Mark Daniel Regnerus
|Born||c. 1971 (age 47–48)|
|Alma mater||Trinity Christian College, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill|
|Known for||Research into LGBT parenting|
|Awards||Distinguished Article Award from the Sociology of Religion Section of the American Sociological Association|
|Institutions||University of Texas at Austin|
|Thesis||Adolescent socialization and avoiding trouble : a perspective on religious influences (2000)|
|Doctoral advisor||Christian Smith|
Regnerus graduated from McBain Rural Agricultural High School in McBain, Michigan in 1989. He then attended Trinity Christian College, where he received his B.A. in sociology in 1993. He then earned his M.A. in 1997 and Ph.D in 2000 from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His dissertation, Adolescent socialization and avoiding trouble: A perspective on religious influences, was written under the direction of Christian Smith, with whom he subsequently co-wrote several articles about religion and social behavior. He then was post-doctoral researcher at the Carolina Population Center before taking a position as Assistant Professor at Calvin College, where he remained until 2002. He accepted a position as Assistant Professor of sociology at the University of Texas at Austin, and advanced to Associate Professor in 2007, and to Full Professor in 2018.
Earlier in his career, Regnerus studied the influence of religion on adolescent and young-adult behavior. His article entitled "Sex is Cheap" was the ninth-most downloaded article at Slate in 2011. His recent research has concerned the romantic relationships of young adults and the dynamics of the modern mating market. His books include Premarital Sex in America: How Young Americans Meet, Mate, and Think about Marrying, Forbidden Fruit: Sex and Religion in the Lives of American Teenagers, and Cheap Sex: The Transformation of Men, Marriage, and Monogamy, all published by Oxford University Press.
Same-sex relationships controversy
Regnerus has conducted research on the impact of a child having a parent who has been involved in a same-sex relationship. A 2012 population-based study of his in Social Science Research generated protracted debate and controversy. This included a disavowal by Regnerus' department chair at the University of Texas-Austin, in which Christine L. Williams cites the American Sociological Association, "which takes the position that the conclusions he draws from his study of gay parenting are fundamentally flawed on conceptual and methodological grounds and that findings from Dr. Regnerus’ work have been cited inappropriately in efforts to diminish the civil rights and legitimacy of LBGTQ partners and their families." Two hundred social scientists, led by Gary Gates, signed the "Letter to the editors and advisory editors of Social Science Research", in which they express their concern "about the academic integrity of the peer review process for this paper as well as its intellectual merit." Regnerus continues to defend the research.
The controversy also resulted in an audit of the review process used by Social Science Research. Critics have largely focused their attention on the few same-sex relationships in the data, faulting Regnerus for comparing the adult children of intact (heterosexual) families with those whose parents may have purportedly formed same sex relationships after the dissolution of a heterosexual union.
In June 2012, 27 scholars signed a response to the Regnerus Controversy in defense of Regnerus' research, stating: "we think much of the public and academic response to Regnerus is misguided for three reasons." They also argue that "it is possible to interpret Regnerus’s findings as evidence for the need for legalized gay marriage, in order to support the social stability of such relationships," which contrasts with Regnerus' own conclusion published in Slate: "[this study] may suggest that the household instability that the NFSS reveals is just too common among same-sex couples to take the social gamble of spending significant political and economic capital to esteem and support this new (but tiny) family form".
Major academic organizations including the American Sociological Association, American Academy of Pediatrics and American Medical Association dispute the validity of Regnerus' data and conclusions reached thereof, arguing that unlike previous studies, the statistically tiny number of same sex couples in a study whose sample group largely consisted of failed heterosexual marriages where one of the parents was allegedly homosexual, make it impossible to extrapolate any information about same sex parenting. A review carried out by the American Medical Association noted that:
... The data does not show whether the perceived romantic relationship ever in fact occurred; nor whether the parent self-identified as gay or lesbian; nor whether the same sex relationship was continuous, episodic, or one-time only; nor whether the individual in these categories was actually raised by a homosexual parent (children of gay fathers are often raised by their heterosexual mothers following divorce), much less a parent in a long-term relationship with a same-sex partner. Indeed, most of the participants in these groups spent very little, if any, time being raised by a “same-sex couple.”
Some argue that the project's funding source, the Witherspoon Institute, a conservative think tank, ultimately biased the results; New York Times writer Mark Oppenheimer speculated that Regnerus' Catholic faith may have shaped the way he approached the study of same-sex relationships. When asked whether his funding source (the Witherspoon Institute) is conservative, Regnerus responded by stating, "Yes. And the Ford Foundation is a pretty liberal one. Every academic study is paid for by someone. I’ve seen excellent studies funded by all sorts of interest groups."
Regnerus contributed to an amicus brief in opposition to same-sex marriage and appeared as an expert witness in a 2014 federal court hearing regarding Michigan's ban on same-sex marriage. Citing widespread criticism of NFSS methodology, Judge Bernard A. Friedman rejected Regnerus' testimony, alleging the arguments derived from methodologically flawed data were "not worthy of serious consideration" and served rather to please the conservative organizations (Witherspoon Institute and Bradley Foundation) that underwrote the survey research project.
