Mark S. Gold

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Mark S. Gold
Mark S. Gold.jpg
Born1949 (age 73–74)
Education
Scientific career
Institutions

Mark S. Gold (born 1949) is an American physician, professor, author, and researcher on the effects of opioids, cocaine, tobacco, and other drugs as well as food on the brain and behavior. He is married to Janice Finn Gold.[1]

Gold is a former professor in the Department of Neuroscience, distinguished professor, and chairman of the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Florida College of Medicine, where he founded the Division of Addiction Medicine.[2][3] His translational research has led to an understanding of the role of the nucleus locus coeruleus in addiction, the discovery of clonidine’s efficacy in opiate withdrawal, and the dopamine depletion hypothesis in understanding cocaine addiction.[4][5]

Early life and career[edit]

Raised in Teaneck, New Jersey, Gold was a 1967 graduate of Teaneck High School,[6] where he was a Varsity Baseball player. Gold matriculated to Washington University in St. Louis where he was an Honors graduate and Phi Beta Kappa.[7] In 1987, Gold was awarded a Distinguished Alumni Award from WUSTL where he majored in Psychology.[8]

He moved to the University of Florida in Gainesville where he worked from December of 1970 in the new Department of Neuroscience with Fred King, William Luttge, and Steve Zornetzer looking at overlaps in both the brain's sleep and memory systems.[9][10]

Gold earned his bachelor’s degree from Washington University in St. Louis and graduated from the University of Florida College of Medicine with his medical degree.[11][12] He then completed a psychiatry residency and fellowship at Yale School of Medicine.[13]

Gold began his career in research at University of Florida in 1970. He has authored over 1,000 published scientific articles, chapters, and abstracts.[14]

He married Janice Finn in 1971, a Florida native who was born in Coral Gables[15]

Gold was a distinguished professor of psychiatry, neuroscience, community health, and family medicine at UF. He became interim chairman and then chair of the UF Department of Psychiatry in 2008. During his tenure, he founded the Division of Addiction Medicine and its treatment program, the Florida Recovery Center.[16] He also started laboratory studies in the UF McKnight Brain Institute on topics including second-hand tobacco smoke, sugar and drug self-administration, and fentanyl and opioid drug-induced anhedonia and reversal.[17] From 2011-2014, Gold was the 17th University of Florida Distinguished Alumni Professor, where he had university-wide responsibilities and was honored by UF Dean Michael Good at the halftime at the UF Gators on Homecoming in 2011 on the 50 Yard Line of UF's Football.[18][19][20][21]

After retiring as a full-time academic in 2014, Gold has continued teaching, research and writing as a University of Florida Emeritus Eminent Scholar, clinical professor at the University of Southern California, Tulane University, and the Washington University School of Medicine Departments of Psychiatry.[22] Dr. Gold is an active member of the National Council at the Washington University School of Medicine’s Public Health Institute.[23]

Research and writing career[edit]

Gold’s work has focused on developing scientific laboratory models for understanding drug, food, and other addictions that have led to new treatments. Gold was a lead researcher in the discovery of clonidine’s efficacy in opiate withdrawal and a rationale for opiate withdrawal symptomatology.[4][24] Clonidine was the first non-opioid medication to reverse acute opioid withdrawal symptoms.[25] He co-authored the dopamine depletion hypothesis (Patent #4/312,878) for cocaine addiction and anhedonia.[5] His work helped lead to a new understanding of how cocaine is addicting and the physiology of cocaine craving and “crashing.”[26]

With colleagues, Gold helped to define the importance of the route of cocaine administration in medicinal uses, safety and abuse potential.[27] Gold and his Yale colleague Dr. Robert Byck studied cocaine levels and responses.[28] He also described the phenomenon of smoking cocaine, mixing cocaine and opioids, and crack use in the United States.[29] Gold started the first national drug helpline with Arnold Washton in 1983,[30] and with NIDA's Director Dr. Bob Shuster, expanded access and breadth of drug hotline to cocaine and heroin in 1987.[31]

