Markovo, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug

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For other places with the same name, see Markovo.
Markovo (English)
Марково (Russian)
Вуйвун (Гуйгун) (Chukchi)
-  Rural locality[1]  -
Selo[1]
Map of Russia - Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (2008-03).svg
Location of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug in Russia
Markovo is located in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Markovo
Markovo
Location of Markovo in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Coordinates: 64°40′N 170°25′E / 64.667°N 170.417°E / 64.667; 170.417Coordinates: 64°40′N 170°25′E / 64.667°N 170.417°E / 64.667; 170.417
Administrative status (as of June 2012)
Country Russia
Federal subject Chukotka Autonomous Okrug[1]
Administrative district Anadyrsky District[2]
Municipal status (as of April 2011)
Municipal district Anadyrsky Municipal District[3]
Rural settlement Markovo Rural Settlement[3]
Administrative center of Markovo Rural Settlement[3]
Statistics
Area (rural locality) 6 km2 (2.3 sq mi)[4]
Population (2010 Census) 809 inhabitants[5][6]
Population (January 2014 est.) 735 inhabitants[7][6]
Density 135/km2 (350/sq mi)[8]
Time zone PETT (UTC+12:00)[9]
Postal code(s)[10] 689530
Dialing code(s) +7 42732[citation needed]
Markovo on WikiCommons

Markovo (Russian: Ма́рково; Chukchi: Вуйвун (Гуйгун), lit. wooden hut;[11] Koryak: Вуйвын, lit. big village[11]) is a rural locality (a selo) in Anadyrsky District of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located near the head of small-boat navigation of the Anadyr River. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 809.[5][6]

A small locality now—albeit still quite large by Chukotkan standards—Markovo had historically been an important trade hub during the early period of Cossack exploration.

Geography[edit]

Markovo is situated in the middle reaches of the Anadyr River, the largest waterway in Chukotka, in a lowland region with a unique microclimate, surrounded by the Shchuchyi Mountains in the north, the east ridge of the Pikulney Mountains in the east, the Penzhinsky Ridge in the south, and the Russkiye mountain range in the west. Within this lowland tundra zone, deciduous forest is located around the floodplain of the Anadyr River, although the tundra covers the majority of this environment with a great number of lakes, rivers, and swamps. Unlike many other areas in Chukotka, comparably warm and lengthy summers create favorable conditions for the growth of all kinds of deciduous forests and vegetation. There is a very diverse world of animals, birds, and insects to be found. The absence of permafrost near Markovo gives the inhabitants an opportunity to grow open field vegetable crops.

Climate[edit]

Markovo has a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dfc), which is quite varied. Although it can be below freezing from September through to the end of May, and regularly below −20 °C (−4 °F) from November to April, the short summers running from June to August are usually quite temperate, with record temperatures achieved during these months which are some of the warmest in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug

Average annual rainfall is 330–380 millimeters (13–15 in), exposing the area to floods; water levels can rise more than 5 meters (16 ft). High levels of flood in the 20th century (with the increases in water level of more than 4.5 meters (15 ft)) were recorded in 1964, 1966, 1989, 1997, and 1999. The biggest flood was in 1997 (533 centimeters (210 in)), when over 90% of Markovo's territory was flooded, although mandatory training prevented damage on the large scale. A hydrological station is located on the right bank of the Anadyr River in the upper part of Markovo.

Climate data for Markovo
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.2
(41.4)
3.9
(39)
5.0
(41)
7.8
(46)
21.2
(70.2)
32.4
(90.3)
33.3
(91.9)
28.9
(84)
22.2
(72)
15.0
(59)
7.2
(45)
10.0
(50)
33.3
(91.9)
Average high °C (°F) −21.7
(−7.1)
−20.5
(−4.9)
−16.7
(1.9)
−8.6
(16.5)
3.0
(37.4)
16.3
(61.3)
19.5
(67.1)
15.9
(60.6)
8.6
(47.5)
−4.4
(24.1)
−15
(5)
−21.3
(−6.3)
−3.7
(25.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −26.1
(−15)
−25.3
(−13.5)
−22.3
(−8.1)
−14
(7)
−1
(30)
11.0
(51.8)
14.2
(57.6)
10.8
(51.4)
3.8
(38.8)
−8.5
(16.7)
−19.1
(−2.4)
−25.4
(−13.7)
−8.49
(16.72)
Average low °C (°F) −31.3
(−24.3)
−30.7
(−23.3)
−28.4
(−19.1)
−20.4
(−4.7)
−5.7
(21.7)
5.0
(41)
8.3
(46.9)
5.4
(41.7)
−0.8
(30.6)
−12.7
(9.1)
−23.8
(−10.8)
−30.3
(−22.5)
−13.8
(7.2)
Record low °C (°F) −59.5
(−75.1)
−57.9
(−72.2)
−54.8
(−66.6)
−43
(−45)
−34.3
(−29.7)
−6.5
(20.3)
−3.4
(25.9)
−7.2
(19)
−17.8
(0)
−38.9
(−38)
−51.7
(−61.1)
−53.9
(−65)
−59.5
(−75.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 30.7
(1.209)
21.2
(0.835)
19.9
(0.783)
18.8
(0.74)
17.2
(0.677)
29.3
(1.154)
45.1
(1.776)
57.6
(2.268)
37.5
(1.476)
34.6
(1.362)
39.6
(1.559)
29.0
(1.142)
380.5
(14.981)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 15.9 14.2 16.0 12.8 12.9 13.6 12.4 14.5 15.0 16.4 18.9 16.5 179.1
Avg. relative humidity (%) 77.6 74.8 77.5 77.2 74.3 65.9 71.9 79.7 79.3 81.4 82.4 78.3 76.69
Mean monthly sunshine hours 26.4 109.0 203.1 267.0 277.5 303.0 282.1 198.4 135.0 103.9 46.5 9.3 1,961.2
Source: climatebase.ru[12]

