Mark 84 bomb
|Mark 84 General Purpose (GP) Bomb|
A Mk 84 GP bomb
|Type||Low-drag general purpose bomb|
|Place of origin||United States|
|Weight||2039 lb (925 kg)|
|Length||129 in (3280 mm)|
|Diameter||18 in (458 mm)|
|Filling||Tritonal, Minol or Composition H6|
|Filling weight||945 lb (429 kg)|
The Mark 84 or BLU-117 is an American general-purpose bomb, it is also the largest of the Mark 80 series of weapons. Entering service during the Vietnam War, it became a commonly used US heavy unguided bomb (due to the amount of high-explosive content packed inside) to be dropped, second only to the 15,000 pounds (6,803.9 kg) BLU-82 "Daisy Cutter" then in service and presently third only to the 22,600 lb (10,251.2 kg) GBU-43/B Massive Ordnance Air Blast bomb (MOAB) currently in service. Pilots flying the F-117 Nighthawk over Iraq during the First Gulf War nicknamed it the "Hammer" (albeit fitted with the GBU-27 Paveway III kit for use specially by the Nighthawks), for its considerable destructive power and blast radius.
The Mark 84 has a nominal weight of 2,000 lb (907.2 kg), but its actual weight varies depending on its fin, fuze options, and retardation configuration, from 1,972 to 2,083 lb (894.5 to 944.8 kg). It is a streamlined steel casing filled with 945 lb (428.6 kg) of Tritonal high explosive.
The Mark 84 is capable of forming a crater 50 feet (15.2 m) wide and 36 ft (11.0 m) deep. It can penetrate up to 15 inches (381.0 mm) of metal or 11 ft (3.4 m) of concrete, depending on the height from which it is dropped, and causes lethal fragmentation to a radius of 400 yards (365.8 m).
Many Mark 84s have been retrofitted with stabilizing and retarding devices to provide precision guidance capabilities. They serve as the warhead of a variety of precision-guided munitions, including the GBU-10/GBU-24/GBU-27 Paveway laser-guided bombs, GBU-15 electro-optical bomb, GBU-31 JDAM and Quickstrike sea mines.
According to a test report conducted by the United States Navy's Weapon System Explosives Safety Review Board (WSESRB) established in the wake of the 1967 USS Forrestal fire, the cooking off time for a Mk 84 is approximately 8 minutes 40 seconds.
GPS/INS Conversion Kits by Tubitak of Turkey
The Hassas Güdüm Kiti, HGK, developed by TÜBİTAK-SAGE, Turkey's scientific research council, converts 2000-lb Mark 84 bombs into GPS/INS guided missiles with flap out wings.
The HGK guidance kits adds the following to the Mark 84 bomb:
- Ability to Re-target during captive flight
- Jam resistance
- All weather mission capability
- 1760 Compliance
- Fewer number of bombs, sorties and crews per mission
- Minimum logistics footprint
- Minimum collateral damage
- High Accuracy
- Integrated GPS/INS support with hot start allows HGK to hit the targets below a CEP of 6 meters in all weather conditions.
- Capable of reaching rangers over 12 nautical miles (when released from medium altitudes). A maximum range of 15 nautical miles from high altitudes.
- UAI compliant interfaces, HGK has been added to JSF inventory as a part of Block-4 weapon integration and certification list.
- "Mk84 General Purpose Bomb". Federation of American Scientists. 23 April 2000. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
- "Fiscal Year 2011 Budget Estimate Procurement of Ammunition" (PDF). US Air Force. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
- Don, Holloway (March 1996). "STEALTH SECRETS OF THE F-117 NIGHTHAWK: Its development was kept under wraps for 14 years, but by 1991, the F-117 nighthawk had become a household word.". Aviation History (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Cowles Magazines). ISSN 1076-8858.
- "Mk 65 Quick Strike Mine". Federation of American Scientists. 8 December 1998. Retrieved 1 September 2010.