Marisol Escobar

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Marisol Escobar
Marisol Escobar NYWTS.jpg
Marisol Escobar (1963)
Born (1930-05-22)May 22, 1930
Paris, France
Died April 30, 2016(2016-04-30) (aged 85)
New York, New York, US
Education Jepson Art Institute
École des Beaux-Arts
Art Students League of New York
Hans Hofmann School
Known for Sculpture
Assemblage
Notable work Women and Dog
The Last Supper
Dust Bowl Migrants
Father Damien
Movement New Realism
Awards 1997 Premio Gabriela Mistral, from Organization of American States
American Academy of Arts and Letters (1978)
Father Damien, by Marisol Escobar

Marisol Escobar (May 22, 1930 – April 30, 2016), otherwise known simply as Marisol, was a French sculptor of Venezuelan heritage who worked in New York City.[1]

Education[edit]

Marisol Escobar studied art at the Jepson Art Institute, École des Beaux-Arts, the Art Students League of New York, at the New School for Social Research and she was a student of artist Hans Hofmann. The pop art culture in the 1960s found Marisol as one of its members, enhancing her recognition and popularity. She concentrated her work on three-dimensional portraits, using inspiration “found in photographs or gleaned from personal memories”.[2]

Her religious beliefs might very well have had a great deal of influence upon her character and tendencies toward the arts. Her father moved Marisol, at age 16, and her brother (Gustavo) to Los Angeles where she began her study in the arts, after World War II and also their mother’s suicide.[3] She began practice in painting and drawing during her teen years. It was during these years she admitted self-inflicted acts of penance upon herself.[4] She walked on her knees until they bled, kept silent for long periods and tied ropes tightly around her waist in emulation of saints and martyrs. Her father reinforced her interest in art and supported Marisol in her decision to continue along its course. Her mother, Josefina, had been a well known patron of the arts in Venezuela. Marisol studied in Paris in 1949, returning to study in New York in 1950.[5]

Artistic Practice[edit]

During the Postwar period, there was a return of traditional values that reinstated social roles, conforming race and gender within the public sphere.[6] Marisol`s sculptural works toyed with the prescribed social roles and restraints faced by women during this period through her depiction of the complexities of femininity as a perceived truth.[7] Marisol’s practice demonstrated a dynamic combination of folk art, dada, and surrealism – ultimately illustrating a keen psychological insight on contemporary life.[8] By displaying the essential aspects of femininity within an assemblage of makeshift construction, Marisol was able to comment on the social construct of ‘woman’ as an unstable entity.[9] Using an assemblage of plaster casts, wooden blocks, woodcarving, drawings, photography, paint, and pieces of contemporary clothing, Marisol effectively recognized their physical discontinuities.[10] Through a crude combination of materials, Marisol symbolized the artist’s denial of any consistent existence of ‘essential’ femininity.[11] ‘Femininity’ being defined as a fabricated identity made through representational parts.[12] An identity which was most commonly determined by the male onlooker, as either mother, seductress, or partner.[13] Using a feminist technique, Marisol disrupted the patriarchal values of society through forms of mimicry.[14] She imitated and exaggerated the behaviors of the popular public.[15] Through a parody of women, fashion, and television, she attempted to ignite social change.[16]

Mimicry as a Feminist Tactic[edit]

Marisol mimicked the role of femininity in her sculptural grouping Women and Dog, which she produced between 1963 and 1964.[17] This work, among others, represented a satiric critical response on the guises of fabricated femininity by deliberately assuming the role of ‘femininity’ in order to change its oppressive nature.[18] Three women, a little girl, and a dog are presented as objects on display, relishing their social status with confidence under the gaze of the public.[19] The women are sculpted as calculated and ‘civilized’ in their manner, monitoring both themselves and those around them.[20] Two of women even have several cast faces, surveying the scene and following the subject’s trajectory in full motion.[21] Their stiff persona is embodied from within the wooden construction.[22] The sculptural practice of Marisol simultaneously distanced herself from her subject, while also reintroducing the artist`s presence through a range of self-portraiture found in every sculpture.[23] Unlike the majority of Pop artists, Marisol included her own presence within the critique she produced.[24] She used her body as a reference for a range of drawings, paintings, photographs, and casts.[25]This strategy was employed as a self-critique, but also identified herself clearly as a woman who faced prejudices within the current circumstances.[26] As Luce Irigaray noted in her book This Sex Which is Not One,

