Market orientation perspectives include the decision-making perspective (Shapiro, 1988), market intelligence perspective (Kohli and Jaworski, 1990), culturally based behavioural perspective (Narver and Slater, 1990), strategic perspective (Ruekert, 1992) and customer orientation perspective (Deshpande et al., 1993).
The two most prominent conceptualizations of market orientation are those given by Ajay Kohli and Bernie Jaworski (1990) and Narver and Slater (1990). While Kohli and Jaworski (1990) consider market orientation as the implementation of the marketing concept, Narver and Slater (1990) consider it to be an organizational culture.
Kohli and Jaworski (1990) defined market orientation as "the organization-wide generation of market intelligence, dissemination of the intelligence across departments and organization-wide responsiveness to it".
According to them, the marketing concept is a business philosophy, whereas the term market orientation refers to the actual implementation of the marketing concept. They added that "a market orientation appears to provide a unifying focus for the efforts and projects of individuals and departments within the organization."
On the other hand, Narver and Slater (1990) defined market orientation as " the organization culture that most effectively and efficiently creates the necessary behaviours for the creation of superior value for buyers and, thus, continuous superior performance for the business".
As such, they consider market orientation to be an organisational culture consisting of three behavioral components, namely, i) customer orientation, ii) competitor orientation and iii) interfunctional coordination. Empirical study found that among all three behavioral components, interfunctional coordination, especially those between R&D and marketing has the most significant influence on new product success.
The mktor scale is a 15-item, 7-point Likert-type scale, with all points specified. In this measure, market orientation is conceptualised as a one-dimensional construct, with three components, namely: customer orientation, competitor orientation, and interfunctional coordination. The simple average of the scores of the three components is the market orientation score.
On the other hand, the markor scale is a 20-item, 5-point Likert scale, with only the ends of the scale specified. Here market orientation is again composed of three components, namely: intelligence generation, intelligence dissemination, and responsiveness.
Evaluation Scales (Deshpande 1998)
- Our business objectives are driven primarily by customer satisfaction.
- We constantly monitor our level of commitment and orientation to serving customer needs.
- We freely communicate information about our successful and unsuccessful customer experiences across all business functions.
- Our strategy for competitive advantage is based on our understanding of customers’ needs.
- We measure customer satisfaction systematically and frequently.
- We have routine or regular measures of customer service.
- We are more customer focused than our competitors.
- I believe this business exists primarily to serve customers.
- We poll end user's at least once a year to assess the quality of our products and services.
- Data on customer satisfaction are disseminated at all levels in this business unit on a regular basis.
- Marketing management
- Marketing strategy
- Production orientation
- Societal marketing
- Sustainable market orientation
- Ruekert, Robert W. (1992). Developing a Market Orientation: An Organizational Strategy Perspective. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 9(3),225-45.
- Deshpande R., Farley J. U., Webster F. E. Jr. (1993). Corporate culture, customer orientation, and innovativeness. Journal of Marketing, 57(1),23-37.
- Kohli, A.K. & Jaworski, B.J. (1990). Market Orientation: The Construct, Research Propositions, and Managerial Implications. The Journal of Marketing, 54(2),1-18.
- Narver, J.C. & Slater, S.F. (1990). The effect of a market orientation on business profitability. Journal of Marketing, 54(4), 20-34.
- Wong, S.K.S. and Tong, C. (2012), "The influence of market orientation on new product success", European Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 15 No. 1, pp.99 - 121
- Kohli, A.K.; Jaworski B.J. & Kumar A.(1993). MARKOR: A measure of market Orientation. Journal of Marketing Research, 30(4), 467-477.
- Desphande 1998 in: Benjamin Teeuwsen (2013). "www.chiligum.com". Chiligum Strategies. Retrieved 2013-06-26.