, beloved invalids and infirm, you who are sincerely welcomed and honored at Lourdes as the suffering members of our Lord. Go to her and receive peace of heart, strength for your daily duties, joy for the sacrifice you offer.[44]

The Pontiff states, that the Immaculate Virgin knows the secret ways by which grace operates in souls. She also knows also the great price which God attaches to sufferings, united to those of the Savior. The encyclical closes with a quote of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux: "Amid dangers, difficulties, and doubts, think of Mary, invoke Mary's aid.... If you follow her, you will not stray; if you entreat her, you will not lose hope; if you reflect upon her, you will not err; if she supports you, you will not fall; if she protects you, you will not fear; if she leads you, you will not grow weary; if she is propitious, you will reach your goal."[45][46]

Consecration to the Immaculate Heart[edit]

On October 31, 1942 Pius XII consecrated the human race and later Russia to the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

On October 31, 1942, Pope Pius XII, in a radio address informed the people of Portugal about the apparitions of Fatima, consecrating the human race to the Immaculate Heart of the Virgin with specific mention of Russia.[47] On December 8, 1942, the Pontiff officially and solemnly declared this consecration in a ceremony in Saint Peter Basilica in Rome.

The Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary took place on October 31, 1942 just before major turning points in World War Two. Pius XII consecrated to Mary not only the Church but the whole human race, as "Father of Christianity" as representative of Christ, to whom "All power is given ... in heaven and in earth.”[48][clarification needed] The solemn consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary was pronounced at a critical phase of[49] on October 31.[50] At that time, German troops under General Rommel had conquered strategic parts of North Africa and were advancing towards the Suez Canal. In the Pacific, following Pearl Harbor, the Imperial Japanese forces occupied ever increasing territories, and in Russia experienced an ever expanding German invasion. In this situation, Pope Pius XII, like his predecessors, put his trust in prayer. On October 31, 1942, he called for a prayer crusade to the Queen of Peace, and dedicated the whole human race and especially Russia to the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

In 1944, Pope Pius XII prescribed the Feast of the Immaculate Heart of Mary for the whole Church in 1944 and placed his pontificate under the special patronage of the Virgin,[51] In his Apostolic Letter of 7 July 1952 Sacro Vergente, Pius consecrated Russia to the Most Blessed Virgin Mary.

On May 1, 1948, in Auspicia quaedam, Pope Pius requested the consecration to the Immaculate Heart of every Catholic family, parish and dioceses. “It is our wish, consequently, that wherever the opportunity suggests itself, this consecration be made in the various dioceses as well as in each of the parishes and families."[52][53]

Mariology of Pius XII[edit]

The 1854 dogma of the Immaculate Conception by Pius IX defined the Virgin conceived without sin, as the mother of God and our mother. Pope Pius XII built on this in Mystici corporis, which summarizes his mariology: Maria, whose sinless soul was filled with the divine spirit of Jesus Christ above all other created souls, "in the name of the whole human race" gave her consent "for a spiritual marriage between the Son of God and human nature.",[34] thus elevating human nature beyond the realm of the purely material. She who, according to the flesh, was the mother of our Head, became mother of all His members. Through her powerful prayers, she obtained that the spirit of our Divine Redeemer, should be bestowed on the newly founded Church at Pentecost.[35] She is Most Holy Mother of all the members of Christ, and reigns in heaven with her Son, her body and soul refulgent with heavenly glory.[35]

Adoption of the dogma of the Assumption[edit]

In 1950 Pius XII defined the Assumption of Mary as an article of faith for Roman Catholics. This was the first (and as of 2014 only) ex cathedra exercise of papal infallibility since Vatican I. On November 1, 1950, Pope Pius XII defined the dogma of the assumption:

"By the authority of our Lord Jesus Christ, of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, and by our own authority, we pronounce, declare, and define it to be a divinely revealed dogma: that the Immaculate Mother of God, the ever Virgin Mary, having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory."[54]

