Zuckerberg at the 37th G8 summit in 2011
|Born||Mark Elliot Zuckerberg
May 14, 1984 
White Plains, New York, U.S.
|Residence||Palo Alto, California, U.S.|
|Alma mater||Harvard University (dropped out)|
|Occupation||Computer programmer, Internet entrepreneur|
|Known for||Co-founding Facebook|
|Home town||Dobbs Ferry, New York, U.S.|
|Salary||$1.00 a year |
|Net worth||US$42.5 billion (July 2015)|
|Title||Chairman and CEO of Facebook|
|Spouse(s)||Priscilla Chan (m. 2012)|
|Relatives||Randi Zuckerberg (sister)|
Mark Elliot Zuckerberg (born May 14, 1984) is an American computer programmer and Internet entrepreneur. He is best known as one of five co-founders of the social networking website Facebook. Zuckerberg is the chairman and chief executive of Facebook, Inc. His personal wealth, as of July 2015[update], is estimated to be $38.6 billion. Zuckerberg receives a one-dollar salary as CEO of Facebook.
Together with his college roommates and fellow Harvard University students Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes, he launched Facebook from Harvard University's dormitory rooms. The group then introduced Facebook onto other campuses nationwide and moved to Palo Alto, California shortly afterwards. In 2007, at the age of 23, Zuckerberg became a billionaire as a result of Facebook's success. The number of Facebook users worldwide reached a total of one billion in 2012. Zuckerberg was involved in various legal disputes that were initiated by others in the group, who claimed a share of the company based upon their involvement during the development phase of Facebook.
Since 2010, Time magazine has named Zuckerberg among the 100 wealthiest and most influential people in the world as a part of its Person of the Year distinction. In 2011, Zuckerberg ranked first on the list of the "Most Influential Jews in the World" by The Jerusalem Post. Zuckerberg was played by actor Jesse Eisenberg in the 2010 film The Social Network, in which the rise of Facebook is portrayed.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Software developer
- 3 Career
- 4 Depictions in media
- 5 Use of other social networks
- 6 Philanthropy
- 7 Politics
- 8 Personal life
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Zuckerberg was born in 1984 in White Plains, New York. He is the son of dentist Edward Zuckerberg and psychiatrist Karen Kempner. He and his three sisters, Randi, Donna, and Arielle, were brought up in Dobbs Ferry, New York, a small Westchester County village about 10 miles (16 km) north of New York City. Zuckerberg was raised Jewish and had his bar mitzvah when he turned 13. Afterward, he became an atheist.
At Ardsley High School, Zuckerberg excelled in classics. He transferred to Phillips Exeter Academy in New Hampshire in his junior year, where he won prizes in science (math, astronomy and physics) and classical studies. On his college application, Zuckerberg claimed that he could read and write French, Hebrew, Latin, and ancient Greek. He was captain of the fencing team. In college, he was known for reciting lines from epic poems such as The Iliad.
Zuckerberg began using computers and writing software in middle school. His father taught him Atari BASIC Programming in the 1990s, and later hired software developer David Newman to tutor him privately. Newman calls him a "prodigy", adding that it was "tough to stay ahead of him". Zuckerberg took a graduate course in the subject at Mercy College near his home while still in high school. He enjoyed developing computer programs, especially communication tools and games. In one such program, since his father's dental practice was operated from their home, he built a software program he called "ZuckNet" that allowed all the computers between the house and dental office to communicate with each other. It is considered a "primitive" version of AOL's Instant Messenger, which came out the following year.
According to writer Jose Antonio Vargas, "some kids played computer games. Mark created them." Zuckerberg himself recalls this period: "I had a bunch of friends who were artists. They'd come over, draw stuff, and I'd build a game out of it." However, notes Vargas, Zuckerberg was not a typical "geek-klutz", as he later became captain of his prep school fencing team and earned a classics diploma. Napster co-founder Sean Parker, a close friend, notes that Zuckerberg was "really into Greek odysseys and all that stuff", recalling how he once quoted lines from the Roman epic poem Aeneid, by Virgil, during a Facebook product conference.
During Zuckerberg's high school years, under the company name Intelligent Media Group, he built a music player called the Synapse Media Player that used machine learning to learn the user's listening habits, which was posted to Slashdot and received a rating of 3 out of 5 from PC Magazine.
By the time he began classes at Harvard, Zuckerberg had already achieved a "reputation as a programming prodigy", notes Vargas. He studied psychology and computer science as well as belonging to Alpha Epsilon Pi, a Jewish fraternity, and Kirkland House. In his sophomore year, he wrote a program he called CourseMatch, which allowed users to make class selection decisions based on the choices of other students and also to help them form study groups. A short time later, he created a different program he initially called Facemash that let students select the best looking person from a choice of photos. According to Zuckerberg's roommate at the time, Arie Hasit, "he built the site for fun". Hasit explains:
We had books called Face Books, which included the names and pictures of everyone who lived in the student dorms. At first, he built a site and placed two pictures, or pictures of two males and two females. Visitors to the site had to choose who was "hotter" and according to the votes there would be a ranking.
The site went up over a weekend; but by Monday morning, the college shut it down because its popularity had overwhelmed one of Harvard's network switches and prevented students from accessing the Internet. In addition, many students complained that their photos were being used without permission. Zuckerberg apologized publicly, and the student paper ran articles stating that his site was "completely improper."
Six days after the site launched, three Harvard seniors, Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra, accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com, while he was instead using their ideas to build a competing product. The three complained to the Harvard Crimson and the newspaper began an investigation in response.
Following the official launch of the Facebook social media platform, the three filed a lawsuit against Zuckerberg that resulted in a settlement. The agreed settlement was for 1.2 million Facebook shares that were worth US$300 million at Facebook's IPO.
