Maroon clownfish

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Maroon clownfish
Clownfish (PNG).jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Pomacentridae
Subfamily: Amphiprioninae
Genus: Premnas
Cuvier, 1816
Species: P. biaculeatus
Binomial name
Premnas biaculeatus
(Bloch, 1790)[1]

Chaetodon biaculeatus Bloch, 1790
Holocentrus sonnerat Lacepède, 1802
Lutianus trifasciatus Schneider, 1801
Premnas epigrammata Fowler, 1904
Premnas gibbosus Castelnau, 1875
Premnas semicinctus Cuvier, 1830
Premnas unicolor Cuvier, 1829
Sargus ensifer Gronow, 1854 [1]

The maroon clownfish, Premnas biaculeatus, is a species of clownfish that is found in the Indo-Pacific from western Indonesia to Taiwan and the Great Barrier Reef.[2] They can grow up to be about 17 centimetres (6.7 in),[3] and as they grow, they become more aggressive towards other clownfish. It is also known as the spine-cheeked clownfish. It is the only member of the genus Premnas,[3] although it has been suggested that the taxon epigrammata from Sumatra should be recognized as a distinct species, Premnas epigrammata (Fowler, 1904).[4]

The stripes across the body are normally white, but they are yellow in the taxon epigrammata. The female is dark red or maroon, while the smaller male is brighter orange-red.[3][4]

In the wild, the fish's only host is the bubble-tip anemone (Entacmaea quadricolor).[3] The fish's natural diet includes algae and zooplankton.[3]


Maroon clownfish are maroon in colour. Females of this species are larger than males.[3] Females can grow up to 17 centimetres (6.7 in).

In the aquarium[edit]

Many hobbyists believe that a 115-litre (30 US gal) tank is best for one fish or 230 litres (61 US gal) for a pair.[citation needed] In the wild, it is strictly associated with the sea anemone Entacmaea quadricolor,[2] and thus many hobbyists provide this species in addition to the fish. The maroon clownfish likes frozen shrimp and herbivore preparations.[citation needed]

Many hobbyists do not catch the fish using a net.[citation needed] The spines may get entangled in the net, which can injure the fish. Instead, hobbyists tend to use a cup.[citation needed]

The maroon clownfish is one of the larger, more aggressive members of the clown family. Consequently, they are typically housed singly, the only exception being a mated pair.[citation needed] To avoid aggression, maroon clownfish are not normally mixed with any other type of clownfish, and the rock work is rearranged periodically.[citation needed] Also, they are often the last fish added to a tank.[citation needed] They are human-responsive to the point of trying to "intimidate" people with whom they are not familiar.[citation needed]

The fish has successfully bred in a home aquarium.[3]



  1. ^ a b Bailly, N. (2010). Nicolas Bailly, ed. "Premnas biaculeatus (Bloch, 1790)". FishBase. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2011-12-23. 
  2. ^ a b Lieske, E., and R. Myers. 1999. Coral Reef Fishes. ISBN 0-691-02659-9
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Tristan Lougher (2006). What Fish?: A Buyer's Guide to Marine Fish. Interpet Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84286-118-9. 
  4. ^ a b Kuiter, R. H., and H. Debelius. 2007 (2nd edition). World Atlas of Marine Fishes. ISBN 3-925919-77-5