The public and academic reaction to Regnerus' research has been referred to as a "witch hunt" by his former mentor Christian Smith. In his book The Sacred Project of American Sociology, Smith calls this backlash a result of the content of sociology's "sacred project" (of mitigating oppression, inequality, etc.); Smith argued that the critical reaction e.g. on methodological issues displayed a set of double standards insofar as work by other scholars could be (but is generally not) subjected to similar criticism. Smith said that "The push-back" to Regnerus' article "is coming simply because some people don't like where the data led."
During a speech at Franciscan University of Steubenville in 2014 titled "What Sexual Behavior Patterns Reveal about the Mating Market and Catholic Thought", Regnerus' views on same-sex relationships continued to spread controversy when he claimed that "normalization of gay men's sexual behavior" in society will contribute to a surge in the "practice of heterosexual anal sex."
Regarding the connection between one's faith and the activities of Christian professors, Regnerus noted in an alumni profile that "I believe that if your faith matters, it should inform what you teach and what you research".
- "Sociology - UT College of Liberal Arts". utexas.edu. 17 February 2015.
- The University of North-Carolina at Chapel Hill (December 20, 2000). "COMMENCEMENT". p. 15. Retrieved June 15, 2014.
- "Open Access Dissertation". proquest.com.
- Reno, R. R. (April 2018). "Permission to Kill". First Things.
- "Sex is cheap: Why young men have the upper hand in bed, even when they're failing in life". Slate Magazine.
- "Slate's 10 most popular stories of 2011". Slate Magazine.
- Regnerus, Mark (February 28, 2013). "Contemporary mating market dynamics, sex-ratio imbalances, and their consequences" (PDF). Society. 49 (6): 500–505. doi:10.1007/s12115-012-9592-2.
- Eden, Dawn (August 1, 2007). "Forbidden Fruit: Sex & Religion in Modern Adolescence.(Briefly Noted)(Book review)". First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
- How different are the adult children of parents who have same-sex relationships? Findings from the New Family Structures Study, Social Science Research, 41: 752-770
- Mark Oppenheimer, "Sociologist’s Paper Raises Questions on Role of Faith in Scholarship", New York Times, 12 October 2012
- Brandon Watson, "UT Distances from Regnerus", The Austin Chronicle, 4 March 2014
- "Sociology - UT College of Liberal Arts". utexas.edu. 17 February 2015.
- Gates, Gary J.; et al. (2012). "Letter to the editors and advisory editors of Social Science Research". Social Science Research. 41 (6): 1350–1351. doi:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2012.08.008.
- "200 researchers respond to Regnerus paper". Family Inequality.
- Regnerus, Mark (2012). "Parental same-sex relationships, family instability, and subsequent life outcomes for adult children: Answering critics of the new family structures study with additional analyses". Social Science Research. 41 (6): 1367–1377. doi:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2012.08.015. PMID 23017960.
- "Mark Regnerus: Defending my research on same-sex parenting". dallasnews.com.
- "Controversial Gay-Parenting Study Is Severely Flawed, Journal's Audit Finds – Percolator - Blogs - The Chronicle of Higher Education". chronicle.com.
- "BRIEF OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, THE CALIFORNIA PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, THE AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION, THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS AND ITS CALIFORNIA CHAPTER, THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS , AND THE AMERICAN PSYCHOANALYTIC ASSOCIATION AS AMICI CURIAE IN SUPPORT OF PLAINTIFF - APPELLEE AND IN SUPPORT OF AFFIRMANCE" American Medical Association, July 10, 2012 accessed 7 June 2013.
- American Sociological Association (February 28, 2013). "BRIEF OF AMICUS CURIAE AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION IN SUPPORT OF RESPONDENT KRISTIN M. PERRY AND RESPONDENT EDITH SCHLAIN WINDSOR" (PDF).
- "Gay parents: are they really no different?". Slate Magazine.
- "New Family Structures Study Intended To Sway Supreme Court On Gay Marriage, Documents Show". The Huffington Post.
- "Mark Regnerus' Debunked Anti-LGBT Study Front-and-Center as MI Marriage Equality Trial Begins". Human Rights Campaign.
- "Q & A with Mark Regnerus about the background of his new study". Black, White and Gray.
- "Friedman Ruling". documentcloud.org.
- "An Academic Auto-da-Fé". The Chronicle of Higher Education.
- Robert VerBruggen Archive Latest RSS. "The Gay-Parenting Witch Hunt - National Review Online". National Review Online.
- Smith, Christian. The Sacred Project of American Sociology. Oxford University Press, 2014
- "Mark Regnerus Claims Gay Marriage Will Lead Straight Men To Stray, Demand Anal Sex From Women". The Huffington Post.
- "Underlying Assumptions of Regnerus's Claims". The Huffington Post.