Mark S. Gold

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Mark S. Gold
Born1949 (age 70–71)
Known forProfessor, author, and translational researcher on addiction and the effects of drugs on the brain and behavior; former neuroscience professor and chair of University of Florida College of Medicine’s Department of Psychiatry, 17th University of Florida Distinguished Alumni Scholar; and current National Council Member at the Washington University School of Public Health and adjunct professor in the Department of Psychiatry at Washington University.
Scientific career

Mark S. Gold (born 1949) is an American physician, professor, author, and researcher on the effects of opioids, cocaine, tobacco, and other drugs as well as food on the brain and behavior.

Gold is a former professor in the Department of Neuroscience, distinguished professor, and chairman of the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Florida College of Medicine, where he founded the Division of Addiction Medicine.[1][2] His translational research has led to an understanding of the role of the nucleus locus coeruleus in addiction, the discovery of clonidine’s efficacy in opiate withdrawal, and the dopamine depletion hypothesis in understanding cocaine addiction.[3][4]

Education and career[edit]

Gold earned his bachelor’s degree from Washington University in St. Louis and graduated from the University of Florida College of Medicine with his medical degree.[5][6] He then completed a psychiatry residency and fellowship at Yale School of Medicine.[7]

Since beginning his career in research at University of Florida in 1970, he has authored over 1,000 scientific articles, chapters, and abstracts published in journals for neuroscientists and health professionals, with collaborators at Yale, Princeton, and Washington University in St. Louis.

In addition to conducting research, Gold was a distinguished professor of psychiatry, neuroscience, community health, and family medicine at UF. He became interim chairman and then chair of the UF Department of Psychiatry in 2008. During his tenure, he founded the Division of Addiction Medicine and its treatment program, the Florida Recovery Center.[8] He also started laboratory studies in the UF McKnight Brain Institute on a wide range of topics with mentees, including second-hand tobacco smoke, sugar and drug self-administration, and fentanyl and opioid drug-induced anhedonia and reversal. From 2011-2014, Gold was the 17th University of Florida Distinguished Alumni Professor, where he had university-wide responsibilities and was honored by UF Dean Michael Good at the university's 2011 homecoming game.[9][10][11]

After retiring as a full-time academic in 2014, he has continued teaching, research and writing as a University of Florida Emeritus Eminent Scholar, clinical professor at the University of Southern California, Tulane University, and the Washington University School of Medicine Departments of Psychiatry.[12] Dr. Gold is an active member of the National Council at the Washington University School of Medicine’s Public Health Institute.[13]

Research interests[edit]

Gold’s work has focused on developing scientific laboratory models for understanding drug, food, and other addictions that have led to new treatments. Gold was a lead researcher in the discovery of clonidine’s efficacy in opiate withdrawal and a rationale for opiate withdrawal symptomatology.[3][14] Clonidine was the first non-opioid medication to reverse acute opioid withdrawal symptoms.[15] He also co-authored the dopamine depletion hypothesis (Patent #4/312,878) for cocaine addiction and anhedonia.[4] His work helped lead to a new understanding of how cocaine is addicting and the physiology of cocaine craving and “crashing.”[16]

Gold developed addiction-based models for understanding hedonistic overeating, food addiction, and the development of new therapies. He is co-editor of the 2012 textbook, Food and Addiction, published by Oxford Press, and has worked to evaluate the hypothesis that hedonistic overeating is a pathological attachment to food like any other addiction.[17][18][19]

His group had the first report in the medical literature on crack, addiction to second-hand tobacco, and cannabis smoke.[20][21] Gold has also researched methamphetamine and, with NIDA’s Jean Lud Cadet M.D., described the drug’s long-lasting effects in a series of studies from rodents to human post-mortem;[22][23][24] physician and health professionals who have become addicts and their outcomes after treatment;[25][26][27] and internet and other behavioral addictions.[28] Additional research interests include the role of exercise in neurodegeneration and recovery, treatment-resistant opioid use disorders, and reward deficiency syndrome.[29][30][31]