Zuckerberg dropped out of Harvard in his sophomore year to complete his project. In January 2014, Zuckerberg recalled:
I remember really vividly, you know, having pizza with my friends a day or two after—I opened up the first version of Facebook at the time I thought, "You know, someone needs to build a service like this for the world." But I just never thought that we'd be the ones to help do it. And I think a lot of what it comes down to is we just cared more.
Zuckerberg launched Facebook from his Harvard dormitory room on February 4, 2004. An earlier inspiration for Facebook may have come from Phillips Exeter Academy, the prep school from which Zuckerberg graduated in 2002. It published its own student directory, "The Photo Address Book", which students referred to as "The Facebook". Such photo directories were an important part of the student social experience at many private schools. With them, students were able to list attributes such as their class years, their friends, and their telephone numbers.
Once at college, Zuckerberg's Facebook started off as just a "Harvard thing" until Zuckerberg decided to spread it to other schools, enlisting the help of roommate Dustin Moskovitz. They began with Columbia, New York University, Stanford, Dartmouth, Cornell, Penn, Brown, and Yale. Samyr Laine, a triple jumper representing Haiti at the 2012 Summer Olympics, shared a room with Zuckerberg during Facebook's founding. "Mark was clearly on to great things," said Laine, who was Facebook's fourteenth user.
After Zuckerberg moved to Palo Alto, California with Moskovitz and some friends, they leased a small house that served as an office. Over the summer, Zuckerberg met Peter Thiel who invested in the company. They got their first office in mid-2004. According to Zuckerberg, the group planned to return to Harvard but eventually decided to remain in California. They had already turned down offers by major corporations to buy the company. In an interview in 2007, Zuckerberg explained his reasoning: "It's not because of the amount of money. For me and my colleagues, the most important thing is that we create an open information flow for people. Having media corporations owned by conglomerates is just not an attractive idea to me."
He restated these goals to Wired magazine in 2010: "The thing I really care about is the mission, making the world open." Earlier, in April 2009, Zuckerberg sought the advice of former Netscape CFO Peter Currie about financing strategies for Facebook. On July 21, 2010, Zuckerberg reported that the company reached the 500 million-user mark. When asked whether Facebook could earn more income from advertising as a result of its phenomenal growth, he explained:
I guess we could..... If you look at how much of our page is taken up with ads compared to the average search query. The average for us is a little less than 10 percent of the pages and the average for search is about 20 percent taken up with ads..... That's the simplest thing we could do. But we aren't like that. We make enough money. Right, I mean, we are keeping things running; we are growing at the rate we want to.
In 2010, Steven Levy, who wrote the 1984 book Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution, wrote that Zuckerberg "clearly thinks of himself as a hacker". Zuckerberg said that "it's OK to break things" "to make them better". Facebook instituted "hackathons" held every six to eight weeks where participants would have one night to conceive of and complete a project. The company provided music, food, and beer at the hackathons, and many Facebook staff members, including Zuckerberg, regularly attended. "The idea is that you can build something really good in a night", Zuckerberg told Levy. "And that's part of the personality of Facebook now..... It's definitely very core to my personality."
Vanity Fair magazine named Zuckerberg number 1 on its 2010 list of the Top 100 "most influential people of the Information Age". Zuckerberg ranked number 23 on the Vanity Fair 100 list in 2009. In 2010, Zuckerberg was chosen as number 16 in New Statesman's annual survey of the world's 50 most influential figures.
In a 2011 interview with PBS after the death of Steve Jobs, Zuckerberg said that Jobs had advised him on how to create a management team at Facebook that was "focused on building as high quality and good things as you are".
On October 1, 2012, Zuckerberg visited Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev in Moscow to stimulate social media innovation in Russia and to boost Facebook's position in the Russian market. Russia's communications minister tweeted that Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev urged the social media giant's founder to abandon plans to lure away Russian programmers and instead consider opening a research center in Moscow. In 2012, Facebook had roughly 9 million users in Russia, while domestic clone VK had around 34 million. Rebecca Van Dyck, Facebook's head of consumer marketing, claimed that 85 million American Facebook users were exposed to the first day of the Home promotional campaign on April 6, 2013.
At the 2013 TechCrunch Disrupt conference, held in September, Zuckerberg stated that he is working towards registering the 5 billion humans who were not connected to the Internet as of the conference on Facebook. Zuckerberg then explained that this is intertwined with the aim of the Internet.org project, whereby Facebook, with the support of other technology companies, seeks to increase the number of people connected to the internet.
Zuckerberg was the keynote speaker at the 2014 Mobile World Congress (MWC), held in Barcelona, Spain, in March 2014, which was attended by 75,000 delegates. Various media sources highlighted the connection between Facebook's focus on mobile technology and Zuckerberg's speech, claiming that mobile represents the future of the company. Zuckerberg's speech expands upon the goal that he raised at the TechCrunch conference in September 2013, whereby he is working towards expanding Internet coverage into developing countries.
Alongside other American technology figures like Jeff Bezos and Tim Cook, Zuckerberg hosted visiting Chinese politician Lu Wei, known as the "Internet czar" for his influence in the enforcement of China's online policy, at Facebook's headquarters on December 8, 2014. The meeting occurred after Zuckerberg participated in a Q&A session at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, on October 23, 2014, where he attempted to converse in Mandarin Chinese—although Facebook is banned in China, Zuckerberg is highly regarded among the people and was at the university to help fuel the nation's burgeoning entrepreneur sector.
Zuckerberg fielded questions during a live Q&A session at the company's headquarters in Menlo Park on December 11, 2014. The founder and CEO explained that he does not believe Facebook is a waste of time because it facilitates social engagement, and participating in a public session was so that he could "learn how to better serve the community".