“to play with mimesis is thus, for a woman, to try to recover the place of her exploitation by discourse, without allowing herself to be simply reduced to it. It means to resubmit herself … to ideas about herself, that are elaborated in/by amasculine logic, but so as to make visible, by an effect of playful repetition what was supposed to remain invisible”.[27]

Like many other pop artists, Marisol cropped, enlarged, reframed, and replicated her subject matter from contemporary life in order to focus on their discontinuities.[28] Paying attention to specific aspects of an image and/or the ideas outside of their original context, allowed for a thorough understanding of messages meant to be transparent.[29] Through her mimetic approach, the notion of a ‘woman’ was broken down into individual signifiers in order to visually reassemble the irregularities of the representational parts.[30] By producing these symbols through conflicting materials, she disassociated ‘woman’ as an obvious entity and presented her rather as a product of a series of symbolic parts.[31] Marisol further deconstructed the idea of true femininity in her sculptural grouping The Party made between 1965 and 1966, which featured a large number of figures adorned in found objects of the latest fashion.[32] Although the dresses, shoes, gloves, and jewelry appear to be genuine at first, they are actually inexpensive imitations of presumably precious consumer goods.[33] Subjects are adorned in costume supplies, paint, and advertising photographs that suggest a fabricated sense of truth.[34] This style disassociated ideas of femininity as being authentic, but rather considered the concept to be a repetition of fictional ideas.[35] Through Marisol’s theatric and satiric imitation, common signifiers of ‘femininity’ are explained as patriarchal logic established through a repetition of representation within the media.[36] By incorporating herself within a work as the ‘feminine’ façade under scrutiny, Marisol effectively conveyed a ‘feminine’ subject as capable of taking control of her own depiction.[37]

Marisol mimicked the imaginary construct of what it means to be a woman, as well as the role of the ‘artist’.[38] She accomplished this through combining sensibilities of both Action painting and Pop art.[39] Marisol utilized the spontaneous gesture of expression within Action painting along with the cool and collected artistic intent of Pop art.[40] Marisol’s sculptures questioned the authenticity of the constructed self, suggesting it was instead contrived from representational parts.[41] Art was used not as a platform of personal expression, but as an opportunity to expose the self as an imagined creation.[42] By juxtaposing different signifiers of femininity, Marisol explained the way in which ‘femininity’ is culturally produced.[43] But, by incorporating casts of her own hands and expressional strokes in her work, Marisol combined symbols of the ‘artist’ identity celebrated throughout art history.[44] This approach destabilized the idea of artistic virtue as a rhetorical construct of masculine logic.[45] Therefore, “Collapsing the distance between the role of woman and that of artist by treating the signs of artistic masculinity as no less contingent, no less the product of representation, than are the signs of femininity.”[46] Marisol exposed the merit of an artist as a fictional identity that must be enacted through the repetition of representational parts.[47]

Marisol’s mimetic practice included the imitation of celebrities such as Andy Warhol, John Wayne, and President Charles de Gaulle, through a series of a series of portraits based from found imagery.[48] The sculptures were constructed off of existing photographs, which were interpreted by the artist and later transformed into a new material format.[49] By imitating a sourced image, the subject’s charged history was preserved within the work.[50] This approach of using pre-fabricated information, allowed for the product to retain meaning as a cultural artifact.[51] Furthermore, this way of creation added distance between artist and subject that retained the Pop art adjective, as the likeness of character was purely formed by the likeness of a photo.[52] The sculptural imitation of President Charles de Gaulle (1967) would be an example, as a leader of France known for his autocratic style of leadership.[53] Known as a person who was always composed, Marisol deliberately chose an image of de Gaulle as an older man.[54] Manipulating his crucial characteristics, mannerisms, and attributes to effectively subvert his position of power as one of vulnerability.[55] De Gaulle’s features were emphasized in order to create a caricature, by exaggerating his jowl, distancing his eyes, narrowing his mouth, and skewing his tie.[56] His uniform, casted hand, and static carriage made the sculpture overtly asymmetrical to suggest the general public's concern for government correctness.[57]The public was informed of the subject’s flaws, suggesting both a commonality and tension between subject, audience, and herself.[58]