History[edit]

The date of Markovo's foundation is not known, although it is believed to be one of the first Russian-speaking settlements in Chukotka.[13] Some sources state that Markovo was established in 1649.[4] It is known that the crew from Semyon Dezhnev's expedition wintered close to the site of modern Markovo and that Anadyrsk was founded around this area at a later date as a base for exploring Chukotka and potential routes to Kamchatka. The Cossacks were followed by others looking for business opportunities and those who did not wish to continue being serfs. It is thought that modern Markovo evolved in the mid-18th century and was named either after an early settler with the last name Markov or after local Saint Mark, who consecrated the spot on which Markovo was to be established.[14]

In 1862, the construction of the first parochial school in Chukotka started in Markovo; the school opened in 1883.[13] People from Markovo were the founders of Ust-Belaya around the beginning of the 20th century, also located along the banks of the Anadyr River.[13] In the 20th century, Markovo was the cultural center of Markovsky District (which was split into Anadyrsky and Bilibinsky Districts in 1958).[14] Markovo's cultural significance continues today, as it is home to the Markovskiye Vechyorki Chorus, who specialize in old Cossack songs.[13]

Markovo played a key role in the establishment of the Soviet rule in Chukotka in the early 20th century. When Soviet attempts to gain a foothold in the region were foiled in Anadyr, the revolutionary activities centered on Markovo. Mikhail Mandrikov and August Berzin were the first Bolsheviks sent to Anadyr by the Kamchatka Revkom to set up an underground organization to undermine and eventually overthrow the resident White Army forces.[15] These two, along with a small group of other Russian immigrants and a handful of Chuvans, established the First Revolutionary Committee of Chukotka.[15] Their presence initially went undetected, although it did arise suspicion. However, just before they were about to be discovered by the resident White Army troops, they launched an attack against them on the night of December 16, 1916, with the intention to free the local indigenous people from their debts to the Russian incomers and to begin the dismantling of the capitalist infrastructure.[15] Their attempt at seizing the property of the merchant class in Anadyr was successful, although they failed to capture the armory and the ammunition supplies.[15] The merchants used this opportunity to reassert themselves, and by January 30, 1920, they surrounded the Revkom offices and attacked. One of the leaders, Vasily Titov, was killed and a number of others were wounded. Mikhail Mandrikov himself surrendered.[15] Although the survivors were initially imprisoned, the merchants decided to eliminate them permanently. Under the pretense of transferring them to another site, they executed them out in the tundra.[15] The merchants' and White Army's success had been aided by the fact that a number of the Revkom members had been out the town visiting Markovo. When these people returned, they were ambushed and all survivors eventually killed.[16] The merchants set about to re-establish the status quo, all the while pretending to be socialists when inquiries came from the Kamchatka Revkom as to the whereabouts of their colleagues, going as far as to set up a fake Anadyr branch of the Russian Communist Party of Bolsheviks.[15] This scheme, however, did not succeed, as the members of the first Revkom had already managed to establish branches in Markovo and Ust-Belaya,[17] so the Kamchatka Revkom sent a party to investigate.[15] A number of those involved in the overthrow of the First Revolutionary Committee either ceased their political activity in the hope of blending into the background or fled Chukotka for Alaska.[18] Struggles continued for some time after this, and it took until early 1923 before all White Army forces in Chukotka had been eliminated.[19]

During World War II, an airfield was built here for the Alaska-Siberian (ALSIB) air route used to ferry American Lend-Lease aircraft to the Eastern Front.[20]

In 1998, Markovo was demoted in status to that of a rural locality.[21]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Markovo is subordinated to Anadyrsky District.[2] Within the framework of municipal divisions, Markovo is a part of Markovo Rural Settlement within Anadyrsky Municipal District.[3]

Demographics[edit]

Markovo's size is comparatively large for Chukotka, with a population of 809 as of the 2010 Census,[5] although it has been decreasing over the years: in June 2005, it was estimated to be 865,[22] the 2003 estimate was 1,170,[13] and the 1993 estimate was around 2,000.[23]

In 2000, the ethnic groups in Markovo were as follows:

Demographic Composition - 2000
Indigenous People Number Percentage
Russian

625

58%

Chuvan

299

28%

Chukchi

62

6%

Evens

60

6%

Yukaghir

26

2%

Total

1072

100%

Source:[23]

Economics[edit]

Of all the families in Markovo in 2000, regardless of ethnicity, only 5% had a regular monthly income, with most families living below the poverty line.[23] The economy is driven mainly by subsistence reindeer herding[13] and fishing—a result of the large proportion of indigenous people.[23]

Markovo's infrastructure includes a boarding secondary school and a cultural center, with a new hospital being under construction in the 2000s.[13]

Transportation[edit]

Markovo Airport

The Markovo Airport serves Markovo.