A month after Facebook launched in February 2004, i2hub, another campus-only service, created by Wayne Chang, was launched. i2hub focused on peer-to-peer file sharing. At the time, both i2hub and Facebook were gaining the attention of the press and growing rapidly in users and publicity. In August 2004, Zuckerberg, Andrew McCollum, Adam D'Angelo, and Sean Parker launched a competing peer-to-peer file sharing service called Wirehog, a precursor to Facebook Platform applications.
Platform, Beacon and Connect
On May 24, 2007, Zuckerberg announced Facebook Platform, a development platform for programmers to create social applications within Facebook. Within weeks, many applications had been built and some already had millions of users. It grew to more than 800,000 developers around the world building applications for Facebook Platform.
On November 6, 2007, Zuckerberg announced Beacon, a social advertising system that enabled people to share information with their Facebook friends based on their browsing activities on other sites. For example, eBay sellers could let friends know automatically what they have for sale via the Facebook news feed as they listed items for sale. The program came under scrutiny because of privacy concerns from groups and individual users. Zuckerberg and Facebook failed to respond to the concerns quickly, and on December 5, 2007, Zuckerberg wrote a blog post on Facebook, taking responsibility for the concerns about Beacon and offering an easier way for users to opt out of the service.
In 2007, Zuckerberg was named by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Technology Review's TR35 as one of the top 35 innovators in the world under the age of 35. On July 23, 2008, Zuckerberg announced Facebook Connect, a version of Facebook Platform for users.
In a public Facebook post, Zuckerberg launched the Internet.org project in late August 2013. Zuckerberg explained that the primary aim of the initiative is to provide Internet access to the 5 billion people who are not connected as of the launch date. Using a three-tier strategy, Internet.org will also create new jobs and open up new markets, according to Zuckerberg. He stated in his post:
The world economy is going through a massive transition right now. The knowledge economy is the future. By bringing everyone online, we'll not only improve billions of lives, but we'll also improve our own as we benefit from the ideas and productivity they contribute to the world. Giving everyone the opportunity to connect is the foundation for enabling the knowledge economy. It is not the only thing we need to do, but it's a fundamental and necessary step.
Harvard students Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra accused Zuckerberg of intentionally making them believe he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com (later called ConnectU). They filed a lawsuit in 2004, but it was dismissed on a technicality on March 28, 2007. It was refiled soon thereafter in federal court in Boston. Facebook countersued in regards to Social Butterfly, a project put out by The Winklevoss Chang Group, an alleged partnership between ConnectU and i2hub. On June 25, 2008, the case settled and Facebook agreed to transfer over 1.2 million common shares and pay $20 million in cash.
In November 2007, confidential court documents were posted on the website of 02138, a magazine that catered to Harvard alumni. They included Zuckerberg's social security number, his parents' home address, and his girlfriend's address. Facebook filed to have the documents removed, but the judge ruled in favor of 02138.
A lawsuit filed by Eduardo Saverin against Facebook and Zuckerberg was settled out of court. Though terms of the settlement were sealed, the company affirmed Saverin's title as co-founder of Facebook. Saverin signed a non-disclosure contract after the settlement.
Pakistan criminal investigation
In June 2010, Pakistani Deputy Attorney General Muhammad Azhar Sidiqque launched a criminal investigation into Zuckerberg and Facebook co-founders Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes after a "Draw Muhammad" contest was hosted on Facebook. The investigation named the anonymous German woman who created the contest. Sidiqque asked the country's police to contact Interpol to have Zuckerberg and the three others arrested for blasphemy. On May 19, 2010, Facebook's website was temporarily blocked in Pakistan until Facebook removed the contest from its website at the end of May. Sidiqque also asked its UN representative to raise the issue with the United Nations General Assembly.
In June 2010, Paul Ceglia, the owner of a wood pellet fuel company in Allegany County, upstate New York, filed suit against Zuckerberg, claiming 84% ownership of Facebook and seeking monetary damages. According to Ceglia, he and Zuckerberg signed a contract on April 28, 2003, that an initial fee of $1,000 entitled Ceglia to 50% of the website's revenue, as well as an additional 1% interest in the business per day after January 1, 2004, until website completion. Zuckerberg was developing other projects at the time, among which was Facemash, the predecessor of Facebook, but did not register the domain name thefacebook.com until January 1, 2004. Facebook management dismissed the lawsuit as "completely frivolous". Facebook spokesman Barry Schnitt told a reporter that Ceglia's counsel had unsuccessfully sought an out-of-court settlement.
On October 26, 2012, federal authorities arrested Ceglia, charging him with mail and wire fraud and of "tampering with, destroying and fabricating evidence in a scheme to defraud the Facebook founder of billions of dollars." Ceglia is accused of fabricating emails to make it appear that he and Zuckerberg discussed details about an early version of Facebook, although after examining their emails, investigators found there was no mention of Facebook in them. Some law firms withdrew from the case before it was initiated and others after Ceglia's arrest.
Depictions in media
The Social Network
A movie based on Zuckerberg and the founding years of Facebook, The Social Network was released on October 1, 2010, and stars Jesse Eisenberg as Zuckerberg. After Zuckerberg was told about the film, he responded, "I just wished that nobody made a movie of me while I was still alive." Also, after the film's script was leaked on the Internet and it was apparent that the film would not portray Zuckerberg in a wholly positive light, he stated that he wanted to establish himself as a "good guy". The film is based on the book The Accidental Billionaires by Ben Mezrich, which the book's publicist once described as "big juicy fun" rather than "reportage". The film's screenwriter Aaron Sorkin told New York magazine, "I don't want my fidelity to be the truth; I want it to be storytelling", adding, "What is the big deal about accuracy purely for accuracy's sake, and can we not have the true be the enemy of the good?"
