Markush structures (-R) are chemical symbols used to indicate a collection of chemicals with similar structures. They are commonly used in chemistry texts, and also in patent claims.
Markush structures are depicted with R groups, in which the side chain can be a structure type, e.g. 'cyclohexyl'. This more general depiction of the molecule, versus detailing every atom in the molecule, is used to protect intellectual property. The company which files the patent makes a general claim for the usage of the molecule without revealing to their competitors the exact molecule for which they are declaring a useful application.
Named after Dr Eugene A. Markush founded the Pharma Chemical Corporation in New Jersey. He was involved in a legal case that set a precedent for generic chemical structure patent filing. The patent filing was USPTO, Federal Register 72, 154 - 44,992-45,001. Markush was awarded a patent from the US Patent Office for “The process for manufacture of dyes which comprises coupling with a halogen-substituted pyralazone, a diazotized unsulphonated material selected from the group consisting of aniline, homologues of aniline, and halogen substitution products of aniline” in August 1924.
In describing a chemical, a Markush structure allows the patent-holder to be deliberately vague as to the most active/effective structural formula, concealing that information from competitors.
- Barnard, John M. (28 Oct 2009). "Markush Structure Searching" (PDF). Royal Society of Chemistry www.rsc.org. Retrieved 15 Jan 2014.
- Gardner, Steve; Vinter, Andy. "Beyond Markush – Protecting Activity not Chemical Structure" (PDF). http://www.cresset-group.com/. Retrieved 15 Jan 2015.
|This science article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|