Marn Grook or marngrook, from the Gunditjmara language for "game ball", is a collective name given to a number of traditional Indigenous Australian recreational pastimes believed to have been played at gatherings and celebrations of up to fifty players. It is distinct from the indigenous ball game Woggabaliri which is believed to be the subject of William Blandowski's engraving "never let the ball hit the ground" (see picture on right).
Generally speaking, observers commented that Marn Grook was a football game which featured punt kicking and catching a stuffed "ball". It involved large numbers of players, and games were played over an extremely large area. Totemic teams may have been formed, however to observers the game appeared to lack a team objective, having no real rules, scoring or winner. Individual players who consistently exhibited outstanding skills, such as leaping high over others to catch the ball, were often commented on.
Anecdotal evidence supports such games being played primarily by the Djabwurrung and Jardwadjali people and other tribes in the Wimmera, Mallee and Millewa regions of western Victoria (which are commonly associated with the name "Marn Grook"). However, according to some accounts, the range extended to the Wurundjeri in the Yarra Valley, the Gunai people of Gippsland, and the Riverina in south-western New South Wales. The Walpiri tribe of Central Australia played a very similar kicking and catching game with possum skins known as pultja.
The earliest accounts emerged decades after the European settlement of Australia, mostly from the colonial Victorian explorers and settlers. The earliest anecdotal account was in 1841, a decade prior to the Victorian gold rush. Although the consensus among historians is that marn grook existed before European arrival, not enough is known by anthropologists about the prehistoric customs of Indigenous Australians to determine how long the game had been played in Victoria or elsewhere on the Australian continent.
Some historians claim that Marn Grook had a role in the formation of Australian rules football, which originated in Melbourne in 1858 and was codified the following year by members of the Melbourne Football Club. This connection has become culturally important to many Indigenous Australians, including celebrities and professional footballers from communities in which Australian rules football is highly popular.
Robert Brough Smyth, in an 1878 book, The Aborigines of Victoria, quoted William Thomas, a Protector of Aborigines in Victoria, who stated that in about 1841 he had witnessed Wurundjeri Aborigines east of Melbourne playing the game.
- The men and boys joyfully assemble when this game is to be played. One makes a ball of possum skin, somewhat elastic, but firm and strong. ...The players of this game do not throw the ball as a white man might do, but drop it and at the same time kicks it with his foot, using the instep for that purpose. ...The tallest men have the best chances in this game. ...Some of them will leap as high as five feet from the ground to catch the ball. The person who secures the ball kicks it. ...This continues for hours and the natives never seem to tire of the exercise.
The game was a favourite of the Wurundjeri-william clan and the two teams were sometimes based on the traditional totemic moeties of Bunjil (eagle) and Waang (crow). Robert Brough-Smyth saw the game played at Coranderrk Mission Station, where ngurungaeta (elder) William Barak discouraged the playing of imported games like cricket and encouraged the traditional native game of marn grook.
An 1857 sketch found in 2007 describes an observation by Victorian scientist William Blandowski, of the Latjilatji people playing a football game near Merbein, on his expedition to the junction of the Murray and Darling Rivers. The Australian Sports Commission considers this sketch to be depicting the game of Woggabaliri. The image is inscribed:
- A group of children is playing with a ball. The ball is made out of typha roots (roots of the bulrush). It is not thrown or hit with a bat, but is kicked up in the air with a foot. The aim of the game – never let the ball touch the ground.
Historian Greg de Moore comments:
- What I can say for certain is that it's the first image of any kind of football that's been discovered in Australia. It pre-dates the first European images of any kind of football, by almost ten years in Australia. Whether or not there is a link between the two games in some way for me is immaterial because it really highlights that games such as Marn Grook, which is one of the names for Aboriginal football, were played by Aborigines and should be celebrated in their own right.