Upon winning the Golden Globes award for Best Picture on January 16, 2011, producer Scott Rudin thanked Facebook and Zuckerberg "for his willingness to allow us to use his life and work as a metaphor through which to tell a story about communication and the way we relate to each other.” Sorkin, who won for Best Screenplay, retracted some of the impressions given in his script:
- "I wanted to say to Mark Zuckerberg tonight, if you're watching, Rooney Mara's character makes a prediction at the beginning of the movie. She was wrong. You turned out to be a great entrepreneur, a visionary, and an incredible altruist."
On January 29, 2011, Zuckerberg made a surprise guest appearance on Saturday Night Live, which was being hosted by Jesse Eisenberg. They both said it was the first time they ever met. Eisenberg asked Zuckerberg, who had been critical of his portrayal by the film, what he thought of the movie. Zuckerberg replied, "It was interesting." In a subsequent interview about their meeting, Eisenberg explains that he was "nervous to meet him, because I had spent now, a year and a half thinking about him ..." He adds, "Mark has been so gracious about something that’s really so uncomfortable ... The fact that he would do SNL and make fun of the situation is so sweet and so generous. It’s the best possible way to handle something that, I think, could otherwise be very uncomfortable."
Jeff Jarvis, author of the book Public Parts, interviewed Zuckerberg and believes Sorkin made up too much of the story. He states, "That's what the internet is accused of doing, making stuff up, not caring about the facts."
According to David Kirkpatrick, former technology editor at Fortune magazine and author of The Facebook Effect:The Inside Story of the Company That Is Connecting the World, (2011), "the film is only "40% true ... he is not snide and sarcastic in a cruel way, the way Zuckerberg is played in the movie." He says that "a lot of the factual incidents are accurate, but many are distorted and the overall impression is false", and concludes that primarily "his motivations were to try and come up with a new way to share information on the internet".
Although the film portrays Zuckerberg's creation of Facebook in order to elevate his stature after not getting into any of the elite final clubs at Harvard, Zuckerberg himself said he had no interest in joining the clubs. Kirkpatrick agrees that the impression implied by the film is "false". Karel Baloun, a former senior engineer at Facebook, notes that the "image of Zuckerberg as a socially inept nerd is overstated..... It is fiction....." He likewise dismisses the film's assertion that he "would deliberately betray a friend".
Zuckerberg voiced himself on an episode of The Simpsons titled "Loan-a Lisa", which first aired on October 3, 2010. In the episode, Lisa Simpson and her friend Nelson encounter Zuckerberg at an entrepreneurs' convention. Zuckerberg tells Lisa that she does not need to graduate from college to be wildly successful, referencing Bill Gates and Richard Branson as examples.
Zuckerberg created an account with Google+ soon after the social network was unveiled, saying he sees it as a "validation for his vision" of online social networking. By July 2011, Zuckerberg had become the most followed user on Google+, outranking Google co-founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin. As of March 6, 2012, his ranking has dropped to 184 on the service, behind Page and Brin. His public profile is minimal with one photo and a bio that reads "I make things".
Zuckerberg has maintained a private account on Twitter under the username "zuck", although as of November 2014, the account's status is suspended. In 2009, he revealed that the public account "finkd" also belonged to him.
Zuckerberg founded the Start-up: Education foundation. On September 22, 2010, it was reported that Zuckerberg had donated $100million to Newark Public Schools, the public school system of Newark, New Jersey. Critics noted the timing of the donation as being close to the release of The Social Network, which painted a somewhat negative portrait of Zuckerberg. Zuckerberg responded to the criticism, saying, "The thing that I was most sensitive about with the movie timing was, I didn't want the press about The Social Network movie to get conflated with the Newark project. I was thinking about doing this anonymously just so that the two things could be kept separate." Newark Mayor Cory A. Booker stated that he and New Jersey Governor Chris Christie had to convince Zuckerberg's team not to make the donation anonymously.
On December 9, 2010, Zuckerberg, Bill Gates, and investor Warren Buffett signed a promise they called "The Giving Pledge ", in which they promised to donate to charity at least half of their wealth over the course of time, and invited others among the wealthy to donate 50% or more of their wealth to charity.
On December 19, 2013, Zuckerberg announced a donation of 18 million Facebook shares to the Silicon Valley Community Foundation, to be executed by the end of the month—based on Facebook's valuation as of then, the shares totaled $990 million in value. On December 31, 2013, the donation was recognized as the largest charitable gift on public record for 2013. The Chronicle of Philanthropy reported on February 10, 2014 that Zuckerberg's donation was the largest charitable gift on the public record in 2013 and put Zuckerberg and his wife at the top of the magazine's annual list of 50 most generous Americans in 2013, having donated roughly 1 billion dollars to charity.
In 2002, Zuckerberg registered to vote in Westchester County, New York, where he grew up, but did not cast a ballot until November 2008. Santa Clara County Registrar of Voters Spokeswoman, Elma Rosas, told Bloomberg that Zuckerberg is listed as “no preference” on voter rolls, and he voted in the past two general elections, in 2008 and 2012. On Zuckerberg's Facebook page, he has Chris Christie, Cory Booker, Nicolas Sarkozy, and Barack Obama in his likes section.
Mark Zuckerberg has never specified his own political views: some consider him a conservative, while others consider him liberal. In 2013, numerous liberal and progressive groups, such as The League of Conservation Voters, MoveOn.org, the Sierra Club, Democracy for America, CREDO, Daily Kos, 350.org, and Presente and Progressives United agreed to either pull their Facebook ad buys or not buy Facebook ads for at least two weeks, in protest of Zuckerberg ads funded by FWD.us that were in support of oil drilling and the Keystone XL pipeline, and in opposition to Obamacare among Republican US senators who back immigration reform.[clarification needed]
On February 13, 2013, Zuckerberg hosted his first ever fundraising event for New Jersey Governor Chris Christie. Zuckerberg's particular interest on this occasion was education reform, and Christie's education reform work focused on teachers unions and the expansion of charter schools. Later that year, Zuckerberg would host a campaign fundraiser for Newark mayor Cory Booker, who was running in the 2013 New Jersey special Senate election. In September 2010, with the support of Governor Chris Christie, Booker obtained a $100 million pledge from Zuckerberg to Newark Public Schools. In December 2012, Zuckerberg donated 18 million shares to the Silicon Valley Community Foundation, a community organization that includes education in its list of grant-making areas.