Gold is co-editor of the 2012 textbook, Food and Addiction, published by Oxford Press, and has worked to evaluate the hypothesis that hedonistic overeating is a pathological attachment to food like any other addiction.[32][33][34] Gold and Kelly Brownell co-chaired the Yale Conference on Food Addiction in 2007, one of the first conferences to discuss food, addiction, and hedonic overeating.[35]

Gold's group had the first report in the medical literature on crack, addiction to second-hand tobacco, and cannabis smoke.[36][37] Gold has also researched methamphetamine and, with NIDA’s Jean Lud Cadet M.D., described the drug’s long-lasting effects in a series of studies from rodents to human post-mortem;[38][39][40][41] physician and health professionals who have become addicts and their outcomes after treatment;[42][43][44] and internet and other behavioral addictions.[45] Additional research interests include the role of exercise in neurodegeneration and recovery, treatment-resistant opioid use disorders, and reward deficiency syndrome.[46][47][48][49] Most recently, Gold and collaborators have identified increasing adulteration in illicit drug supply chain and risks for the user[50] and called for education and prevention in addition to current harm reduction and MAT initiatives in response to the overdose crisis.[51]

He was the editor of the World Federation of Neurology's Journal of Neurological Sciences Special Issue on Addiction Medicine 2020[52] and also in 2022 as the Editor of the Journals special issue of Psychedelic & Interventional Psychiatry.[53]

Honors and recognitions[edit]

Gold was chief scientist of the "Afghanistan National Urban Drug Use Survey" for the US State Department and the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs. The survey identified second- and third-hand opium exposure among children in Kabul and other urban Afghan areas.[54]

Gold worked with Herbert D. Kleber, Deputy Director for Demand Reduction at the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, to develop prevention, education and treatment programs for the use of medications in addiction treatment.[55] Gold has also worked with DARE,[56] Media Partnership for a Drug Free America, the Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.[57] Gold was a member of the Board of the Betty Ford Center Foundation in the area of drug use and youth and the DEA Museum, where he was a founding director.[58]

Gold has received Phi Beta Kappa and Alpha Omega Alpha;[59] Addiction Policy Forum Pillar of Excellence Award for research;[60] the John P. McGovern Award for his contributions to public policy, treatment, research and addiction prevention;[61] National Association Addiction Treatment and Policy Lifetime Achievement Award; and the Chinese National Academy of Sciences, International Scientist Award.[62] At the University of Florida, Gold was named a Donald Dizney Eminent Scholar and University Distinguished Professor, with the annual White Coat Ceremony also named in his honor.[63][64] He was given Inventor Awards from UF’s Office of Technology Transfer, the UF COM Wall of Fame, Exemplary Teaching and Minority Mentoring Awards from the UF College of Medicine, and Inventor Awards from UF’s Office of Technology Transfer.[65][66] While a full-time U.F. Professor, Gold was awarded numerous patents including the development of systems to improve patient medication compliance and outcomes,[67] new approaches and medications for overeating,[68] and a detector to identify second hand tobacco smoke in the environment.

