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Civil status and marital status are terms used in forms, vital records, and other documents to ask or indicate whether a person is married or single. In the simplest contexts, no further distinction is made. A status of married means that a person was wed in a manner legally recognized by their jurisdiction. A person's specified civil status might also be married if they are in a civil union or common-law marriage. The civil status of a person who is legally separated is married.
Whether a cohabiting couple (such as in a domestic partnership) have a civil status of "married" depends on the circumstances and the jurisdiction. In addition to those who have never married, single status applies to people whose relationship with a significant other is not legally recognized.
Questions about civil status appear on questionnaires for quantitative research, such as census forms and market research instruments. In a person's medical history, civil status is considered to have both quantitative and qualitative significance. A government records the civil status of its citizens by means of a civil registration system. Historically, inquiries into marital status have appeared on applications for employment, loans, and credit.