Marmaduke Langdale, 1st Baron Langdale of Holme

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Marmaduke Langdale, 1st Baron Langdale of Holme
Marmaduke Langdale2.png
Marmaduke Langdale, 1st Baron Langdale of Holme
Born1598 (baptised)
Beverley, Yorkshire
Died4 August 1661(1661-08-04) (aged 63)
Holme-on-Spalding-Moor, Yorkshire
Resting placeAll Saints church, Sancton
TitleBaron Langdale of Home
Tenure1658 - 1661
NationalityEnglish
Wars and battlesThirty Years' War
Wars of the Three Kingdoms 1642 - 1648
Marston Moor Naseby Rowton Heath Preston
Siege of Candia 1652
OfficesHigh Sheriff of Yorkshire 1639 - 1640
Lord Lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire 1660 - 1661
SuccessorMarmaduke Langdale, 2nd Baron Langdale
Spouse(s)Lenox Rodes (died 1639)
Issue4 sons, 3 daughters; four survived to adulthood
ParentsPeter Langdale (died 1617)
Anne Wharton (1576 - 1646)

Sir Marmaduke Langdale, 1st Baron Langdale (ca 1598 – 5 August 1661) was a member of the Yorkshire gentry, who opposed many of the policies of Charles I but became a leading Royalist in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. While a talented commander of cavalry, both he and his troops had a reputation for poor discipline.

Following defeat in the civil wars, he went into exile in 1649 and converted to Catholicism in 1653; he was created a baron in 1658 and Lord Lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire after the 1660 Restoration but his health and finances had been destroyed by the war and he died in August 1661.

Life[edit]

All Saints church, Sancton; Langdale was buried here in 1661

Langdale was the only son of Peter Langdale and his wife Anne Wharton (1576 - 1646), from Beverley, Yorkshire. They were connected by marriage to the Hotham family, who were important figures in Yorkshire; Sir John Hotham (1589-1645) held Hull for Parliament in 1642 but was arrested and executed with his son in January 1645 for attempting to change sides.

In 1626, Langdale married Lenox Rodes (d. 1639), daughter of Sir John Rodes of Barlborough, Derbyshire; they had four sons and three daughters before she died in childbirth in 1639.[1] Four of their children survived to adulthood; his heir Marmaduke (1627 - 1703), Philip (died 1672), Lenox (died 1658) and Mary (died 1678).[2]

Career[edit]

Langdale attended St John's College, Cambridge in 1612 and inherited his fathers estates when Peter Langdale died in 1617. He went to Europe with Sir John Hotham in 1620 where he briefly fought for Elizabeth of Bohemia, sister of Charles I.

During the 1620s and 1630s, Langdale became an increasingly important local political figure; Charles knighted him in 1628 but he opposed the Forced Loan and payment of Ship money, both of which were attempts to rule without Parliament.[3] He was punished by being appointed High Sheriff of Yorkshire in 1639, making him personally liable for any shortfalls in collecting tax; he eventually complied but was removed in July 1640 after organising a petition signed by leading members of the Yorkshire gentry listing their 'grievances.'[4]

Marston Moor, July 1644; Langdale formed the Northern Horse from the survivors

He became a Royalist during the War of the Three Kingdoms in 1642 but more from a sense of duty, rather than conviction and joined the Marquess of Newcastle, Royalist commander in Northern England. After their defeat at Marston Moor in July 1644, he formed the surviving cavalry into the "Northern Horse." This included the remnants of an estimated 30 regiments; once described as a 'rabble of gentility,' it quickly gained a reputation for poor discipline.[5]

In February 1645, Langdale relieved Pontefract Castle but the behaviour of his troops damaged the Royalist cause and without infantry support, he was forced to retire, leaving Pontefract to be besieged once more. In June, the Northern Horse formed the Royalist left wing at the Battle of Naseby; they initially held their ground against Cromwell's more numerous and better disciplined troopers before being outflanked and driven from the field.[6]

The Phoenix Tower, Chester; Charles allegedly watched the defeat at Rowton Heath from this vantage point

Survivors from Naseby, including the Northern Horse, withdrew to Raglan Castle in South Wales but on 10 July, the last significant Royalist field army in England was destroyed at Langport. Langdale and other Yorkshire Royalists wanted to go north and link up with Montrose, who won a series of victories in Scotland from 1644 to 1645. Charles agreed but only after lifting the Siege of Chester, his last major port in the West and vital for communication with supporters in Ireland; on 24 September, the Royalists were defeated at Rowton Heath.[7]

News came of Montrose's defeat at Philiphaugh on 13 September. Langdale and Lord Digby escaped from Chester with around 2,400 cavalry but on 15 October, a Parliamentarian army intercepted and dispersed their forces at Sherburn-in-Elmet. Digby and Langdale escaped to France and the First English Civil War came to an end in June 1646.