Honors and other roles[edit]

Gold was the Chief Scientist working on national and global research on addiction and its effects. He was chief scientist of the Afghanistan National Urban Drug Use Survey for the US State Department and the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs. The survey identified second- and third-hand opium exposure among children in Kabul and other urban Afghan areas.[32]

Gold also studied smoking, as well as second- and third-hand tobacco smoke, with support from the National Institute on Drug Abuse and FAMRI. He has extended this model to study cannabis smoke and withdrawal. He worked with the White House’s Office of National Drug Control Policy, Media Partnership for a Drug Free America, the Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, the Betty Ford Center Foundation in the area of drug use and youth and the DEA Museum, where he was a founding director.[33][34]

Gold has received numerous recognitions for his work, including Phi Beta Kappa and Alpha Omega Alpha;[35] Addiction Policy Forum Pillar of Excellence Award for research;[36] the John P. McGovern Award for his contributions to public policy, treatment, research and addiction prevention;[37] National Association Addiction Treatment and Policy Lifetime Achievement Award; and the Chinese National Academy of Sciences, International Scientist Award.[38] At the University of Florida, Gold was named a Donald Dizney Eminent Scholar and University Distinguished Professor.[39] He was given Inventor Awards from UF’s Office of Technology Transfer and the annual White Coat Ceremony was named in his honor.[40][41]

Gold continues to analyze and present epidemiological research on the opioid and emerging cocaine epidemics and behavioral addictions.[42][43] He has written and lectured on responses to reduce overdose deaths, medication-assisted therapies, and opioid use disorders.[44][45] He regularly lectures at medical schools; Grand Rounds;[46][47] and national scientific meetings on opioids, cocaine, and the bench-to-bedside science in eating disorders, obesity, and addictions.[48][49][50] Recently, he was editor of the World Federation of Neurology's Journal of Neurological Sciences Special Issue on Addiction Medicine 2020.[51]