The dogma of the bodily assumption of the Virgin Mary, is the crowning of the theology of Pope Pius XII. In 1950 Pope Pius XII defined the Assumption of Mary as being an article of faith for Roman Catholics. This was the first (and to date only) ex cathedra exercise of papal infallibility since Vatican I. It was preceded by the 1946 encyclical Deiparae Virginis Mariae, which requested all Catholic bishops to express their opinion on a possible dogmatization. In this dogmatic statement, the phrase "having completed the course of her earthly life, " leaves open the question of whether the Virgin Mary died before her Assumption, or, whether she was assumed before death; both possibilities are allowed. Mary's Assumption was a divine gift to Mary as Mother of God. As Mary completed her race as a shining example to the human race, the perspective of the gift of assumption is offered to the whole human race.

New Marian feasts[edit]

Pope Pius XII instituted the feast of the Immaculate Heart of Mary in 1944 to be celebrated on 22 August,[55] coinciding with the traditional octave day of the Assumption. (In 1969, Pope Paul VI moved the celebration of the Immaculate Heart of Mary to the day, Saturday, immediately after the Solemnity of the Sacred Heart of Jesus.)

Coronation of the Salus Populi Romani icon in Rome by Pope Pius XII in 1954, in association with his announcement of new Marian feast for the Queenship of Mary.

In the October 11, 1954 encyclical Ad Caeli Reginam, he introduced a new Marian feast, the Queenship of Mary. In several encyclicals and apostolic letters to the people of Poland and other countries behind the Iron curtain, he expresses certainty, that the Blessed Virgin Mary will triumph over her enemies.[56]

Assumed into heaven, so Pope Pius, Mary is with Jesus Christ, her divine son. Mary should be called Queen, not only because of her Divine Motherhood of Jesus Christ, her only son, but also because God has willed her to have an exceptional role in the work of our eternal salvation. The encyclical argues, that Christ, because He redeemed us, is our Lord and king by a special title, so the Blessed Virgin also (is our queen), on account of the unique manner in which she assisted in our redemption, by giving of her own substance, by freely offering Him for us, by her singular desire and petition for, and active interest in, our salvation."[57]

At the same time as he closely associated the celebrations of the Immaculate Heart of Mary and the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Pope Paul VI moved the celebration of the Queenship of Mary from 31 May to 22 August, bringing it into association with the feast of her Assumption.

Mariological writings[edit]

In several encyclicals and apostolic letters to the people of Poland and other countries behind the Iron curtain, he expressed certainty, that the Blessed Virgin Mary would triumph over her enemies. On September 8, 1953, the encyclical Fulgens corona announced a Marian year for 1954, the centennial of the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception .[58] Pope Pius XII left open the Mediatrix question, the role of the Virgin in the salvation acts of her son Jesus Christ. In the encyclical Ad caeli reginam he promulgated the feast, Queenship of Mary.[59] Pius XII, who was consecrated on May 13, 1917, the very day, Our Lady of Fatima is believed to have first appeared, consecrated the world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary in 1942, in accordance with the second "secret" of Our Lady of Fatima. (His remains were to be buried in the crypt of Saint Peter Basilica on the feast day of Our Lady of Fatima, October 13, 1958)

In 1950 and in 1958 he authorized institutions for increased academic research into the veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary (see below). In 1953, Pope Pius ordered a Marian year for 1954, the first in Church history. The year was filled with Marian initiatives, in the areas of mariology, cultural events, charity and social gatherings[10]:534 In his encyclical Fulgens corona and Ad Caeli Reginam he presented a synthesis of the mariology of the Church and warned against excesses and timid under-representation of the Catholic faith.