Marisol’s artistic practice has often been excluded from art history, both by art critics and early feminists.[59] For feminists her work was often perceived as reproducing tropes of femininity from an uncritical standpoint, therefore repeating modes of valorization they hoped to move past. [60] Although, Pop art critics would use her “femininity” as the conceptual framework to distinguish the difference between her sentimentality and that of her male associates objectivity. [61] Marisol produced satiric social commentaries in concern to gender and race, which being a woman of color is a circumstance she lives in. [62] Instead of omitting her subjectivity, she used her ‘femininity’ as a mode of deconstructing and redefining the ideas of ‘woman’ and ‘artist’, giving herself control of her own representation. [63]


Pop art[edit]

It was in the following decade of the 1960s that Marisol began to be influenced by pop artists such as Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein. She appeared in two films by Warhol, The Kiss and 13 Most Beautiful Girls.[3][64] One of her best-known works from this period is The Party, a life-size group installation of figures at the Toledo Museum of Art. All the figures, gathered together in various guises of the social elite, sport Marisol’s face. It is intriguing to note that Marisol dropped her family surname of Escobar in order to divest herself of a patrilineal identity and to "stand out from the crowd."[64]

Marisol drifted through many movements. "'Not Pop, Not Op, It's Marisol!' was the way Grace Glueck titled her article in the New York Times in 1965…"[2] Silence was an integral part of Marisol’s work and life. She was said to have spoken no more than she needed to and in her work she been described as having to bestowed silence with, "form and weight". She talked little of her career and once stated, "I have always been very fortunate. People like what I do."[2]

In 1966-67, she completed Hugh Hefner, a sculptural portrait of the celebrity magazine publisher. She depicted him with two copies of his trademark smoking pipe, one painted, and the other a real one projecting aggressively from the front of the piece. The sculpture was featured on the March 3, 1967 cover of Time magazine.[65] The work was acquired by Time, and is now in the collection of the National Portrait Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution.[66] Curator Wendy Wick Reaves said that Escobar is "always using humor and wit to unsettle us, to take all of our expectations of what a sculptor should be and what a portrait should be and messing with them. So when she's asked why there are two pipes, she says, 'Well, Hugh Hefner has too much of everything.'"[67]

Marisol’s diversity, unique eye and character set her apart from any one school of thought. She has often included portraits of public figures, family members and friends in her sculpture. In one exhibit, “Marisol Escobar's The Kennedys criticized the larger-than-life image of the family” (Walsh, 8). In 1982-1984, her respect for Leonardo da Vinci led her to make a life-sized sculptural representation of herself contemplating her full-sized tableau of The Last Supper.[68] She also did a work based on da Vinci's The Virgin with St. Anne.[2]

Recognition[edit]

In Pop art, the role of a ‘woman’ was consistently referred to as either mother or seductress and rarely presented in terms of a female perspective.[69]This portrayal, set within Pop art, was predominately determined by male artists, who commonly portrayed women as commoditized sex objects.[70] As Judy Chicago explained to Holly Williams in her interview for “The Independent” in 2015, there was very little recognition for female artists and artists of color.[71] Artists like Marisol never received the attention they deserved.[72] She was one of many artists disregarded due to the existing modernist canon, which positioned her outside of the core of pop as the feminine opposite to her established male counterparts.[73] Working within a patriarchal field, women often obscured their gender identity in fear of their work being reduced to a ‘female sensibility’.[74] Marisol was one of the few who embraced her gender identity.[75] Critical evaluation of Marisol’s practice concluded that her feminine view was a reason to separate her from other Pop artists, as she offered sentimental satire rather than a deadpan attitude.[76] Like many artists at that time feared, the female sensibility was the reason Marisol was often marginalized.[77]

