A Marlboro Man on a tobacco advertisement (Warsaw, 2000).
|Created by||Leo Burnett Worldwide|
The Marlboro Man is a figure used in tobacco advertising campaigns for Marlboro cigarettes. In the United States, where the campaign originated, it was used from 1954 to 1999. The Marlboro Man was first conceived by Leo Burnett in 1954. The images initially featured rugged men portrayed in a variety of roles but later primarily featured a rugged cowboy or cowboys, in picturesque wild terrain. The advertisements were originally conceived as a way to popularize filtered cigarettes, which at the time were considered feminine.
The Marlboro advertising campaign, created by Leo Burnett Worldwide, is said to be one of the most brilliant advertisement campaigns of all time. It transformed a feminine campaign, with the slogan "Mild as May", into one that was masculine, in a matter of months. The first models were a Navy Lieutenant and Andy Armstrong, the ad agency’s art supervisor. Other early models were sales promotion director of Philip Morris, Robert Larking, and others from the Leo Burnett ad agency, Lee Stanley and Owen Smith. A number of models who have portrayed the Marlboro Man have died of smoking-related diseases.
Cowboys proved to be popular, which led to the "Marlboro Cowboy" and "Marlboro Country" campaigns. The slogan "Come to Marlboro Country" promised every ordinary man the prospect of transforming himself into, or at least associating himself with, a rugged and macho cowboy merely by lighting up this Philip Morris product. A satirical reference to the advertisement was made in the Rolling Stones's 1965 song Satisfaction: "When I'm watchin' my TV and a man comes on and tells me how white my shirts can be, but he can't be a man 'cause he doesn't smoke the same cigarettes as me."
Philip Morris & Co. (now Altria) had originally introduced the Marlboro brand as a woman's cigarette in 1924. Starting in the early 1950s, the cigarette industry began to focus on promoting filtered cigarettes, as a response to the emerging scientific data about harmful effects of smoking. Under the impression that filtered cigarettes were safer, Marlboro, as well as other brands, started to be sold with filters. However, filtered cigarettes, Marlboro in particular, were considered to be women’s cigarettes. During market research in the 1950s, men indicated that while they would consider switching to a filtered cigarette, they were concerned about being seen smoking a cigarette marketed to women.
The repositioning of Marlboro as a men's cigarette was handled by Chicago advertiser Leo Burnett. Most filtered cigarette advertising sought to make claims about the technology behind the filter: through the use of complex terminology and scientific claims regarding the filter, the cigarette industry wanted to ease fears about the harmful effects of cigarette smoking through risk reduction. However, Leo Burnett decided to address the growing fears through an entirely different approach: creating ads completely void of health concerns or health claims of the filtered cigarette. Burnett felt that making claims about the effectiveness of filters furthered concerns of the long-term effects of smoking.
The proposed campaign was to present a lineup of manly figures: sea captains, weightlifters, war correspondents, construction workers, etc. The cowboy was to have been the first in this series. Burnett's inspiration for the exceedingly masculine "Marlboro Man" icon came in 1949 from an issue of Life magazine, whose photograph (shot by Leonard McCombe) and story of Texas cowboy Clarence Hailey Long caught his attention. Within a year, Marlboro's market share rose from less than one percent to the fourth best-selling brand. This convinced Philip Morris to drop the lineup of manly figures and stick with the cowboy. In the mid fifties, the cowboy image was popularized by actor Paul Birch in 3 page magazine ads and in TV ads.
Using another approach to expand the Marlboro Man market base, Philip Morris felt the prime market was "post adolescent kids who were just beginning to smoke as a way of declaring their independence from their parents."