In 1889, anthropologist Alfred Howitt, wrote that the game was played between large groups on a totemic basis — the white cockatoos versus the black cockatoos, for example, which accorded with their skin system. Acclaim and recognition went to the players who could leap or kick the highest. Howitt wrote:
This game of ball-playing was also practised among the Kurnai, the Wolgal (Tumut river people), the Wotjoballuk as well as by the Woiworung, and was probably known to most tribes of south-eastern Australia. The Kurnai made the ball from the scrotum of an "old man kangaroo", the Woiworung made it of tightly rolled up pieces of possum skin. It was called by them "mangurt". In this tribe the two exogamous divisions, Bunjil and Waa, played on opposite sides. The Wotjoballuk also played this game, with Krokitch on one side and Gamutch on the other. The mangurt was sent as a token of friendship from one to another.
Relationship with Australian rules football
The theory hinges on evidence which is circumstantial and anecdotal. Australian rules football pioneer Tom Wills was raised in Victoria's Western District. As the only white child in the district, it is said that he was fluent in the languages of the Djab wurrung and frequently played with local Aboriginal children on his father's property, Lexington, outside modern day Moyston. This story has been passed down through the generations of his family.
Col Hutchison, former historian for the AFL wrote in support of the theory postulated by Flanagan, and his account appears on an official AFL memorial to Tom Wills in Moyston erected in 1998.
|“||While playing as a child with Aboriginal children in this area [Moyston] he [Tom Wills] developed a game which he later utilised in the formation of Australian Football.||”|
—As written by Col Hutchison on the plaque at Moyston donated by the Australian Football League in 1998.
Sports historian Gillian Hibbins, who researched the origins of Australian rules football for the Australian Football League's official account of the game's history as part of its 150th anniversary celebrations sternly rejects the theory, stating that while Marn Grook was "definitely" played around Port Fairy and throughout the Melbourne area, there is no evidence that the game was played north of the Grampians or by the Djabwurrung people and the claim that Wills observed and possibly played the game is improbable:
- Understandably, the appealing idea that Australian Football is a truly Australian native game recognising the indigenous people, rather than deriving solely from a colonial dependence upon the British background, has been uncritically embraced and accepted. Sadly, this emotional belief lacks any intellectual credibility.
In his exhaustive research of the first four decades of Australian rules football, historian Mark Pennings "could not find evidence that those who wrote the first rules were influenced by the indigenous game of Marngrook". Melbourne Cricket Club researcher Trevor Ruddell wrote in 2013 that Marn Grook "has no causal link with, nor any documented influence upon, the early development of Australian football."
Chris Hallinan and Barry Judd describe the historical perspective of the history of Australian Rules as Anglo-centric, having been reluctant to acknowledge the indigenous contribution. They go on to suggest this is an example of white Australian struggling to accept indigenous peoples "as active and intelligent human subjects".
|“||If Tom Wills had have said "Hey, we should have a game of our own more like the football the black fellas play" it would have killed it stone dead before it was even born.||”|
—Statement by Jim Poulter During 7.30 Report (22nd May 2008).
Comparisons with Australian rules football
Advocates of these theories have drawn comparisons in the catching of the kicked ball (the mark) and the high jumping to catch the ball (the spectacular mark) that have been attributes of both games. However, the connection is speculative. For instance spectacular high marking did not emerge in Australian rules football until the 1880s.
Marn Grook and the Australian rules football term "mark"
Some claim that the origin of the Australian rules term mark, meaning a clean, fair catch of a kicked ball, followed by a free kick, is derived from the Aboriginal word mumarki used in Marn Grook, and meaning "to catch". However, the term "mark" has been used for a catch in both rugby football (the first recorded rule of Rugby football was the "fair catch" or mark rule to protect players) and early Association football in Britain since the 1830s—)—so the claim may well be a false etymology. The term is still used worldwide in Rugby Union in reference to a fair catch by a player who calls "mark" when catching a ball inside their team's 22 metre line. The application of the word "mark" in "foot-ball" (and in many other games) dates to the Elizabethan era and is likely derived from the practice where a player marks the ground to show where a catch had been taken or where the ball should be placed. The use of the word "mark" to indicate an "impression or trace forming a sign" on the ground dates to c1200.
In popular culture
Due to the theories of shared origins, Marn Grook features heavily in Australian rules football and Indigenous culture.
A documentary titled Marn Grook was first released in 1996.