Art critics, such as Lucy Lippard, began to recognize Marisol in terms of Pop art in 1965.[78] At this time, her sculpture was recognized relative to certain pop objectives.[79] Yet, Lippard primarily spoke of the ways in which Marisol’s work differentiated from the intentions of Pop figureheads such as Andy Warhol, Frank Stella, Roy Lichtenstein, and Donald Judd.[80] Lippard defined a Pop artist as an impartial spectator of mass culture depicting modernity through parody, humor, and/or social commentary.[81] Through an objective attitude, she claimed an artist could maintain a position of ‘masculine’ detachment from the subjects being depicted.[82] As a female artist of color, critics distinguished Marisol from Pop as a ‘wise primitive’ due to the folk and childlike qualities within her sculptures.[83] Unlike Pop artists of the period, Marisol’s sculpture acted as a satiric criticism of contemporary life in which her presence was included in the representations of upper middle-class femininity.[84] Simultaneously, by including her personal presence through photographs and molds, the artist illustrated a self-critique in connection to the human circumstances relevant to all living the “American dream”.[85] Marisol depicted the human vulnerability that was common to all subjects within a feminist critique and differentiated from the controlling male viewpoint of her Pop art associates.[86] Instead of omitting her subjectivity as a woman of color, Marisol redefined female identity by making representations that made mockery of current stereotypes.[87] Critical evaluation of Marisol’s practice concluded that her feminine view was a reason to separate her from other Pop artists, as she offered sentimental satire rather than a deadpan attitude.[88] Like many artists feared, this female sensibility was the cause for her to be marginalized by critics as outside of the conceptual framework of Pop Art.[89] Marisol’s wit was disregarded as feminine playfulness, therefore, lacking the objectivity and expressionless attitude of male pop artists.[90] Their masculine superiority was celebrated in its opposition to the possibility of a articulate ‘feminine’ perspective.[91] As Whiting further clarified in her article Figuring Marisol’s Femininities, “without feminine Pop, there could not have been a masculine Pop in opposition; without the soft periphery, there could have been no hard core”.[92]

Late career[edit]

Marisol received awards including the 1997 Premio Gabriela Mistral from the Organization of American States for her contribution to Inter-American culture.[93] She was elected to membership in the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1978.[94]

In 2004, Marisol's work was featured in "MoMA at El Museo", an exhibition of Latin American artists held at the Museum of Modern Art.[95] Marisol's work has attracted increased interest, including a major retrospective in 2014 at the Memphis Brooks Museum of Art in Memphis, Tennessee,[3] which also became her first solo show in New York City, at Museo del Barrio.[96]

She last lived in the TriBeCa district of New York City, and was in frail health towards the end of her life.[3]