On April 11, 2013, Zuckerberg led the launch of a 501(c)(4) lobbying group called FWD.us. The founders and contributors to the group were primarily Silicon Valley entrepreneurs and investors, and its president was Joe Green, a close friend of Zuckerberg. The goals of the group include immigration reform, improving the state of education in the US, and enabling more technological breakthroughs that benefit the public, yet it has also been criticized for financing ads advocating a variety of oil and gas development initiatives, including drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and the Keystone XL pipeline.
A media report on June 20, 2013 revealed that Zuckerberg actively engaged with Facebook users on his own profile page after the online publication of a FWD.us video. In response to a claim that the FWD.us organization is "just about tech wanting to hire more people", the Internet entrepreneur replied: "The bigger problem we’re trying to address is ensuring the 11 million undocumented folks living in this country now and similar folks in the future are treated fairly."
In June 2013, Zuckerberg joined Facebook employees in a company float as part of the annual San Francisco Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Celebration. The company first participated in the event in 2011, with 70 employees, and this number increased to 700 for the 2013 march. The 2013 pride celebration was especially significant, as it followed a U.S. Supreme Court ruling that deemed the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) unconstitutional.
When questioned about the mid-2013 PRISM scandal at the TechCrunch Disrupt conference in September 2013, Zuckerberg stated that the U.S. government "blew it." He further explained that the government performed poorly in regard to the protection of the freedoms of its citizens, the economy, and companies.
At a party put on by his fraternity during his sophomore year, Zuckerberg met Priscilla Chan, a fellow student whom he began dating in 2003. Chan is the daughter of Chinese-Vietnamese refugees, who arrived in the U.S. after the Fall of Saigon. She was born in Braintree, Massachusetts, a suburb of Boston, and is a 2003 graduate of Quincy High School.
In September 2010, Zuckerberg invited Chan, by then a medical student at the University of California, San Francisco, to move into his rented Palo Alto house. Zuckerberg studied Mandarin in preparation for the couple's visit to the People's Republic of China in December 2010. On May 19, 2012, Zuckerberg and Chan married in Zuckerberg's backyard in an event that also celebrated her graduation from medical school. On July 31, 2015, Zuckerberg announced that he and Chan were expecting a baby girl. He stated that he felt confident that the risk of miscarrying was low so far into the pregnancy, after having already suffered three miscarriages.
- Pilkington, Ed (March 10, 2011). "Forbes rich list: Facebook six stake their claims". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved March 30, 2011.
- "Facebook, Inc. Proxy Statement". United States Security and Exchange Commission. April 26, 2013. p. 31. Retrieved March 30, 2014.
On January 1, 2013, Mr. Zuckerberg’s annual base salary was reduced to $1 and he will no longer receive annual bonus compensation under our Bonus Plan.
- "Mark Zuckerberg". Forbes.
- Napach, Bernice (July 26, 2013). "Facebook Surges and Mark Zuckerberg Pockets $3.8 Billion". Yahoo! Finance.
- Hiltzik, Michael (May 20, 2012). "Facebook shareholders are wedded to the whims of Mark Zuckerberg". Los Angeles Times.
- Carlson, Nicholas (March 5, 2010). "At Last – The Full Story Of How Facebook Was Founded". Business Insider.
- Grossman, Lev (December 15, 2010). "Person of the Year 2010: Mark Zuckerberg". Time.
- "Mark Zuckerberg". Forbes. March 2012. Retrieved May 19, 2012.
- "The All-Time TIME 100 of All Time". Time. April 18, 2012. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
- "50 Most Influential Jews 2011". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
- Anna David (September 26, 2010). "'The Social Network's' Reluctant Star". The Daily Beast. The Newsweek/Daily Beast Company LLC. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Malone, Jasmine (Dec 15, 2010). "Mark Zuckerberg wins Time person of the year: profile". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- "The Zuckerbergs of Dobbs Ferry", New York (May 14, 2012), retrieved May 21, 2012
- Vargas, Jose Antonio (September 20, 2010). "The Face of Facebook". The New Yorker. Retrieved September 22, 2010.
- Burrell, Ian (July 24, 2010). "Mark Zuckerberg: He's got the whole world on his site". The Independent (UK). Retrieved November 6, 2010.
- Vara, Vauhini (November 28, 2007). "Too Much Information?". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
- Kirkpatrick, David (2010). The Facebook Effect: The Inside Story of the Company That Is Connecting the World. New York City: Simon & Schuster. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-1-4391-0211-4. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
- Alef, Daniel. Mark Zuckerberg: The Face Behind Facebook and Social Networking, Titans of Fortune Publishing (2010)
- McDevitt, Caitlin (March 5, 2010). "What We Learned About Mark Zuckerberg This Week". The Big Money. Retrieved March 5, 2010.
- Grynbaum, Michael M. (June 10, 2004). "Mark E. Zuckerberg '06: The whiz behind thefacebook.com". The Harvard Crimson.
- Heffernan, Virginia (December 10, 2010). "Looking for the Real Mark Zuckerberg". The New York Times.
- Hemos/Dan Moore (April 21, 2003). "Machine Learning and MP3s". Slashdot. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- Troy Dreier (February 8, 2005). "Synapse Media Player Review". PCMag.com. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- Larson, Chase (March 25, 2011), Mark Zuckerberg speaks at BYU, calls Facebook "as much psychology and sociology as it is technology", Deseret News, retrieved May 21, 2012
- "Facebook founder's roommate recounts creation of Internet giant". Haaretz. Oct 5, 2009.