  1. ^ "Gold named chair of UF psychiatry department". UF Health, University of Florida Health. 2009-02-20. Retrieved 2018-11-12.
  2. ^ "60th Anniversary CME Event". UFHealth Department of Psychiatry. Retrieved 2018-11-12.
  3. ^ a b Gold, M. S.; Redmond Jr, D. E.; Kleber, H. D. (1978). "Clonidine blocks acute opiate-withdrawal symptoms". The Lancet. 2 (8090): 599–602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(78)92823-4. PMID 80526.
  4. ^ a b Dackis, C. A.; Gold, M. S. (1985). "New concepts in cocaine addiction: The dopamine depletion hypothesis". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 9 (3): 469–77. doi:10.1016/0149-7634(85)90022-3. PMID 2999657.
  5. ^ "Washington University in St. Louis Proof of Graduation". Washington University in St. Louis.
  6. ^ "University of Florida - Proof of Graduation". University of Florida.
  7. ^ "Yale University - Proof of Graduation".
  8. ^ "Discovery to Recovery newsletter message from the chairman – August 2012". UFHealth. Retrieved 2018-11-12.
  9. ^ "Dr. Mark Gold named UF's Distinguished Alumni Professor". UFHealth. Retrieved 2018-11-12.
  10. ^ [1]"Dr. Mark Gold named UF's Distinguished Alumni Professor" (Press release). University of Florida. May 19, 2011. Archived from the original on August 12, 2011. Retrieved October 4, 2012.
  11. ^ "Leading the Gators on the field and off". UF Health, University of Florida Health. 2011-11-18. Retrieved 2020-10-07.
  12. ^ "A Symbol of Honor and Truth". UF University of Florida.
  13. ^ "National Council". Institute for Public Health.
  14. ^ Gold, M. S.; Kleber, H. D. (1979). "A rationale for opiate withdrawal symptomatology". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 4 (5): 419–24. doi:10.1016/0376-8716(79)90074-7. PMID 228923.
  15. ^ "Clonidine |". Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  16. ^ Gold, MS; Washton, AM; Dackis, CA (1987). "The Physiology of Cocaine Craving and 'Crashing'". Archives of General Psychiatry. 44 (3): 298–300. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1987.01800150122018. PMID 3827524.
  17. ^ "Food for thought: UF researcher's book lays out evidence for food addiction". UF Health, University of Florida Health. 2012-10-03. Retrieved 2020-10-07.
  18. ^ Avena, N. M.; Potenza, M. N.; Gold, M. S. (2015). "Why are we consuming so much sugar despite knowing too much can harm us?". JAMA Internal Medicine. 175 (1): 145–6. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.6968. PMID 25560952.
  19. ^ M. Avena, Nicole; E. Bocarsly, Miriam; G. Hoebel, Bartley; S. Gold, Mark (2011-09-01). "Overlaps in the Nosology of Substance Abuse and Overeating: The Translational Implications of "Food Addiction"". Current Drug Abuse Reviewse. 4 (3): 133–139. doi:10.2174/1874473711104030133.
  20. ^ Gold, Mark S. (1986). "Crack". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 256 (6): 711. doi:10.1001/jama.1986.03380060037008. PMID 3723767.
  21. ^ Bruijnzeel, A. W.; Qi, X.; Guzhva, L. V.; Wall, S.; Deng, J. V.; Gold, M. S.; Febo, M.; Setlow, B. (2016). "Behavioral Characterization of the Effects of Cannabis Smoke and Anandamide in Rats". PLOS ONE. 11 (4): e0153327. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1153327B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153327. PMC 4827836. PMID 27065006.
  22. ^ Thanos, Panayotis K.; Kim, Ronald; Delis, Foteini; Ananth, Mala; Chachati, George; Rocco, Mark J.; Masad, Ihssan; Muniz, Jose A.; Grant, Samuel C. (2017-02-08). "Correction: Chronic Methamphetamine Effects on Brain Structure and Function in Rats". PLOS ONE. 12 (2): e0172080. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0172080. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5298314. PMID 28178354.
  23. ^ Gold, Mark S.; Kobeissy, Firas H.; Wang, Kevin K.W.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Bruijnzeel, Adriaan W.; Krasnova, Irina N.; Cadet, Jean Lud (July 2009). "Methamphetamine- and Trauma-Induced Brain Injuries: Comparative Cellular and Molecular Neurobiological Substrates". Biological Psychiatry. 66 (2): 118–127. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.02.021. PMC 2810951. PMID 19345341.
  24. ^ Sekine, Y.; Ouchi, Y.; Sugihara, G.; Takei, N.; Yoshikawa, E.; Nakamura, K.; Iwata, Y.; Tsuchiya, K. J.; Suda, S. (2008-05-28). "Methamphetamine Causes Microglial Activation in the Brains of Human Abusers". Journal of Neuroscience. 28 (22): 5756–5761. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1179-08.2008. ISSN 0270-6474.
  25. ^ DuPont, Robert L.; McLellan, A. Thomas; White, William L.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Gold, Mark S. (2009). "Setting the standard for recovery: Physicians' Health Programs". Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 36 (2): 159–171. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2008.01.004. ISSN 0740-5472. PMID 19161896.