Gold was a founding director at Viewray, an MR-guided radiotherapy company specializing in oncology, and AxoGen, a company specializing in technologies for peripheral nerve recovery and repair.[69] He continues to present epidemiological research on the opioid and emerging cocaine epidemics and behavioral addictions.[70][71] Gold has written and lectured on responses to reduce overdose deaths, medication-assisted therapies, and opioid use disorders.[72][73] He regularly lectures at medical schools; Grand Rounds;[74][75] and national scientific meetings on opioids, cocaine, and the bench-to-bedside science in eating disorders, obesity, and addictions.[76][77][78] Recently, he was editor of the World Federation of Neurology's Journal of Neurological Sciences Special Issue on Addiction Medicine 2020.[79]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Gold Family Scholarship". University of Florida Advancement. Retrieved 2022-01-19.
  2. ^ "Gold named chair of UF psychiatry department". UF Health, University of Florida Health. 2009-02-20. Retrieved 2018-11-12.
  3. ^ "60th Anniversary CME Event". UFHealth Department of Psychiatry. Retrieved 2018-11-12.
  4. ^ a b Gold, M. S.; Redmond Jr, D. E.; Kleber, H. D. (1978). "Clonidine blocks acute opiate-withdrawal symptoms". The Lancet. 2 (8090): 599–602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(78)92823-4. PMID 80526. S2CID 44253698.
  5. ^ a b Dackis, C. A.; Gold, M. S. (1985). "New concepts in cocaine addiction: The dopamine depletion hypothesis". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 9 (3): 469–77. doi:10.1016/0149-7634(85)90022-3. PMID 2999657. S2CID 45936344.
  6. ^ Pagan, Marion B. "Down Our Street; Drug discovery", The Record, June 23, 1978. Accessed January 1, 2022, via Newspapers.com. "Dr. Mark S. Gold, a psychopharmacologist at the Connecticut Mental Health Center run by Yale University School of Medicine's psychiatry department, has found that Clonidine, a recent drug being prescribed for high blood pressure, prevents withdrawal symptoms in drug addicts. Dr. Gold, a 1967 graduate of Teaneck High School, warned that there are dangerous side effects which make it inadvisable for addicts to use Clonidine."
  7. ^ "Dr. Mark Gold named UF's Distinguished Alumni Professor". Doctor Gator. Retrieved 2022-01-19.
  8. ^ Rooney, Sonya. "Research Guides: WashU History FAQ: Distinguished Alumni Award Recipients". libguides.wustl.edu. Retrieved 2022-01-18.
  9. ^ "History: UF College of Medicine Department of Neuroscience » History » Department of Neuroscience » College of Medicine » University of Florida". Retrieved 2022-01-19.
  10. ^ "Pioneering neuroscientist who founded UF's McKnight Brain Institute passes away". Doctor Gator. Retrieved 2022-01-25.
  11. ^ "Washington University in St. Louis Proof of Graduation". Washington University in St. Louis.
  12. ^ "University of Florida - Proof of Graduation". University of Florida.
  13. ^ "Yale University - Proof of Graduation".
  14. ^ Neurodiem. "Neurodiem". Neurodiem. Retrieved 2022-01-17.
  15. ^ "Gold Family Scholarship". University of Florida Advancement. Retrieved 2022-01-19.
  16. ^ "Discovery to Recovery newsletter message from the chairman – August 2012". UFHealth. Retrieved 2018-11-12.
  17. ^ Bruijnzeel, Adrie W.; Marcinkiewcz, Catherine; Isaac, Shani; Booth, Matthew M.; Dennis, Donn M.; Gold, Mark S. (2007). "The effects of buprenorphine on fentanyl withdrawal in rats". Psychopharmacology. 191 (4): 931–941. doi:10.1007/s00213-006-0670-2. ISSN 0033-3158. PMID 17211652. S2CID 13388606.
  18. ^ "Dr. Mark Gold named UF's Distinguished Alumni Professor". UFHealth. Retrieved 2018-11-12.
  19. ^ [1]"Dr. Mark Gold named UF's Distinguished Alumni Professor" (Press release). University of Florida. May 19, 2011. Archived from the original on August 12, 2011. Retrieved October 4, 2012.
  20. ^ "Leading the Gators on the field and off". UF Health, University of Florida Health. 2011-11-18. Retrieved 2020-10-07.