Mariological research[edit]

Pius strongly supported Marian research with the foundation or enlargement of a number of research centers in Rome. In 1950 and in 1958 he authorized institutions for increased academic research into the veneration of Mary. Pope Pius supported or rewarded Mariological research of scholars like Gabriel Roschini, Raimondo Spiazzi, Otto Faller and Sebastian Tromp. Roschini was named head of the Marianum, Spiazzi and Tromp were asked to participate in his encyclicals, Faller received a papal medal for his work. He also promulgated mariology …..within the circles associated with the Holy See took a major step forward between during the Holy Year in 1950 and in 1958 based on the actions of Pope Pius XII who authorized institutions for increased academic research into the veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

  • Academia Mariana Salesiana He granted the foundation of the Academia Mariana Salesiana which is a part of a papal university. The Academy supports Salesian studies with the aim of furthering the veneration of the Blessed Virgin in the tradition of Saint John Bosco.[10]:534
  • Centro Mariano Montfortano Also in 1950, the Centro Mariano Montfortano was moved from Bergamo to Rome. The Centro promulgates the teachings of Saint Louis de Montfort, who was earlier canonized by Pius XII. It publishes the monthly Madre e Regina which promulgates the Marian orientation of Montfort.[10]:535
  • Marianum was created in 1950 and entrusted to the Order of Servites. It is authorized to grant all academic degrees including a doctorate in theology. Since 1976, every two years the Marianum organizes international conferences to find modern formulations which approximate the mystery of Mary.[10]:535
  • Collegamento Mariano Nazionale (1958) was the last Marian initiative of Pope Pius XII. It coordinates activities of Marian centres in Italy, organizes Marian pilgrimages and Marian study weeks for priests. In addition it started Marian youth gatherings and publishes the Journal “Madonna”.[10]:534

Of these organizations, the Marianum is the most active marilogical centre in Rome.[60] This Pontifical Catholic institute was founded by Father Gabriel Roschini (who then directed it for several years) under the direction of Pope Pius XII in 1950. At the Marianum, one can get a master's degree in Mariology (2-year academic program) and one can also get a doctorate in Mariology. This Mariological facility has a library with more than 85,000 volumes on Mariology and a number of magazines and journals of theological and Mariological concern. Marianum is also the name of the prestigious journal of Marian theology, previously founded by Father Roschini in 1939.[10]:535

Paul VI[edit]

Pope Paul VI (1963–1978) made extensive contributions to mariology (theological teaching and devotions) during his pontificate. He attempted to present the Marian teachings of the Church in view of her new ecumenical orientation. In his inaugural encyclical Ecclesiam Suam (section below), the Pope called Mary the ideal of Christian perfection. He regards “devotion to the Mother of God as of paramount importance in living the life of the Gospel.”[61] In 1965, he writes that the Queen of Heaven is entrusted by God, as administrator of his compassion[62] In his 1965 encyclical Mense maio he described Mary as the way to Christ, the person who encounters Mary cannot help but encounter Christ likewise.[63]

In his 1966 encyclical Christi Matri, he recommends the rosary in light of the Vietnam War and the dangers of atomic conflicts.[64] He recommended prayers to Queen of Peace and Mother of the Church:

  • Nothing seems more appropriate and valuable than to have the prayers of the whole Christian family rise to the Mother of God, who is invoked as the Queen of Peace, begging her to pour forth abundant gifts of her maternal goodness in midst of so many great trials and hardships. We want constant and devout prayers to be offered to her whom We declared Mother of the Church, its spiritual parent, during the celebration of the Second Vatican Council,[65]

Paul VI taught that the rosary is a summary of gospel teachings.[10]:128 His new Missal includes all new Marian prayers. And in his 1974 exhortation Marialis Cultus, he again promotes Marian devotions, highlighting the Angelus and Rosary prayers. Mary deserves the devotions because she is the mother of graces and because of her unique role in redemption.[10]:128

On the fiftieth anniversary of the apparition in Fatima, Paul VI made a pilgrimage there, the first ever by a Pope. There, he linked the veneration of Mary to her role in the salvation of the human race[10]:128 Pope Paul VI was an engaged and engaging devotee of the Virgin Mary[10]:128

The Mariology of Pope Paul VI made extensive contributions to mariological teaching and devotions during his pontificate.