Marisol died on April 30, 2016 in New York City from pneumonia, aged 85.[97][5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Falleció la escultora venezolana Marisol Escobar a sus 86 años de edad". noticias24.com. Retrieved 2 May 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c d Gardner, Paul. "Who is Marisol?" ARTnews 88 May 1989, pp. 12-15.
  3. ^ a b c d Smee, Sebastian (July 5, 2014). "Revisiting Marisol, years after her heyday". Boston Globe. Boston Globe Media Partners LLC. Retrieved 2014-07-06. 
  4. ^ Westmacott, Jean. "Marisol Escobar, Pop Art." New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1989, pp. 20, 23-24.
  5. ^ a b Grimes, William (2 May 2016), Marisol, an Artist Known for Blithely Shattering Boundaries, Dies at 85, The New York Times, retrieved 3 May 2016 
  6. ^ Potts, Alex. "The Image Valued 'As Found' And The Reconfiguring Of Mimesis In Post-War Art." Pg. 778
  7. ^ Williams, Holly. "Name One Female Pop Artist ..... Go." The Independent (2015)
  8. ^ Diehl, Carol. "Eye Of The Heart." Art In America 96.3 (2008): 159
  9. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 86
  10. ^ Dreishpoon, Douglas. “Marisol Portrait Sculpture.” Pg. 94
  11. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 86
  12. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 86
  13. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 77
  14. ^ Dreishpoon, Douglas. “Marisol Portrait Sculpture.” Pg. 94
  15. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 87
  16. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 86
  17. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 73
  18. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 87
  19. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 73
  20. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 73
  21. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 73
  22. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 73
  23. ^ Dreishpoon, Douglas. “Marisol Portrait Sculpture.” Pg. 94
  24. ^ Dreishpoon, Douglas. “Marisol Portrait Sculpture.” Pg. 94
  25. ^ Dreishpoon, Douglas. “Marisol Portrait Sculpture.” Pg. 95
  26. ^ Diehl, Carol. "Eye Of The Heart." Art In America 96.3 (2008): 159
  27. ^ Irigaray, Luce. This Sex Which Is Not One. 76
  28. ^ Potts, Alex. "The Image Valued 'As Found' And The Reconfiguring Of Mimesis In Post-War Art." Pg. 787
  29. ^ Potts, Alex. "The Image Valued 'As Found' And The Reconfiguring Of Mimesis In Post-War Art." Pg. 788
  30. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 84
  31. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 84
  32. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 85
  33. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 84
  34. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 84
  35. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 87
  36. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 87
  37. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 87
  38. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 87
  39. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 87
  40. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 87
  41. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 87
  42. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 90
  43. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 87
  44. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 87
  45. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 87
  46. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 87
  47. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 87
  48. ^ De Lamater, Peg. “Marisol's Public and Private De Gaulle.” Pg. 91
  49. ^ De Lamater, Peg. “Marisol's Public and Private De Gaulle.” Pg. 91
  50. ^ Potts, Alex. "The Image Valued 'As Found' And The Reconfiguring Of Mimesis In Post-War Art." Pg. 787
  51. ^ Potts, Alex. "The Image Valued 'As Found' And The Reconfiguring Of Mimesis In Post-War Art." Pg. 787
  52. ^ Potts, Alex. "The Image Valued 'As Found' And The Reconfiguring Of Mimesis In Post-War Art." Pg. 787
  53. ^ De Lamater, Peg. “Marisol's Public and Private De Gaulle.” Pg. 91
  54. ^ De Lamater, Peg. “Marisol's Public and Private De Gaulle.” Pg. 91
  55. ^ De Lamater, Peg. “Marisol's Public and Private De Gaulle.” Pg.91
  56. ^ De Lamater, Peg. “Marisol's Public and Private De Gaulle.” Pg.91
  57. ^ De Lamater, Peg. “Marisol's Public and Private De Gaulle.” Pg.91
  58. ^ Diehl, Carol. "Eye Of The Heart." Art In America 96.3 (2008): 159
  59. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 84
  60. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 87
  61. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 75
  62. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 75
  63. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 76
  64. ^ a b "Escobar, Marisol." The Hutchinson Encyclopedia. September 22, 2003
  65. ^ "Hugh Hefner". Time. Time, Inc. Retrieved 2014-07-30. 
  66. ^ "Hugh Hefner". Face Value: Portraiture in the Age of Abstraction. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2014-07-24. 
  67. ^ Stamberg, Susan (May 29, 2014). "As Portraits Became Passé, These Artists Redefined 'Face Value'". NPR. National Public Radio. Retrieved 2014-07-24. 
  68. ^ "Self–Portrait Looking at The Last Supper". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 2014-07-06. 
  69. ^ Williams, Holly. "Name One Female Pop Artist ..... Go." The Independent (2015).
  70. ^ Williams, Holly. "Name One Female Pop Artist ..... Go." The Independent (2015)
  71. ^ Williams, Holly. "Name One Female Pop Artist ..... Go." The Independent (2015)
  72. ^ Williams, Holly. "Name One Female Pop Artist ..... Go." The Independent (2015)
  73. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” RACAR: Revue d'Art Canadienne / Canadian Art Review, vol. 18, no. 1/2, 1991, pg. 75
  74. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” RACAR: Revue d'Art Canadienne / Canadian Art Review, vol. 18, no. 1/2, 1991, pg. 76
  75. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” RACAR: Revue d'Art Canadienne / Canadian Art Review, vol. 18, no. 1/2, 1991, pg. 77
  76. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” RACAR: Revue d'Art Canadienne / Canadian Art Review, vol. 18, no. 1/2, 1991, pg. 76
  77. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” RACAR: Revue d'Art Canadienne / Canadian Art Review, vol. 18, no. 1/2, 1991, pg. 79
  78. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” RACAR: Revue d'Art Canadienne / Canadian Art Review, vol. 18, no. 1/2, 1991, pg. 75
  79. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” RACAR: Revue d'Art Canadienne / Canadian Art Review, vol. 18, no. 1/2, 1991, pg. 74
  80. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” RACAR: Revue d'Art Canadienne / Canadian Art Review, vol. 18, no. 1/2, 1991, pg. 75
  81. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” RACAR: Revue d'Art Canadienne / Canadian Art Review, vol. 18, no. 1/2, 1991, pg. 75
  82. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” RACAR: Revue d'Art Canadienne / Canadian Art Review, vol. 18, no. 1/2, 1991, pg. 75
  83. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” RACAR: Revue d'Art Canadienne / Canadian Art Review, vol. 18, no. 1/2, 1991, pg. 75
  84. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” RACAR: Revue d'Art Canadienne / Canadian Art Review, vol. 18, no. 1/2, 1991, pg. 73
  85. ^ Diehl, Carol. "Eye Of The Heart." Art In America 96.3 (2008): 181
  86. ^ Diehl, Carol. "Eye Of The Heart." Art In America 96.3 (2008): 181
  87. ^ Williams, Holly. "Name One Female Pop Artist ..... Go." The Independent (2015)
  88. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 76
  89. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 76
  90. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 76
  91. ^ Williams, Holly. "Name One Female Pop Artist ..... Go." The Independent (2015)
  92. ^ Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” Pg. 76
  93. ^ "Artnet News". artnet. June 11, 1998. 
  94. ^ "Current Members". American Academy of Arts and Letters. American Academy of Arts and Letters. Retrieved 7 March 2015. 
  95. ^ Remeseira, Claudio Iván (2010-01-01). Hispanic New York a sourcebook. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231148184. 
  96. ^ "Marisol: Sculptures and Works on Paper | El Museo del Barrio". www.elmuseo.org. Retrieved 2016-05-02. 
  97. ^ Embuscado, Rain (2 May 2016). "Beloved Artist Marisol Escobar Dies at 85 - artnet News". artnet News. Retrieved 2016-05-02. 