  21. ^ "Leading the Gators on the field and off". UF Health, University of Florida Health. 2011-11-18. Retrieved 2022-01-17.
  22. ^ "A Symbol of Honor and Truth". UF University of Florida.
  23. ^ "National Council". Institute for Public Health.
  24. ^ Gold, M. S.; Kleber, H. D. (1979). "A rationale for opiate withdrawal symptomatology". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 4 (5): 419–24. doi:10.1016/0376-8716(79)90074-7. PMID 228923.
  25. ^ "Clonidine | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  26. ^ Gold, MS; Washton, AM; Dackis, CA (1987). "The Physiology of Cocaine Craving and 'Crashing'". Archives of General Psychiatry. 44 (3): 298–300. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1987.01800150122018. PMID 3827524.
  27. ^ "Food for thought: UF researcher's book lays out evidence for food addiction". UF Health, University of Florida Health. 2012-10-03. Retrieved 2022-01-17.
  28. ^ Gold, Mark S.; Byck, Robert (1978). "Endorphins, lithium and naloxone: their relationship to pathological and drug induced manic euphoric states". Natl Inst Drug Abuse Res Monogr Ser. 19: 192–209.
  29. ^ Gold, Mark S. (1986-08-08). "Crack". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 256 (6): 711. doi:10.1001/jama.1986.03380060037008. ISSN 0098-7484. PMID 3723767.
  30. ^ Roehrich, H.; Gold, M. S. (1988). "800-COCAINE: origin, significance, and findings". The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. 61 (2): 149–155. ISSN 0044-0086. PMC 2590284. PMID 3407211.
  31. ^ Shuster, CR (2010). "The Highs and Lows of My Years at NIDA (1986-1992)". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 107 (1): 92–95. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.05.003. PMID 20155880.
  32. ^ "Food for thought: UF researcher's book lays out evidence for food addiction". UF Health, University of Florida Health. 2012-10-03. Retrieved 2020-10-07.
  33. ^ Avena, N. M.; Potenza, M. N.; Gold, M. S. (2015). "Why are we consuming so much sugar despite knowing too much can harm us?". JAMA Internal Medicine. 175 (1): 145–6. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.6968. PMID 25560952.
  34. ^ M. Avena, Nicole; E. Bocarsly, Miriam; G. Hoebel, Bartley; S. Gold, Mark (2011-09-01). "Overlaps in the Nosology of Substance Abuse and Overeating: The Translational Implications of "Food Addiction"". Current Drug Abuse Reviews. 4 (3): 133–139. doi:10.2174/1874473711104030133. PMID 21999687.
  35. ^ "Yale Hosts Historic Conference on Food and Addiction". YaleNews. 2007-07-09. Retrieved 2021-04-20.
  36. ^ Gold, Mark S. (1986). "Crack". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 256 (6): 711. doi:10.1001/jama.1986.03380060037008. PMID 3723767.
  37. ^ Bruijnzeel, A. W.; Qi, X.; Guzhva, L. V.; Wall, S.; Deng, J. V.; Gold, M. S.; Febo, M.; Setlow, B. (2016). "Behavioral Characterization of the Effects of Cannabis Smoke and Anandamide in Rats". PLOS ONE. 11 (4): e0153327. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1153327B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153327. PMC 4827836. PMID 27065006.
  38. ^ Thanos, Panayotis K.; Kim, Ronald; Delis, Foteini; Ananth, Mala; Chachati, George; Rocco, Mark J.; Masad, Ihssan; Muniz, Jose A.; Grant, Samuel C. (2017-02-08). "Correction: Chronic Methamphetamine Effects on Brain Structure and Function in Rats". PLOS ONE. 12 (2): e0172080. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1272080T. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0172080. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5298314. PMID 28178354.
  39. ^ Gold, Mark S.; Kobeissy, Firas H.; Wang, Kevin K.W.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Bruijnzeel, Adriaan W.; Krasnova, Irina N.; Cadet, Jean Lud (July 2009). "Methamphetamine- and Trauma-Induced Brain Injuries: Comparative Cellular and Molecular Neurobiological Substrates". Biological Psychiatry. 66 (2): 118–127. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.02.021. PMC 2810951. PMID 19345341.