When the new Marlboro Country theme opened in late 1963, the actors utilized as Marlboro Man were replaced, for the most part, with real working cowboys. In the same year the campaign began to use Elmer Bernstein's 1960 theme music from The Magnificent Seven. "In 1963, at the 6 6 6 6 Ranch in Guthrie, Texas, they discovered Carl "Big-un" Bradley. He was the first real cowboy they used, and from then on the lead Marlboro men were real cowboys, rodeo riders, stuntmen." Another of this new breed of real cowboys was Max Bryan "Turk" Robinson, of Hugo, Oklahoma; Turk says that he was recruited for the role while at a rodeo simply standing around behind the chutes, as was the custom for cowboys who had not yet ridden their event. It took only a few years for the results to register. By 1972, the new Marlboro Man would have so much market appeal that Marlboro cigarettes were catapulted to the top of the tobacco industry.
Finding the Marlboro Man
Initially, cowboy commercials involving the Marlboro Man featured paid models, such as William Thourlby, pretending to carry out cowboy tasks. However, Burnett felt that the commercials lacked authenticity, as it was apparent that the subjects were not real cowboys and did not have the desired rugged look. One of the finest was a non-smoking rodeo cowboy, Max Bryan "Turk" Robinson, who was recruited at a rodeo. Another, Robert Norris, was recruited after it was discovered he was a friend of John Wayne; Norris also never smoked, and after a 12-year run as a Marlboro Man, he quit the role to avoid being a bad influence on his children. Norris died, age 90, in 2019. Leo Burnett was not satisfied with the cowboy actors found. Broadway and MGM movie actor Christian Haren won the role as the first Marlboro Man in the early 1960s as he looked the part. Burnett then came across Darrell Winfield, who worked on a ranch, after a cattle rancher by the name Keith Alexander declined the role because he did not believe in smoking. Leo Burnett’s creative director was awed when he first saw Winfield: "I had seen cowboys, but I had never seen one that just really, like, he sort of scared the hell out of me (as he was so much a real cowboy)." Winfield’s immediate authenticity led to his 20-year run as the Marlboro Man, which lasted until the late 1980s. Upon Winfield’s retirement, Philip Morris reportedly spent $300 million searching for a new Marlboro Man.
After appearing as the Marlboro Man in 1987 advertising, former rodeo cowboy Brad Johnson landed a lead role in Steven Spielberg's feature film Always (1989), with Holly Hunter and Richard Dreyfuss.
The use of the Marlboro Man campaign had very significant and immediate effects on sales. In 1955, when the Marlboro Man campaign was started, sales were at $5 billion. By 1957, sales were at $20 billion, representing a 300% increase within two years. Philip Morris easily overcame growing health concerns through the Marlboro Man campaign, highlighting the success as well as the tobacco industry’s strong ability to use mass marketing to influence the public.
The immediate success of the Marlboro Man campaign led to heavy imitation. Old Golds adopted the tagline marking it a cigarette for "independent thinkers". Chesterfield depicted cowboy and other masculine occupations to match their tagline: "Men of America" smoke Chesterfields.
Five men who appeared in Marlboro-related advertisements — Wayne McLaren, David McLean, Dick Hammer, Eric Lawson and Jerome Edward Jackson, aka Tobin Jackson — died of smoking-related diseases, thus earning Marlboro cigarettes, specifically Marlboro Reds, the nickname "Cowboy killers".
Wayne McLaren testified in favor of anti-smoking legislation at the age of 51. During the time of McLaren's anti-smoking activism, Philip Morris denied that McLaren ever appeared in a Marlboro ad, a position it later amended to maintain that while he did appear in ads, he was not the Marlboro Man; Winfield held that title. In response, McLaren produced an affidavit from a talent agency that had represented him, along with a pay check stub, asserting he had been paid for work on a 'Marlboro print' job. McLaren died before his 52nd birthday in 1992.
David McLean died of lung cancer at the age 73 in 1995. After his death, his widow, Lilo McLean, sued Philip Morris, claiming that McLean's disease was brought on because he had to smoke multiple packs of cigarettes during advertising shoots. Her case was dismissed and she was forced to pay the cigarette company's court case costs.
Eric Lawson, who appeared in Marlboro print ads from 1978 to 1981, died at the age of 72 on January 10, 2014, of respiratory failure due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD. A smoker since age 14, Lawson later appeared in an anti-smoking commercial that parodied the Marlboro Man, and also in an Entertainment Tonight segment to discuss the negative effects of smoking.