In 2002, in a game at Stadium Australia, the Sydney Swans and Essendon Football Club began to compete for the Marngrook Trophy, awarded after home-and-away matches each year between the two teams in the Australian Football League. Though it commemorates Marn Grook, the match is played under normal rules of the AFL, rather than the traditional Aboriginal game.
Marn Grook is the subject of children's books including Neridah McMullin's Kick it to Me! (2012), an account of Tom Wills' upbringing, and Marngrook: The Long Ago Story of Aussie Rules (2012) by Indigenous writer Titta Secombe.
- Tim Hilferti, "The Australian Game" The Advertiser Pg 79 24 October 2010
- The Sports Factor, ABC Radio National, program first broadcast on 5 September 2008.
- Aboriginal Heritage - History and Heritage - Grampians, Victoria, Australia, retrieved 5 January 2011
- "Aboriginal Rules". 2007 video documentary by the Walpiri Media Association
- Martin Flanagan, The Call. St. Leonards, Allen & Unwin, 1998, p. 8 Martin Flanagan, 'Sport and Culture'
- Gregory M de Moore. Victoria University. from Football Fever. Crossing Boundaries. Maribyrnong Press, 2005
- David Thompson, "Aborigines were playing possum", Herald Sun, 27 September 2007. Accessed 3 November 2008
- "A code of our own" celebrating 150 years of the rules of Australian football The Yorker: Journal of the Melbourne Cricket Club Library Issue 39, Autumn 2009
- Morrissey, Tim (15 May 2008). "Goodes racist, says AFL historian". Herald Sun.
- AFL turning Indigenous dreamtime to big time - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)
- Robert Brough-Smyth The Aborigines of Victoria 1878 Pg.176
- Isabel Ellender and Peter Christiansen, pp45 People of the Merri Merri. The Wurundjeri in Colonial Days, Merri Creek Management Committee, 2001 ISBN 0-9577728-0-7
- Kids play kick to kick −1850s style from abc.net.au
- AW Howitt, "Notes on Australian Message Sticks and Messengers", Journal of the Anthropological Institute, London, 1889, p 2, note 4, Reprinted by Ngarak Press, 1998, ISBN 1-875254-25-0
- Minister opens show exhibition celebrating Aussie Rules' Koorie Heritage, Government Media Release accessed 4 June 2007
- AFL News | Real Footy
- AFL's native roots a 'seductive myth' The Australian 22 March 2008
- Goodes racist, says AFL historian
- Cardosi, Adam (18 October 2013). "Origins of Australian Football", Australian Football. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
- Ruddell, Trevor (19 December 2013). "Pompey Austin - Aboriginal football pioneer", Australian Football. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
- Duelling paradigms: Australian Aborigines, marn-grook and football histories Hallinan, Chris ; Judd, Barry Sport in Society, 2012, p.1-12
- Debate over AFL origins continues: This weekend's Indigenous Dreamtime round has reignited debate over whether the code was influenced by an indigenous sport called Marn Grook. [online]. 7.30 Report (ABC1); Time: 19:42; Broadcast Date: Thursday, 22nd May 2008; Duration: 5 min., 18 sec. Availability: <http://search.informit.com.au.proxy.library.adelaide.edu.au/documentSummary;dn=TEX20082000510;res=TVNEWS> [cited 29 Nov 14].
- Early History
- Aboriginal Football – Marn Grook
- Joseph Strutt The sports and pastimes of the people of England from the earliest period. Harvard University 1801
- Online Etymology Dictionary
- Marn Grook (1996) (VHS. Classification: G. Runtime: 45 min. Produced In: Australia. Produced by: CAAMA (Central Australian Aboriginal Media Association), based in Alice Springs (NT). Directed By: Steve McGregor. Language: English.)
- Richard Hinds, Marn Grook, a native game on Sydney's biggest stage, The Age, 2 March 1991. Accessed 9 November 2008
- "Genesis of footy and its Indigenous heart", ABC radio — Interviews with Titta Secombe, author of Marngrook, the long ago story of Aussie Rules, and Greg de Moore, biographer of Tom Wills