- Hoffman, Claire (June 28, 2008). "The Battle for Facebook". Rolling Stone (New York). Archived from the original on July 3, 2008. Retrieved February 5, 2009.
- Seward, Zachary M. (July 25, 2007). "Judge Expresses Skepticism About Facebook Lawsuit". The Wall Street Journal (New York). Retrieved April 30, 2008.
- Carlson, Nicolas (March 5, 2010). "In 2004, Mark Zuckerberg Broke Into A Facebook User's Private Email Account". Business Insider. Retrieved March 5, 2010.
- Stone, Brad (June 28, 2008). "Judge Ends Facebook's Feud With ConnectU". New York Times blog.
- Rushe, Dominic (February 2, 2012). "Facebook IPO sees Winklevoss twins heading for $300m fortune". The Guardian (London).
- "Mark Zuckerberg, Harvard dropout, returns to open arms". CS Monitor. November 9, 2011.
- Jason Fell (14 May 2014). "As Mark Zuckerberg Turns 30, His 10 Best Quotes as CEO". Entrepreneur. Entrepreneur Media, Inc. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
- Steffan Antonas (May 10, 2009). "Did Mark Zuckerberg's Inspiration for Facebook Come Before Harvard?". ReadWrite Social. SAY Media, Inc. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- "Face-to-Face with Mark Zuckerberg '02". Phillips Exeter Academy. Phillips Exeter Academy. January 24, 2007. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- Chris Holt (March 10, 2004). "Thefacebook.com's darker side". The Stanford Daily.
- Lananh Nguyen (April 12, 2004). "Online network created by Harvard students flourishes". The Tufts Daily. College Media Network. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- Emily Rotberg (April 14, 2004). "Thefacebook.com opens to Duke students". The Chronicle. Duke Student Publishing Company. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- "Students flock to join college online facebook". The Daily Pennsylvanian. Archived from the original on August 25, 2011.
- Alice Speri (August 7, 2012). "Zuckerberg's Roomie Aims to Win for Haiti". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- Sam Teller (November 1, 2005). "Zuckerberg To Leave Harvard Indefinitely". The Harvard Crimson. The Harvard Crimson, Inc. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- Kevin J. Feeney (February 24, 2005). "Business, Casual.". The Harvard Crimson. The Harvard Crimson, Inc. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- Singel, Ryan (May 28, 2010). "Epicenter: Mark Zuckerberg: I Donated to Open Source, Facebook Competitor". Wired News (Condé Nast Publishing). Retrieved May 29, 2010.
- Robert MacMillan (April 1, 2009). "Yu, Zuckerberg and the Facebook fallout". Reuters. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
In a back-to-the-future move, former Netscape CFO Peter Currie will be the key adviser to Facebook about financial matters, until a new search for a CFO is found, sources said.
- Zuckerberg, Mark (July 22, 2010), 500 Million Stories, The Facebook Blog, retrieved May 21, 2012
- Levy, Steven (April 19, 2010). "Geek Power: Steven Levy Revisits Tech Titans, Hackers, Idealists". Wired. Retrieved September 23, 2010.
- McGirt, Ellen (February 17, 2010). "The World's Most Innovative Companies 2010". Fast Company. Retrieved September 24, 2010.
- "The Vanity Fair 100". Vanity Fair. October 2010. Retrieved September 23, 2010.
- "The Vanity Fair 100". Vanity Fair. September 1, 2010. Retrieved September 23, 2010.
- "Mark Zuckerberg – 50 People who matter 2010". New Statesman. UK. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- "Facebook's Zuckerberg says Steve Jobs advised on company focus, management". Bloomberg. November 7, 2011. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- "Zuckerberg in Moscow to boost Facebook's presence". France24.com. October 1, 2012.
- "Russia pushes Facebook to open research center". FoxNews. October 1, 2012.
- Cotton Delo (April 16, 2013). "Facebook Practices What It Preaches for 'Home' Ad Blitz". Ad Age digital. Crain Communications. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- Caitlin Dewey (August 19, 2013). "Mark Zuckerberg's Facebook page was hacked by an unemployed web developer". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
- Victoria Edwards (September 21, 2013). "6 Things We Learned From Marissa Mayer and Mark Zuckerberg at TechCrunch Disrupt 2013". TechCrunch. AOL Inc. Retrieved September 23, 2013.
- Alastair Stevenson (August 22, 2013). "Mark Zuckerberg Creates Tech Justice League to Bring Internet to the Masses". Search Engine Watch. Incisive Media Incisive Interactive Marketing LLC. Retrieved September 23, 2013.
- Samuel Gibbs (February 23, 2014). "Mark Zuckerberg goes to Barcelona to make mobile friends". The Guardian. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- Sven Grundberg (January 16, 2014). "Facebook's Zuckerberg to Speak at Mobile World Congress". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- David Meyer (January 16, 2014). "Facebook's Zuckerberg to headline Mobile World Congress this year". Gigaom. Gigaom, Inc. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- Mark Gregory (February 22, 2014). "Mobile World Congress: What to expect from Barcelona". BBC News. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- Alex Hern, Jonathan Kaiman (October 23, 2014). "Mark Zuckerberg addresses Chinese university in Mandarin". The Guardian. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
- Maria Tadeo (December 12, 2014). "Mark Zuckerberg Q&A: What we learnt about the Facebook founder". The Independent. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
- Sam Colt (December 12, 2014). "Facebook May Be Adding a 'Dislike' Button". Inc. Monsueto Ventures. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
- Martey Dodoo (August 16, 2004). "Wirehog?". Martey Dodoo.