Jerome Edward Jackson, aka Tobin Jackson, died of lung cancer in 2008, and was a former owner of the world-renowned "Deer Run" Mastiff kennels.
A sixth Marlboro Man, Christian Haren, a broadway and movie actor who was a primary Marlboro Man in ads the early 1960s in the period before Darrell Winfield, and also appeared in ads for Budweiser Beer, died of AIDS in San Francisco in 1996. Haren, who owned and operated a gay bar in Palm Springs, California, was the founder of "The Wedge", a "safe sex" AIDS prevention program for sexually at-risk teenagers in the San Francisco area.
Marlboro television and print ads used several real-life cowboys.
The Cowboy and His Elephant, which is ostensibly a biography of Bob Norris and mainly focuses on his raising an elephant on his ranch, also describes how Norris came to be photographed for Life magazine and become the Marlboro Man for the next 12 years.
From 1964 to 1978, Wayne Dunafon was a "Marlboro Man". He was a rancher in Kansas in addition to a long-time competitive rodeo rider. He died of natural causes in 2001.
The most famous of the 'Marlboro Men' lived a long life after fading from the public limelight. Darrell Winfield, a resident of Riverton, Wyoming, was the longest living Marlboro Man to appear on billboards and in advertisements. Leo Burnett Ad Agency discovered him in 1968 while he was working on the Quarter Circle 5 Ranch in Wyoming. Winfield's chiseled rugged good looks made him the macho face of Marlboro cigarettes on television, in newspapers, magazines and on billboards, from the 1968 to 1989. Winfield was survived by his wife, a son, five daughters, and grandchildren.
In many countries, the Marlboro Man is an icon of the past due to increasing pressure on tobacco advertising for health reasons, especially where the practice of smoking appears to be celebrated or glorified. The deaths described above may also have made it more difficult to use the campaign without attracting negative comment. The Marlboro Man image continued until at least the early 2000s, in countries such as Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic. It still continues (on tobacco vending machines, for example) in the United States, and in Japan, where smoking is widespread in the male population at nearly 30%).
Death in the West
Death in the West, a Thames Television documentary, is an exposé of the cigarette industry that aired on British television in 1976. In its March/April 1996 issue, Mother Jones said of Death in the West: "It is one of the most powerful anti-smoking films ever made. You will never see it." The second sentence refers to the fact that Philip Morris sued the filmmakers, and in a 1979 secret settlement all copies were suppressed. However, Professor Stanton Glantz released the film and San Francisco's then-NBC affiliate KRON-TV aired the documentary in May 1982.
The California Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation, in cooperation with the Risk and Youth: Smoking Project Lawrence Hall of Science University of California, Berkeley, created a manual to accompany the film, titled "A Curriculum for Death in the West". The first two paragraphs of the Introduction read:
The California Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation is pleased to provide this booklet containing a self-contained curriculum for upper elementary and junior high school students to supplement the viewing of "Death in the West." Considered by many to be the most powerful anti-smoking documentary ever made, "Death in the West" contrasts the advertising image of the "Marlboro Man" with the reality of six American cowboys dying of cigarette-related illnesses. The film, produced in England in 1976 and later suppressed by the Philip Morris Company, makers of Marlboro cigarettes, illustrates the intrinsically false nature of cigarette advertising. It makes the Marlboro Man less attractive. The "Death in the West" Curriculum is designed to maximize the educational and emotional impact of seeing the documentary. The curriculum is based on a comprehensive smoking prevention program created and tested by the Risk and Youth: Smoking Project of the Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley. The activities included here were developed in classrooms throughout the San Francisco Bay Area and adapted specifically for use with the airing of "Death in the West" by KRON-TV of San Francisco.
In popular culture
- In Robert Altman's 1973 film The Long Goodbye, Roger Wade (Sterling Hayden) nicknames P.I. Phillip Marlowe (Elliott Gould) the Marlboro Man due to his heavy smoking.