Battle of Preston August 1648; this ended the Second English Civil War

When the Second English Civil War began in 1648, Langdale returned from exile to lead the Royalists in Cumberland and seized the border town of Berwick to enable his Scottish Engager allies to invade England. Major-General John Lambert, Parliamentary commander in the North, avoided battle but in August, he was joined by Cromwell and Fairfax who had defeated Royalist risings in Wales and Southern England. Langdale met up with the Duke of Hamilton's Scottish Engager army and they were decisively defeated by Cromwell at Preston, over a period of three days between 17 to 19 August.[8]

Along with much of the cavalry, Langdale and Hamilton evaded capture at Preston but were taken shortly afterwards and imprisoned in Nottingham Castle. The Second Civil War convinced Parliamentarians like Cromwell that peace could only be assured by the death of prominent Royalists; Hamilton was executed, as was Charles himself in January 1649. As one of seven Royalists excluded by name from pardon, Langdale avoided a similar fate by escaping dressed as a milkmaid and made his way to France once again.[9]

Under the 1650 Treaty of Breda, the Scots Covenanters agreed to restore Charles II to the English and Scots thrones but one condition was the exclusion of many of those who followed him into exile.[10] As a result, Langdale did not participate in the Third English Civil War, also known as the 1650-1651 Anglo-Scots War; in 1652, he converted to Catholicism and joined the Venetian army but was forced to retire due to poor health. Unlike most Catholic members of the court-in-exile, he advocated a Spanish, rather than French alliance to regain Charles' throne; his lack of influence and poverty led him to take refuge in 1655 at the English benedictine community of Lamspringe Abbey in Westphalia. Created Baron Langdale in 1658, he was appointed Lord Lieutenant, West Riding of Yorkshire after the 1660 Restoration but claimed he was too poor to attend Charles' coronation.[11]

He died in August 1661 and buried in All Saints church, Sancton, where his memorial is still visible, along with other members of the Langdale family.[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hopper, Andrew (2004). Langdale, Marmaduke, first Baron Langdale. Oxford DNB. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/16010.
  2. ^ "Marmaduke Langdale". Cracrofts Peerage Online. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  3. ^ Cust, Richard (1985). "Charles I, the Privy Council, and the Forced Loan". Journal of British Studies. 24 (2): 211. JSTOR 175703.
  4. ^ Hopper, Oxford DNB
  5. ^ Barratt, John. "A Rabble of Gentility"? – The Northern Horse, 1644-45". Helion & Co; Military History. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  6. ^ Young, Peter, Holmes, Richard (2000). The English Civil War:A Military History of the Three Civil Wars, 1642–1651. Wordsworth Editions. p. 234. ISBN 978-1-84022-222-7.
  7. ^ "The Siege of Chester and Battle of Rowton Heath". BCW Project. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  8. ^ "The Second Civil War; Overview". BCW Project. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  9. ^ Royle, Trevor (2004). The Wars of the Three Kingdoms 1638-1660. Little, Brown. p. 470. ISBN 978-0-316-86125-0.
  10. ^ Royle, pp. 562-563
  11. ^ Royle, p. 772
  12. ^ Sheehan, JJ, Whellan, T (1867). History and Topography of the City of York and the East Riding of Yorkshire, Volume II. John Green, Beverley. p. 392.

Sources[edit]

  • Barratt, John. "A Rabble of Gentility"? – The Northern Horse, 1644-45". Helion & Co; Military History.
  • Cust, Richard (1985). "Charles I, the Privy Council, and the Forced Loan". Journal of British Studies. 24 (2).
  • Hopper, Andrew (2004). Langdale, Marmaduke, first Baron Langdale. Oxford DNB.
  • Royle, Trevor (2004). The Wars of the Three Kingdoms 1638-1660. Little, Brown. ISBN 978-0-316-86125-0.
  • Sheehan, JJ, Whellan, T (1867). History and Topography of the City of York and the East Riding of Yorkshire, Volume II. John Green, Beverley.
  • Young, Peter, Holmes, Richard (2000). The English Civil War:A Military History of the Three Civil Wars, 1642–1651. Wordsworth Editions. ISBN 978-1-84022-222-7.
Political offices
Preceded by
Sir William Robinson
High Sheriff of Yorkshire
1639–1640
Succeeded by
Sir John Buck
New creation Lord Lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire
1660–1661
Succeeded by
2nd Duke of Buckingham
Peerage of England
New creation Baron Langdale
1658–1661
Succeeded by
Marmaduke Langdale, 2nd Baron Langdale