- Alan J. Tabak (August 13, 2004). "Zuckerberg Programs New Website". Harvard Crimson.
- "The Facebook Blog | Facebook". Blog.facebook.com. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
- "2007 Young Innovators Under 35: Mark Zuckerberg, 23". Technology Review. 2007. Retrieved August 14, 2011.
- Nicholas Carlson. "In 2004, Mark Zuckerberg Broke Into A Facebook User's Private Email Account". Silicon Alley Insider. Retrieved March 5, 2010.
- Logged in as click here to log out (February 12, 2009). "Facebook paid up to $65m to founder Mark Zuckerberg's ex-classmates". Guardian (UK). Retrieved August 21, 2009.
- McCarthy, Caroline (November 30, 2007). "article about 02138". News.com. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
- Hempel, Jessi (July 25, 2009). "The book that Facebook doesn't want you to read". CNN Money. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
- West, Jackson. "Facebook CEO Named in Pakistan Criminal Investigation". NBC Bay Area. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
- "Zuckerberg faces criminal investigation in Pakistan".
- Anderson, John (July 29, 2010). "Facebook does not have a like button for Ceglia". WellsvilleDaily.com. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- "Venture beat coverage of Ceglia lawsuit".
- "Feds Collar Would-Be Facebook Fraudster". E-Commerce News. October 29, 2012.
- "A Dubious Case Found Lawyers Eager to Make Some Money". New York Times. October 29, 2012.
- "Paul Ceglia's lawyer drops out of Facebook suit after arrest". San Jose Mercury News. October 30, 2012.
- Fried, Ina (June 2, 2010). "Zuckerberg in the hot seat at D8". CNET. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
- Harlow, John (May 16, 2010). "Movie depicts seamy life of Facebook boss". The Times Online (London). Retrieved July 18, 2010.
- Cieply, Michael and Helft, Miguel (August 20, 2010). "Facebook Feels Unfriendly Toward Film It Inspired". The New York Times. Retrieved September 22, 2010.
- Harris, Mark (September 17, 2010). "Inventing Facebook". New York. Retrieved September 22, 2010.
- "The Social Network Filmmakers Thank Zuckerberg During Golden Globes". Techland (Time). January 17, 2011.
- "Last Night, Aaron Sorkin Demonstrated How to Apologize Without Accepting Responsibility". NYMag. January 17, 2011.
- "Mark Zuckerberg Meets Jesse Eisenberg on Saturday Night Live". People. January 30, 2011. Retrieved January 30, 2011.
- "Jesse Eisenberg meets the real Mark Zuckerberg on SNL". Digital Trends. January 31, 2011.
- "Jesse Eisenberg Calls Mark Zuckerberg "Sweet" and "Generous" in His Funny Oscar Nominees Lunch Interview" Popsugar, February 7, 2011
- "Mark Zuckerberg Meets Jesse Eisenberg On The 'Saturday Night Live' Stage" NPR, January 30, 2011
- Rohrer, Finlo. "Is the Facebook movie the truth about Mark Zuckerberg" BBC, September 30, 2010
- "The Facebook Effect: The Inside Story of the Company That Is Connecting the World", release date February 1, 2011
- "Facebook Creator Mark Zuckerberg to Get Yellow on The Simpsons". New York. July 21, 2010. Retrieved September 22, 2010.
- Brandon Griggs (October 11, 2010). "Facebook, Zuckerberg spoofed on 'SNL'". CNN. Retrieved October 11, 2010.
- "Mark Zuckerberg ‘Liked’ SNL’s Facebook Skit". New York. October 12, 2010. Retrieved January 28, 2011.
- Lerer, Lisa and McMillan, Traci (October 30, 2010). "Comedy Central's Stewart Says Press, Politicians Are Creating Extremism". Bloomberg. Retrieved November 4, 2010.
- Ribeiro, Goncalo. "Facebook's CEO Mark Zuckerberg On Google+: Been There, Done That." Redmond Pie. July 7, 2011. Accessed March 7, 2012.
- Tsotsis, Alexia. "Mark Zuckerberg Is The Most Followed User On Google+." Tech Crunch. July 4, 2011. Accessed March 7, 2012.
- Google. Google+ Social Statistics. Accessed March 7, 2012.
- Zuckerberg, Mark. Google+ Profile. Accessed March 7, 2012.
- "Account suspended". https://twitter.com/. Retrieved November 9, 2014.
- Thomas, Owen. "Mark Zuckerberg Outs Himself on Twitter." Gawker.com. March 7, 2009. Accessed March 7, 2012.
- "Mayor Says Newark Is 40% There in Matching Facebook Founder's Grant". The Chronicle of Philanthropy. September 27, 2010.
- Ng, Philiana (September 24, 2010). "Mark Zuckerberg: 'The Social Network' is 'fun'". Hollywood Reporter.
- Tracy, Ryan (November 23, 2010). "Can Mark Zuckerberg's Money Save Newark's Schools?". Newsweek.
- Reidel, David (September 22, 2010). "Facebook CEO to Gift $100M to Newark Schools". CBS News.com. Retrieved September 23, 2010.
- "Mark Zuckerberg's Well-Timed $100 million Donation to Newark Public Schools". New York Magazine. September 22, 2010. Retrieved September 28, 2010.
- Isaac, Mike (September 24, 2010). "Zuckerberg Pressured To Announce $100 million Donation To Newark". Forbes. Retrieved Sep 28, 2010.
- Gonzales, Sandra (December 8, 2010). "Zuckerberg to donate wealth". Silicon Valley Mercury News.
- "US billionaires pledge 50% of their wealth to charity". BBC. August 4, 2010. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- Moss, Rosabeth (December 14, 2010). "Four Strategic Generosity Lessons". Business Week. Retrieved March 9, 2011.