  40. ^ Sekine, Y.; Ouchi, Y.; Sugihara, G.; Takei, N.; Yoshikawa, E.; Nakamura, K.; Iwata, Y.; Tsuchiya, K. J.; Suda, S. (2008-05-28). "Methamphetamine Causes Microglial Activation in the Brains of Human Abusers". Journal of Neuroscience. 28 (22): 5756–5761. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1179-08.2008. ISSN 0270-6474. PMC 2491906. PMID 18509037.
  41. ^ Blum, Kenneth; Cadet, Jean Lud; Gold, Mark S. (January 2021). "Psychostimulant use disorder emphasizing methamphetamine and the opioid -dopamine connection: Digging out of a hypodopaminergic ditch". Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 420: 117252. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2020.117252. ISSN 0022-510X. PMID 33279726.
  42. ^ DuPont, Robert L.; McLellan, A. Thomas; White, William L.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Gold, Mark S. (2009). "Setting the standard for recovery: Physicians' Health Programs". Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 36 (2): 159–171. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2008.01.004. ISSN 0740-5472. PMID 19161896.
  43. ^ Merlo, Lisa J.; Gold, Mark S. (2008). "Prescription Opioid Abuse and Dependence Among Physicians: Hypotheses and Treatment". Harvard Review of Psychiatry. 16 (3): 181–194. doi:10.1080/10673220802160316. ISSN 1067-3229. PMID 18569039.
  44. ^ Washton, Arnold M.; Gold, Mark S.; Pottash, A. Carter (1984). "Successful Use of Naltrexone in Addicted Physicians and Business Executives". Advances in Alcohol & Substance Abuse. 4 (2): 89–96. doi:10.1300/j251v04n02_08. ISSN 0270-3106. PMID 6524509.
  45. ^ Shapira, Nathan A.; Lessig, Mary C.; Goldsmith, Toby D.; Szabo, Steven T.; Lazoritz, Martin; Gold, Mark S.; Stein, Dan J. (2003). "Problematic internet use: Proposed classification and diagnostic criteria". Depression and Anxiety. 17 (4): 207–216. doi:10.1002/da.10094. PMID 12820176. S2CID 13044242.
  46. ^ Swenson, Sabrina; Blum, Kenneth; McLaughlin, Thomas; Gold, Mark S.; Thanos, Panayotis K. (2020-05-15). "The therapeutic potential of exercise for neuropsychiatric diseases: A review". Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 412: 116763. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2020.116763. ISSN 0022-510X. PMID 32305746.
  47. ^ Wolf, David A. Patterson Silver; Gold, Mark (2020-04-15). "Treatment resistant opioid use disorder (TROUD): Definition, rationale, and recommendations". Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 411: 116718. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2020.116718. ISSN 0022-510X. PMID 32078842. S2CID 211029947.
  48. ^ Gold, Mark S.; Baron, David; Bowirrat, Abdalla; Blum, Kenneth (2020-11-15). "Neurological correlates of brain reward circuitry linked to opioid use disorder (OUD): Do homo sapiens acquire or have a reward deficiency syndrome?". Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 418: 117137. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2020.117137. ISSN 0022-510X. PMC 7490287. PMID 32957037.
  49. ^ Wolf, David A. Patterson Silver; Gold, Mark (2020-04-15). "Treatment resistant opioid use disorder (TROUD): Definition, rationale, and recommendations". Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 411: 116718. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2020.116718. ISSN 0022-510X. PMID 32078842. S2CID 211029947.
  50. ^ Thom, Browne; Mark, S. Gold; David, M. Martin (2021-02-28). "The Rapidly Changing Composition of the Global Street Drug Supply and Its Effects on High-Risk Groups for COVID-19". Current Psychopharmacology. 10 (2): 138–154. doi:10.2174/2211556010666210125124645. S2CID 234003033. Retrieved 2021-05-18.
  51. ^ "Adulterants in street drugs could increase susceptibility to COVID". www.mdedge.com. Retrieved 2021-05-18.
  52. ^ "Journal of the Neurological Sciences | ScienceDirect.com by Elsevier". www.sciencedirect.com. Retrieved 2022-01-25.