- In the film Harley Davidson and the Marlboro Man (1991), Don Johnson portrays the Marlboro Man.
- In the film Fargo (1996), a reference to the Marlboro Man is made in an interview by police chief Marge Gunderson (Frances McDormand) with two prostitutes about an encounter with Gaear Grimsrud (Peter Stormare).
- In the film The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997), Ian Malcolm (Jeff Goldblum) refers to the InGen mercenaries as Marlboro Men during a verbal confrontation with Peter Ludlow (Arliss Howard), after the death of Eddie Carr (Richard Schiff).
- In the film in Thank You for Smoking (2005), Sam Elliott plays Lorne Lutch, a cancer stricken former Marlboro Man.
- The Paula Cole song "Where Have All the Cowboys Gone?" features the verse "Where is my Marlboro Man?".
- The Harvey Danger song "Sad Sweetheart of the Rodeo" features the sarcastic verse: "The Marlboro Man died of cancer/And he wasn't a rocket scientist when he was healthy/ha ha ha".
- The Jason Aldean song "Dirt Road Anthem" references "The king in the can and the Marlboro man"
- Rolling Stones's 1965 song Satisfaction: "When I'm watchin' my TV and a man comes on and tells me how white my shirts can be, but he can't be a man 'cause he doesn't smoke the same cigarettes as me".
- The World Entertainment War song "Marlboro Man, Jr." begins, "The Marlboro Man is dead Long live the Marlboro Man! In our dreams he remains the hero Of a thousand billboards The ultimate salesman..."
- ”Old Town Road (Remix)” by Lil Nas X featuring Billy Ray Cyrus mentions the Marlboro Man.
- Artist Richard Prince's series, known as the Cowboys (produced from 1980 to 1992 and ongoing), is his most famous group of appropriated rephotographs, in this case taken from Marlboro cigarette advertisements of the Marlboro Man.
- In the Seinfeld episode "The Abstinence" (airdate November 21, 1996), Cosmo Kramer sues a tobacco company but settles out of court. His settlement is the placement of his face as that of the Marlboro Man's on a billboard in Times Square.
- In the Futurama episode "Where the Buggalo Roam", a barbeque attendee resembles the Marlboro Man.
- An episode of Last Week Tonight with John Oliver featured "Jeff the Diseased Lung in a Cowboy Hat", a cartoon character parodying the Marlboro Man, which was suggested as a new replacement mascot for Marlboro.
- In the second season Welcome Back, Kotter episode "Sweathog Clinic for the Cure of Smoking" (airdate December 16, 1976), Gabe Kotter (Gabe Kaplan) reminisced that he wanted to take up smoking, "but I couldn't picture myself living in Marlboro Country."
- In Better Things' episode "Rising", Sam's date, in reaction to her suggestion to be less tactful and "curse once in a while" responds "I'm sorry if I'm not the Marlboro Man."
- • The Denver Post, January 15, 1991 Page 9A online at https://www.industrydocumentslibrary.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/#id=lhwh0172
- Not always smoking or holding a cigarette, sometimes the cowboy was just a small silhouette in a large landscape, but the brand name or an image of a packet of the product was always shown in large size
- Katie Connolly (3 January 2011). "Six ads that changed the way you think". BBC.
- The New Advertising: The Great Campaigns from Avis to Volkswagen by Robert Glatzer, Page 127; online at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/action/document/page?tid=lfp76b00&page=7
- Ad Age article by John Mcdonough. Published on July 31, 1995: online at http://adage.com/article/news/burnett-enduring-culture-60-year-mark-agency-hews-rock-solid-values-principles-founder/86243/
- Advertising Age, April 30, 1980 (Special Anniversary Issue), Page 12 "How the ‘Marlboro Man’ Flexed His Muscles and Became No. 1"; online at http://beta.industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/docs/mgbm0040[permanent dead link]
- "Marlboro ad man Eric Lawson dies of chronic lung disease". TheGuardian.com. Associated Press. January 27, 2014. Retrieved November 10, 2019.