Works cited[edit]

  • Avis Berman, "A Bold and Incisive Way of Portraying Movers and Shakers." Smithsonian, February 14, 1984: pp. 14-16.
  • De Lamater, Peg. “Marisol's Public and Private De Gaulle.” American Art, vol. 10, no. 1, 1996, pp. 91–93.
  • Diehl, Carol. "Eye Of The Heart." Art In America 96.3 (2008): 158-181. Academic Search Complete. Web. 29 Oct. 2016
  • Dreishpoon, Douglas. “Marisol Portrait Sculpture.” Art Journal, vol. 50, no. 4, 1991, pp. 94–96.
  • “Escobar, Marisol.” The Hutchinson Encyclopedia. September 22, 2003
  • Gardner, Paul "Who is Marisol?" ARTnews 88 May 1989: pp. 12–15.
  • Irigaray, Luce. This Sex Which Is Not One. Ithaca: Cornell UP. 1985. Print
  • “Marisol.” The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition; April 22, 2004.
  • Potts, Alex. "The Image Valued 'As Found' And The Reconfiguring Of Mimesis In Post-War Art." Art History 37.4 (2014): 784-805. Art & Architecture Source. Web. 5 Dec. 2016.
  • Walsh, Laura. “Life of JFK depicted through art at Bruce Museum Exhibit”, AP Worldstream September 19, 2003: pg. 8.
  • Westmacott, Jean. Marisol Escobar, Pop Art. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1989.
  • Whiting, Cécile. “Figuring Marisol's Femininities.” RACAR: Revue d'Art Canadienne / Canadian Art Review, vol. 18, no. 1/2, 1991, pp. 73–90.
  • Williams, Holly. "Name One Female Pop Artist ..... Go." The Independent (2015): n. pag.
  • 'Marisol Escobar- Biography", Rogallery, n.d. Web. September 21, 2015..


External links[edit]