Ecumenical orientation of Mariology[edit]

He attempted to present the Marian teachings of the Church in view of her new ecumenical orientation. In his inaugural encyclical Ecclesiam Suam (section below), the Pope called Mary the ideal of Christian perfection. He regards “devotion to the Mother of God as of paramount importance in living the life of the Gospel.”[61]

Mense maio[edit]

The encyclical Mense maio from 29 April 1965 focused on the Virgin Mary, to whom traditionally the month of May is dedicated as the Mother of God. Paul VI writes that Mary is rightly to be regarded as the way by which people are led to Christ. Therefore, the person who encounters Mary cannot help but encounter Christ.[66]

In 1965, he writes that the Queen of Heaven is entrusted by God, as administrator of his compassion[62] In his 1965 encyclical Mense maio, he described Mary as the way to Christ, the person who encounters Mary cannot help but encounter Christ likewise.[63]

Christi Matri[edit]

In his 1966 encyclical Christi Matri, he recommends the rosary in light of the Vietnam War and the dangers of atomic conflicts. The Queen of Peace and Mother of the Church should be invoked:

Nothing seems more appropriate and valuable than to have the prayers of the whole Christian family rise to the Mother of God, who is invoked as the Queen of Peace, begging her to pour forth abundant gifts of her maternal goodness in midst of so many great trials and hardships. We want constant and devout prayers to be offered to her whom We declared Mother of the Church, its spiritual parent, during the celebration of the Second Vatican Council,[65]

Role of the Rosary[edit]

The rosary is a summary of gospel teaching.[10]:128 His new Missal includes all new Marian prayers. And in his 1974 exhortation Marialis Cultus, he again promotes Marian devotions, highlighting the Angelus and Rosary prayers. Mary deserves the devotions because she is the mother of graces and because of her unique role in redemption.[10]:128

Pilgrimage to Fatima[edit]

On the fiftieth anniversary of the apparition in Fatima, Paul VI made a pilgrimage there, the first ever by a Pope. There, he linked the veneration of Mary to her role in the salvation of the human race[10]:128 Pope Paul VI was a engaged and engaging devotee of the Virgin Mary[10]:128

John Paul II[edit]

Pope John Paul II made more Marian pilgrimages than any of his predecessors, stating: It is precisely in this pilgrimage through space and time, and even more through the history of souls, that Mary is present, sharing unlike any other creature in the mystery of Christ.[67]

The ancient title Mary Mother of the Church was proclaimed then by Pope Paul VI at the Second Vatican Council. In 1987, Pope John Paul II repeated this title Mother of the Church in his encyclical Redemptoris Mater and at a general audience on September 17, 1997.[68] The encyclical is a long and eloquent summary of modern Mariology, making some novel points. According to John Paul, the Mother of the Redeemer has a precise place in the plan of salvation.

The Church teaches that Mary appeared on the horizon of salvation history before Christ.[69]

If the greeting and the name "full of grace" say all this, in the context of the angel's announcement they refer first of all to the election of Mary as Mother of the Son of God. But at the same time the "fullness of grace" indicates all the supernatural munificence from which Mary benefits by being chosen and destined to be the Mother of Christ. If this election is fundamental for the accomplishment of God's salvific designs for humanity, and if the eternal choice in Christ and the vocation to the dignity of adopted children is the destiny of everyone, then the election of Mary is wholly exceptional and unique. Hence also the singularity and uniqueness of her place in the mystery of Christ.[70]

The 2002 apostolic letter Rosarium Virginis Mariae of Pope John Paul II on the Rosary further communicated his Marian focus as he explained how his personal motto "Totus Tuus" was inspired by St. Louis de Montfort's doctrine on the excellence of Marian devotion and total consecration. The Pope truly venerated the Virgin Mary, as expressed in this motto Totus Tuus.

In recent years, to emphasize the role of Mary in the Roman Catholic Church, in Rosarium Virginis Mariae, Pope John Paul II quoted Saint Louis de Montfort, and said:

Our entire perfection consists in being conformed, united and consecrated to Jesus Christ. Hence the most perfect of all devotions is undoubtedly that which conforms, unites and consecrates us most perfectly to Jesus Christ. Now, since Mary is of all creatures the one most conformed to Jesus Christ, it follows that among all devotions that which most consecrates and conforms a soul to our Lord is devotion to Mary, his Holy Mother, and that the more a soul is consecrated to her the more will it be consecrated to Jesus Christ.[71]