- Bailey, Brandon (December 19, 2013). "Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg makes $1 billion donation". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
- Sparkes, Matthew (December 19, 2013). "Mark Zuckerberg donates $1bn to charity". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved December 20, 2013.
- Kurt Wagner (January 3, 2014). "Zuckerberg's Other Billion-Dollar Idea: 2013's Biggest Charitable Gift". Mashable. Mashable. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
- "Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg biggest giver in 2013". USA Today. February 10, 2014.
- Phillip, Abby (October 14, 2014). "Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg and wife Priscilla Chan donate $25 million to Ebola fight". Washington Post. Retrieved October 25, 2014.
- Kroll, Luisa (October 14, 2014). "Mark Zuckerberg Is Giving $25 Million To Fight Ebola". Forbes. Retrieved October 25, 2014.
- Katharine Mieszkowski (April 19, 2011). "President Obama's Facebook appearance aimed at young voters; Bay Area visit targets big donors". The Bay Citizen. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
- David Cohen (February 14, 2013). "Protestors Target Mark Zuckerberg’s Fundraiser For N.J. Gov. Chris Christie". AllFacebook. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
- "Likes". Facebook. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
- Ben Branstetter (October 21, 2013). "Conservatives including Mark Zuckerberg, Grover Norquist urge House to pass immigration reform". UPI. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
- "Why Mark Zuckerberg is a conservative (and why that matters)". The Daily Dot. October 30, 2013. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
- "2013: Year of the Liberal Billionaires". politico. November 1, 2013.
- Weiner, Rachel. "Liberal groups boycotting Facebook over immigration push". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 7, 2013.
- Julia Boorstin (February 13, 2013). "Mark Zuckerberg 'Likes' Governor Chris Christie". CNBC. Retrieved June 20, 2013.
- Kate Zernike (January 24, 2013). "Facebook Chief to Hold Fund-Raiser for Christie". The New York Times. Retrieved June 20, 2013.
- Young, Elise (June 8, 2013). "Zuckerberg Plans Fundraiser for Cory Booker’s Senate Run". Bloomberg. Retrieved October 18, 2013.
- Christine Richard, "Ackman Cash for Booker Brings $240 Million Aid From Wall Street", Bloomberg, October 28, 2010
- "Education". Silicon valley Community Foundation.
- Cassidy, Mike (February 15, 2013). "Cassidy: Silicon Valley needs to harness its innovative spirit to level the playing field for blacks and Hispanics". Mercury News. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- Constine, Josh (April 11, 2013). "Zuckerberg And A Team Of Tech All-Stars Launch Political Advocacy Group FWD.us". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Ferenstein, Gregory (April 11, 2013). "Zuckerberg Launches A Tech Lobby, But What Will It Do Differently?". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Malik, Om (April 11, 2013). "Why I have issues with Mark Zuckerberg’s FWD.us". GigaOm. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Brian, Matt (April 11, 2013). "Mark Zuckerberg launches FWD.us with notable Silicon Valley execs in fight for immigration reform". The Verge. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Zuckerberg, Mark (April 11, 2013). "Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg: Immigration and the knowledge economy". Washington Post. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "About Us". FWD.us. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Handley, Meg (April 30, 2013). "Facebook's Zuckerberg Takes Heat Over Keystone, Drilling Ads". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved May 3, 2013.
- Josh Constine (June 20, 2013). "Zuckerberg Replies To His Facebook Commenters’ Questions On Immigration". TechCrunch. Aol Tech. Retrieved June 20, 2013.
- Billy Gallagher (June 30, 2013). "Mark Zuckerberg ‘Likes’ SF LGBT Pride As Tech Companies Publicly Celebrate Equal Rights". TechCrunch. AOL Inc. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- Evelyn M. Rusli (June 30, 2013). "Mark Zuckerberg Leads 700 Facebook Employees in SF Gay Pride". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- O'Connor, Clare (May 20, 2012), Mark Zuckerberg's Wife Priscilla Chan: A New Brand of Billionaire Bride, Forbes, retrieved May 21, 2012
- Status Update: Mark Zuckerberg is married to Priscilla Chan, Techstroke, May 20, 2012, retrieved May 21, 2012
- Lentini, Rosemarie (May 30, 2014). "'He has graduated to a nicer hoodie': Mark Zuckerberg's wife reveals how money changed his style and why they donated $120m towards education". Daily Mail. Retrieved January 5, 2015.
- Freeman, Kate. "Who is Zuckerberg's Bride, Priscilla Chan?". Mashable. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- Shanahan, Mark, "Mark Zuckerberg's lady friend is local", The Boston Globe, July 30, 2010
- "White Coats on a Rainbow of Students", Spotlight, UCSF School of Medicine. Cf. Priscilla Chan, 23.
- Spiegel, Rob (December 20, 2010). "Zuckerberg Goes Searching in China".
- "Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg learn chinese every morning". ChineseTime.cn. September 29, 2010.
- Stein, Joel. "Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg marries sweetheart". Retrieved May 19, 2012.
- "Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg marries Priscilla Chan". cbsnews.com. Retrieved May 20, 2012.
- Wohlsen, Marcus (May 19, 2012). "Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg marries longtime girlfriend, Priscilla Chan: Palo Alto, Calif., ceremony caps busy week after company goes public". msnbc.com. Associated Press. Retrieved May 20, 2012.
- "Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg to become a father". BBC News. BBC. July 31, 2015. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mark Zuckerberg.|
- Profile at Forbes
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Mark Zuckerberg at the Internet Movie Database
- Mark Zuckerberg collected news and commentary at The New York Times
- Mark Zuckerberg collected news and commentary at The Wall Street Journal
- Mark Zuckerberg collected news and commentary at Bloomberg News
- Video of interview, Leslie Stahl, Sixty Minutes December 5, 2010
- Video of Interview, Rick Stengel, Time Magazine December 2010