Markham languages

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Madang and Morobe Provinces, Papua New Guinea
Linguistic classification Austronesian
Glottolog mark1257[1]

The family of Markham languages is a family of the Huon Gulf languages. It consists of a dozen languages spoken in the Ramu Valley, Markham Valley and associated valley systems in the lowlands of the Madang and Morobe Provinces of Papua New Guinea.[2][3]


Labu (= Hapa)

Lower Markham
Aribwaung (= Aribwaungg, Yalu), Aribwatsa (= Lae, Lahe), Musom, Nafi (= Sirak), Duwet (= Guwot, Waing), Wampar, Silisili (Middle Watut), Maralango (South Watut), Dangal (South Watut)
Upper Markham
Adzera (dialect cluster: Sarasira, Sukurum), Mari, Wampur

Shared features[edit]

The most definitive work on the Markham languages is The Markham Languages of Papua New Guinea by Susanne Holzknecht, which established a common descent from Proto Huon Gulf. It did so on the basis of shared phonological, morphosyntactic and lexicosemantic innovations.

Although the Markham languages are Austronesian, they have had much contact with neighbouring Papuan languages.


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Markham". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  2. ^ Susanne Holzknecht (1989). The Markham Languages of Papua New Guinea. Pacific Linguistics. ISBN 0-85883-394-8. 
  3. ^ Lynch, John; Malcolm Ross; Terry Crowley (2002). The Oceanic languages. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon. ISBN 978-0-7007-1128-4. OCLC 48929366.