John Paul II Coat of arms with a Marian Cross

As the pontiff observed, Saint Louis de Montfort's approach to Mariology as presented in God Alone presents the logic of how an initially Christ centric view leads to total consecration to the Blessed Virgin Mary.[72]

The direction of the Catholic Church during the last part of the 20th century was dominated by the views of Pope John Paul II, whose perspective had a very strong Marian emphasis.[73][74] He advocated "Total Consecration to Mary" more than any of his predecessors.[75] And he deliberately reflected his Marian views within the design of his coat of arms by using a Marian Cross. According to the L’Osservatore Romano, the use of the Marian Cross on his coat of arms was a departure from traditional heraldry models and was intended to emphasize the presence of the Virgin Mary under the Cross in Calvary and her special participation in the process of redemption.[76][77] Pope John Paul II issued a number of Marian encyclicals that shaped the Catholic views on Mary during the 20th century.[75]

Benedict XVI[edit]

Pope Benedict XVI continued the program of Pope John Paul II for a redirection of the whole Church to ensure an authentic approach to Christology via a return to the "whole truth about Mary".[78] As Cardinal Ratzinger, he wrote:

It is necessary to go back to Mary if we want to return to that "truth about Jesus Christ," "truth about the Church" and "truth about man".[78]

Mariological papal documents[edit]