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  54. ^ Cottler, Linda B; Ajinkya, Shaun; Goldberger, Bruce A; Ghani, Mohammad Asrar; Martin, David M; Hu, Hui; Gold, Mark S (2014). "Prevalence of drug and alcohol use in urban Afghanistan: Epidemiological data from the Afghanistan National Urban Drug Use Study (ANUDUS)". The Lancet Global Health. 2 (10): e592–600. doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(14)70290-6. PMID 25304635.
  55. ^ "US Patent Application for MEDICATION ADHERENCE MONITORING SYSTEM Patent Application (Application #20180017569 issued January 18, 2018) - Justia Patents Search". patents.justia.com. Retrieved 2022-01-17.
  56. ^ Gardner, Christopher. "D.A.R.E. America to honor Yale Psychiatry alumnus". medicine.yale.edu. Retrieved 2021-10-05.
  57. ^ "Addiction Medicine: Closing the Gap between Science and Practice" (PDF). The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University. 2012.
  58. ^ Betty Ford Institute Consensus Panel (2007-10-01). "What is recovery? A working definition from the Betty Ford Institute". Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 33 (3): 221–228. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2007.06.001. ISSN 0740-5472. PMID 17889294.
  59. ^ "Mark S. Gold, M.D. | World Affairs Council Jacksonville". www.worldaffairscounciljax.org. Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  60. ^ Forum, Addiction Policy (2019-06-25). "2019 Awards Dinner". APF. Retrieved 2020-06-23. {{cite web}}: |first= has generic name (help)
  61. ^ "Mark Gold, MD, FASAM, Wins John P. McGovern Award". www.asam.org. Retrieved 2018-11-12.
  62. ^ "The McKnight Brain Institute congratulates Mark S. Gold, M.D. on receiving the award for Distinguished International Scientist » McKnight Brain Institute » University of Florida". UFHealth. Retrieved 2019-07-29.
  63. ^ "Gold named chair of UF psychiatry department". UF Health, University of Florida Health. 2009-02-20. Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  64. ^ "Class of 2023 celebrates annual white coat ceremony". Doctor Gator. Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  65. ^ "Dr. Mark Gold named UF's Distinguished Alumni Professor". Doctor Gator. Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  66. ^ "Dr. Mark Gold named UF's Distinguished Alumni Professor". Doctor Gator. Retrieved 2021-04-20.
  67. ^ "US Patent Application for MEDICATION ADHERENCE MONITORING SYSTEM Patent Application (Application #20180017569 issued January 18, 2018) - Justia Patents Search". patents.justia.com. Retrieved 2022-01-18.
  68. ^ "US Patent for Compositions for controlling food intake and uses therefor Patent (Patent # 9,610,285 issued April 4, 2017) - Justia Patents Search". patents.justia.com. Retrieved 2022-01-18.
  69. ^ "Mark Gold, M.D. | Axogen". www.axogeninc.com. Retrieved 2021-04-20.
  70. ^ "Opioids, Heroin, New Look, Not Old Drugs". Drug Enforcement Administration Museum & Visitors Center. 2018-08-23.
  71. ^ "New Look Old Drugs - 2018 Update". Drug Enforcement Administration Museum & Visitors Center. 2018-03-12.
  72. ^ Oesterle, T. S.; Thusius, N. J.; Rummans, T. A.; Gold, M. S. (2019). "Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid-Use Disorder". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 94 (10): 2072–2086. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2019.03.029. PMID 31543255.
  73. ^ Srivastava, A. Benjamin; Gold, Mark S. (2018). "Beyond Supply: How We Must Tackle the Opioid Epidemic". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 93 (3): 269–272. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2018.01.018. PMID 29502558.
  74. ^ "Yale Psychiatry Grand Rounds: October 24, 2014". Yale School of Medicine.
  75. ^ "What Can We Learn From Evaluating and Treating Physician Addicts?". Tulane University.
  76. ^ "Cocaine and Addiction Researcher". National Drug Abuse & Heroin Summit.
  77. ^ "Stimulant Summit". Cocaine, Meth & Stimulant Summit. November 2019.
  78. ^ "FADAPConferencePresentations2019". www.fadap.org. Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  79. ^ "Special Issue on "Addiction Medicine"". wfneurology.org. Retrieved 2020-10-07.