- Vintage Ads: 1975 "Marlboro Country" ad campaign One such Marlboro Man was Robert Norris, a rancher discovered on his Colorado Ranch in the early 1960s as the ad shoot was in progress. Norris replaced the hired male model. He remained in the role for 12 years. On January 10, 2014, Eric Lawson, who portrayed the rugged Marlboro man in cigarette ads during the late 1970s, has died. He was 72.
- "NPR : The Marlboro Man, Present at the Creation". seamus.npr.org. Retrieved 2019-08-27.
- Brandt, A. (2006). The Cigarette Century. New York: Basic Books.
- Erin Barrett and Jack Mingo, ed. (2003). W.C. Privy's Original Bathroom Companion. St. Martin's Press. pp. 407–410. ISBN 0-312-28750-X.
- Clarence Hailey Long
- Barry, A. M. (1997). Visual Intelligence: Perception, Image and Manipulation in Visual Communications. Albany: State University of New York Press.
- Cartwright, Gary, "The Death of the Marlboro Man", Texas Monthly, Sept 1973 
- Kilgannon, Corey (3 August 2012). "Face of Marlboro Prefers to Be Alone". New York Times. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- Goldstein, Joelle. "Robert 'Bob' Norris, an Original 'Marlboro Man' Who Never Smoked a Day in His Life, Dies at 90". yahoo! entertainment. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- Italiano, Laura. "Original 'Marlboro Man' Bob Norris dead at 90 — likely because he never actually smoked". New York Post. © 2019 NYP Holdings, Inc. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- Blaszczyk, R. L. (2008). Producing Fashion: Commerce, Culture and Consumers. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
- Bergon, Frank, "West of California: A Visit With the Marlboro Man. Audience. Vol 1, No. 5 (September–October 1971): 42–48.
- "An Ex-Marlboro Man Who Can Really Ride, Brad Johnson Adds Sigh Appeal to Always". People.
- Roman, K. (2009). The Kings of Madison Avenue. New York: St. Martins Press.
- Moellinger, T., & Craig, S. (n.d.). "So Rich, So Mild, So Fresh": A Critical Look at TV Cigarette Commercials: 1948–1971.
- "Marlboro ad man Eric Lawson dies of chronic lung disease". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- Turning morons into millionaires, Herald-Journal. Accessed 18 November 2007.
- "Wayne McLaren, 51, Rodeo Rider and Model". The New York Times. 1992-07-25. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- 28 May 2001 "Malboro Manslaughter", Urban Legends Reference Pages. Accessed 28 July 2005.
- Dead or Alive?. Accessed 28 July 2005
- "At least four Marlboro Men have died of smoking-related diseases". The Los Angeles Times. 2014-01-14. Retrieved 2018-05-08.
- "Actor who played Marlboro Man in ads dies from smoking-related disease". Associated Press. 2014-01-27. Retrieved 2014-01-27.
- MacPherson, Malcolm (2001). The Cowboy and His Elephant: The Story of a Remarkable Friendship. St. Martin's Press. pp. 65–69, 73.
- The Associated Press (July 11, 2001). "Former 'Marlboro Man' from Kansas dies". Lawrence Journal. Ogden Newspapers.
- The Associated Press (January 16, 2015). "Long-serving Marlboro Man Darrell Winfield Dies at 85: One of the last Marlboro Men has died in Wyoming". U.S. News & World Report. Riverton, Wyoming: U.S. News & World Report L.P. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
- Washington, Tom (May 14, 2001). "Smoke Screen". inthesetimes.com. Retrieved June 2, 2014.
- Japan Times
- Death in The West
- "Movies: Death in the West (1983)". The New York Times.
- Adam Hochschild (March–April 1996). "Shoot-Out in Marlboro Country (cont'd)". Mother Jones.
- "Death in the West (Thames-TV anti-smoking documentary)". ScienceCorruption.com.
- California Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation (1983). "A Curriculum for Death in the West". Archived from the original on 2013-08-01.
- "Report about 'Death in the West'". Internet Archive. 1983.
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