  26. ^ Merlo, Lisa J.; Gold, Mark S. (2008). "Prescription Opioid Abuse and Dependence Among Physicians: Hypotheses and Treatment". Harvard Review of Psychiatry. 16 (3): 181–194. doi:10.1080/10673220802160316. ISSN 1067-3229. PMID 18569039.
  27. ^ Washton, Arnold M.; Gold, Mark S.; Pottash, A. Carter (1984). "Successful Use of Naltrexone in Addicted Physicians and Business Executives". Advances in Alcohol & Substance Abuse. 4 (2): 89–96. doi:10.1300/j251v04n02_08. ISSN 0270-3106. PMID 6524509.
  28. ^ Shapira, Nathan A.; Lessig, Mary C.; Goldsmith, Toby D.; Szabo, Steven T.; Lazoritz, Martin; Gold, Mark S.; Stein, Dan J. (2003). "Problematic internet use: Proposed classification and diagnostic criteria". Depression and Anxiety. 17 (4): 207–216. doi:10.1002/da.10094. PMID 12820176.
  29. ^ Swenson, Sabrina; Blum, Kenneth; McLaughlin, Thomas; Gold, Mark S.; Thanos, Panayotis K. (2020-05-15). "The therapeutic potential of exercise for neuropsychiatric diseases: A review". Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 412. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2020.116763. ISSN 0022-510X. PMID 32305746.
  30. ^ Wolf, David A. Patterson Silver; Gold, Mark (2020-04-15). "Treatment resistant opioid use disorder (TROUD): Definition, rationale, and recommendations". Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 411. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2020.116718. ISSN 0022-510X. PMID 32078842.
  31. ^ Gold, Mark S.; Baron, David; Bowirrat, Abdalla; Blum, Kenneth (2020-11-15). "Neurological correlates of brain reward circuitry linked to opioid use disorder (OUD): Do homo sapiens acquire or have a reward deficiency syndrome?". Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 418. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2020.117137. ISSN 0022-510X. PMID 32957037.
  32. ^ Cottler, Linda B; Ajinkya, Shaun; Goldberger, Bruce A; Ghani, Mohammad Asrar; Martin, David M; Hu, Hui; Gold, Mark S (2014). "Prevalence of drug and alcohol use in urban Afghanistan: Epidemiological data from the Afghanistan National Urban Drug Use Study (ANUDUS)". The Lancet Global Health. 2 (10): e592–600. doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(14)70290-6. PMID 25304635.
  33. ^ Betty Ford Institute Consensus Panel (2007-10-01). "What is recovery? A working definition from the Betty Ford Institute". Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 33 (3): 221–228. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2007.06.001. ISSN 0740-5472. PMID 17889294.
  34. ^ "Addiction Medicine: Closing the Gap between Science and Practice". 2013-11-15. Retrieved 2018-11-12.
  35. ^ "Mark S. Gold, M.D. | World Affairs Council Jacksonville". Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  36. ^ Forum, Addiction Policy (2019-06-25). "2019 Awards Dinner". APF. Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  37. ^ "Mark Gold, MD, FASAM, Wins John P. McGovern Award". Retrieved 2018-11-12.
  38. ^ "The McKnight Brain Institute congratulates Mark S. Gold, M.D. on receiving the award for Distinguished International Scientist » McKnight Brain Institute » University of Florida". UFHealth. Retrieved 2019-07-29.
  39. ^ "Gold named chair of UF psychiatry department". UF Health, University of Florida Health. 2009-02-20. Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  40. ^ "Dr. Mark Gold named UF's Distinguished Alumni Professor". Doctor Gator. Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  41. ^ "Class of 2023 celebrates annual white coat ceremony". Doctor Gator. Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  42. ^ "Opioids, Heroin, New Look, Not Old Drugs". Drug Enforcement Administration Museum & Visitors Center. 2018-08-23.
  43. ^ "New Look Old Drugs - 2018 Update". Drug Enforcement Administration Museum & Visitors Center. 2018-03-12.
  44. ^ "Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid-Use Disorder". Mayo Clinic Proc. 2019.
  45. ^ Srivastava, A. Benjamin; Gold, Mark S. (2018). "Beyond Supply: How We Must Tackle the Opioid Epidemic". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 93 (3): 269–272. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2018.01.018. PMID 29502558.
  46. ^ "Yale Psychiatry Grand Rounds: October 24, 2014". Yale School of Medicine.
  47. ^ "What Can We Learn From Evaluating and Treating Physician Addicts?". Tulane University.
  48. ^ "Cocaine and Addiction Researcher". National Drug Abuse & Heroin Summit.
  49. ^ "Stimulant Summit". Cocaine, Meth & Stimulant Summit. November 2019.
  50. ^ "FADAPConferencePresentations2019". Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  51. ^ "Special Issue on "Addiction Medicine"". Retrieved 2020-10-07.