The depths of the Anadyr River allow ships with 600-ton lifting capacity to navigate all the way to Markovo, 517 kilometers (321 mi) from the mouth of the river, and boats with a draft of up to 1.5 meters (4 ft 11 in) and a carrying load of up to 150 tons travel on up the Anadyr River past this point.

See also[edit]

Russian Orthodox Church, Markovo, 1901

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Law #33-OZ
  2. ^ a b Directive #517-rp
  3. ^ a b c d Law #148-OZ
  4. ^ a b Official website of Anadyrsky District. Markovo Rural Settlement (Russian)
  5. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c The results of the 2010 Census and the 2014 estimate are given for Markovo Rural Settlement, a municipal formation of Anadyrsky Municipal District. According to Law #148-OZ, Markovo is the only inhabited locality on the territory of Markovo Rural Settlement.
  7. ^ Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Численность постоянного населения Чукотского автономного округа по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2014 года (Russian)
  8. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  9. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  10. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  11. ^ a b Leontyev and Novikova, p. 329
  12. ^ "Markovo, Russia". Climatebase.ru. Retrieved January 21, 2013. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Red Cross Chukotka. Anadyr District (archived)
  14. ^ a b Strogoff, p. 90
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h Gray, pp. 88–90
  16. ^ Zhikarev, pp. 60-61
  17. ^ Zhikarev, p. 63
  18. ^ Dikov, p. 148
  19. ^ Dikov, p. 156
  20. ^ Lebedev, pp. 44–49
  21. ^ Perepis2002.ru. Изменения в административно-территориальном устройстве субъектов Российской Федерации за 1989-2002 годы (Russian)
  22. ^ Bema Gold Corporation, p. 87
  23. ^ a b c d Chereshev, pp. 12–14

Sources[edit]

  • Дума Чукотского автономного округа. Закон №33-ОЗ от 30 июня 1998 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Чукотского автономного округа», в ред. Закона №55-ОЗ от 9 июня 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Чукотского автономного округа "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Чукотского автономного округа"». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня его официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ведомости", №7 (28), 14 мая 1999 г. (Duma of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. Law #33-OZ of June 30, 1998 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, as amended by the Law #55-OZ of June 9, 2012 On Amending the Law of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug". Effective as of after ten days from the day of the official publication.). (Russian)
  • Дума Чукотского автономного округа. Закон №148-ОЗ от 24 ноября 2008 г. «О статусе, границах и административных центрах муниципальных образований на территории Анадырского муниципального района Чукотского автономного округа», в ред. Закона №24-ОЗ от 1 апреля 2011 г. «О внесении изменений в Приложение 2 к Закону Чукотского автономного округа "О статусе, границах и административных центрах муниципальных образований на территории Анадырского муниципального района Чукотского автономного округа"». Вступил в силу через десять дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ведомости", №46/1 (373/1), 28 ноября 2008 г. (Duma of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. Law #148-OZ of November 24, 2008 On the Status, Borders, and Administrative Centers of the Municipal Formations on the Territory of Anadyrsky Municipal District of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, as amended by the Law #24-OZ of April 1, 2011 On Amending Appendix 2 of the Law of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug "On the Status, Borders, and Administrative Centers of the Municipal Formations on the Territory of Anadyrsky Municipal District of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication date.). (Russian)
  • В. В. Леонтьев и К. А. Новикова (V. V. Leontyev and K. A. Novikova). "Топонимический словарь северо-востока СССР (Toponymic Dictionary of the Northeastern USSR). Magadan, 1989.
  • M. Strogoff, P.-C. Brochet, and D. Auzias. Petit Futé: Chukotka. "Avant-Garde" Publishing House, 2006.
  • P. A. Gray. The Predicament of Chukotka's Indigenous People: Post-Soviet Activism in the Russian Far North. Cambridge University Press, 2005.
  • Н. А. Жикарев. (N. A. Zhikarev). "Очерки Истории Северо-Восточной РСФСР" (Sketches of the History of the Northeast RSFSR). Magadan, 1961.
  • Н. Н. Диков (N. N. Dikov). "История Чукотки с древнейших времен до наших дней" (The History of Chukotka from Ancient Times to the Present Day). Moscow, 1989.
  • Igor Lebedev. Aviation Lend-Lease to Russia. Nova Publishers, 1997
  • Bema Gold Corporation. Environmental Impact Assessment, Kupol Gold Project, Far East Russia, June 2005.
  • E. Chereshev and A. Shestakov. Anadyr River Watershed, Rapid Assessment Report. Institute of biological Problems of the North, Wild Salmon Center, June 2003.

External links[edit]