Papal bulls

Encyclicals

Apostolic letters

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mangan, Charles (2008). "The Spiritual Maternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary". In Miravalle, Mark I. Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons. Goleta, California: Seat of Wisdom Books. pp. 530–540. ISBN 9781579183554. Retrieved 23 June 2016. 
  2. ^ McLoughlin, William M. and Pinnock, Jill. Mary for Time and Eternity, 2007 ISBN 0-85244-651-9 pp. 65-67
  3. ^ such as Avvisi salutary della virgine ai suoi devoti indiscreti
  4. ^ often on occupational lines (bakers, butchers etc)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Algermissen, Konrad; Böer, Ludwig, eds. (1957). Lexikon der Marienkunde. F. Pustet. Retrieved 23 June 2016. 
  6. ^ "The Rosary Predated St. Dominic", Zenit, October 17, 2002
  7. ^ Butler, Alban, Butler's Lives Of The Saints, (April) (1999) ISBN 0-86012-253-0 page 222
  8. ^ Opera Omnia Roma, 1747, 51
  9. ^ F Masson, Le Cardinal de Bernis depuis son minister Paris, 1884, 156, 164
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Bäumer, Remigius (1989). Scheffczyk, Leo, ed. Marienlexikon [Marian Lexicon] (in German). EOS-Verlag. ISBN 9783880968912. Retrieved 23 June 2016. 
  11. ^ The Holy Spirit Assists the Roman Pontiff Archived August 10, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ and to add the Immaculata to the Litany of Loreto.
  13. ^ Pius XII Mystici corporis Christi; John Henry Newman: Mariology is always christocentric, in Michael Testa, Mary: The Virgin Mary in the Life and Writings of John Henry Newman 2001; Mariology Is Christology in Vittorio Messori, "The Mary Hypothesis" Rome, 2005
  14. ^ Köster 54
  15. ^ Rosmini
  16. ^ Epistola Encyclica De patrocinio Sancti Josephi una cum Virginis Deiparae pro temporum difficultate implorando in Lettres apostoliques de s.s. Léon XIII : encycliques, brefs etc, p. 250-261
  17. ^ Encyclical Jucunda Semper 8.9.1894 quoted in Marienlexikon,Eos St. Ottilien, 1988 42
  18. ^ Univ of Dayton
  19. ^ This Saint's for You by Thomas J. Craughwell 2007 ISBN 1-59474-184-0 page 172
  20. ^ a b c d e Graber, Rudolf (1954). Die marianischen Weltrundschreiben der Päpste in den letzten hundert Jahren [Marian Encyclicals of Popes in the Last Hundred Years] (in German). Würzburg, Germany: Echter-Verlag. 
  21. ^ Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 0-87973-910-X page 515
  22. ^ Ad diem illum 10
  23. ^ (Ephes. v., 30),
  24. ^ Ad diem illum laetissimum, 10
  25. ^ AAS 1921, 345
  26. ^ AAS 1916, 146
  27. ^ Schmidlin 179-339
  28. ^ C VII, §50
  29. ^ a b AAS, 1918, 181
  30. ^ on March 22. 1922
  31. ^ Smit, Jan Olav. Angelic shepherd: the life of Pope Pius XII, 1950 Dodd, Mead Publishers, ASIN B0007E1QT8 p. 12
  32. ^ The Church at Prayer by Dalmais, Irénée Henri; Martimort, Aimé Georges; and Jounel, Pierre. 1985 ISBN 0-8146-1366-7 page 135
  33. ^ Pope Pius XII, "Munificentissimus Deus" §42, November 1, 1950, Libreria Editrice Vaticana
  34. ^ a b Office for Holy Week
  35. ^ a b c d Pius XII, Enc. Mystici corporis Christi, 110
  36. ^ Barthas, L. Il etait trios petit enfantes, Paris, 1945, Freiburg, 1945
  37. ^ Johannes M Höcht, Papst Pius XII und Fatima, Wien 1956, 58
  38. ^ Höcht 317
  39. ^ AAS 1946 246.
  40. ^ AAS 1951, 780
  41. ^ Pope Pius XII, Le pèlerinage de Lourdes, §5
  42. ^ Le pèlerinage de Lourdes, §54.
  43. ^ Le pèlerinage de Lourdes, §55.
  44. ^ Le pèlerinage de Lourdes, §57.
  45. ^ Second Homily on the Missus est: PL CLXXXIII
  46. ^ Le pèlerinage de Lourdes, 70-71
  47. ^ AAS, 1942, 313
  48. ^ Matthew 28:18
  49. ^ World War Two
  50. ^ 1942
  51. ^ Munificentissimus Deus 42
  52. ^ Auspicia quaedam, 21
  53. ^ AAS 148, 171
  54. ^ AAS 1950, 753
  55. ^ Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 94
  56. ^ add encyclicals
  57. ^ Ad caeli reginam, 37
  58. ^ AAS 1953, 577
  59. ^ AAS 1954, 625
  60. ^ at Viale 30 Aprile- 6, 00153, Rome
  61. ^ a b Ecclesiam Suam 58
  62. ^ a b Mense Majo, 1965, 2
  63. ^ a b Mense maio, 2
  64. ^ Vietnam War era: people and perspectives by Mitchell K. Hall 2009 ISBN 1-59884-129-7 page 106
  65. ^ a b Christi Matri 8
  66. ^ Mense maio, 1
  67. ^ Mary's Pope: John Paul II, Mary, and the Church Since Vatican II by Antoine Nachef 2000 ISBN 1-58051-077-9 page 85
  68. ^ Blessed Virgin Is Mother Of The Church
  69. ^ Redemptoris Mater 3
  70. ^ Redemptoris Mater 9
  71. ^ Pope John Paul II's Apostolic Letter Rosarium Virginis Mariae http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_letters/documents/hf_jp-ii_apl_20021016_rosarium-virginis-mariae_en.html
  72. ^ Saint Louis de Montfort, God Alone: The Collected Writings of St. Louis Marie De Montfort, Montfort Publications, 1995 ISBN 0-910984-55-7
  73. ^ Mary's pope: John Paul II, Mary, and the church since Vatican II by Antoine Nachef 2000 ISBN 1-58051-077-9 page 2
  74. ^ The Vision of John Paul II: Assessing His Thought and Influence by Gerard Mannion 2008 ISBN 0-8146-5309-X pages 1 and 62
  75. ^ a b Miravalle, Mark Introduction to Mary 1993, ISBN 978-1-882972-06-7, pp 164–167
  76. ^ L’Osservatore Romano, November 9, 1978
  77. ^ "Coat of Arms of His Holiness John Paul II (Vatican Press Office)". Retrieved November 18, 2010. 
  78. ^ a b Burke, Raymond L.; et al. (2008). Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons ISBN 978-1-57918-355-4 page xxi

Sources[edit]