Marriage in the Palestinian territories
Marriage in the Palestinian territories deals with the marriage law and customs in the Palestinian territories, ie., the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Israeli marriage law applies to Israeli settlers in Area C of the West Bank. Muslims resident in East Jerusalem are subject to Israeli marriage law.
Personal status issues of Muslims in the Palestinian territories, including marriage, are governed by customary law, of the Sunni Islam Hanafi school, as codified and modified by legislation as follows:
- for Muslims in the West Bank - the Jordanian Personal Status Law of 1976 continues to apply.
- for Muslims in the Gaza Strip - the Egyptian Law of Family Rights 1954 continues to apply.
- Muslims in East Jerusalem, which is claimed by both Israel and the Palestinian Authority, are subject to Israeli marriage law, which is based on the Israeli Millet system, which applies to Muslims in Israel the Ottoman Law of Family Rights as amended by Israeli legislation since 1948.
In the Gaza Strip, the Egyptian-issued Law of Family Rights 1954 set puberty as the minimum age of marriage with no marriage allowed for a female aged under 9 or a male aged under 12. The Palestinian Qadi al-Quda issued an administrative decision in 1995 raising these ages in Gaza to a minimum of 15 for the female and 16 for the male, which aligned with the Jordanian law which applied to the West Bank. All ages are calculated according to the lunar calendar. Registration of marriage is mandatory, but failure to register a marriage does not invalidate the marriage.
As at March 2012, work is reported to be proceeding on the text of a Palestinian personal status law.
Polygyny, whereby a husband has more than one wife, is explicitly permitted. However, a woman can specify in the marriage contract whether or not her husband can take additional wives during the couple's marriage, and if the husband does so in violation of that marriage contract then she can petition for a divorce. There are also the classical injunctions that a man must treat all co-wives equitably and provide them with separate dwellings, and a man must declare his social status in the marriage contract.
Polyandry, whereby a wife has more than one husband, is not permitted. Muslims in East Jerusalem are subject to Israeli marriage law, which since at least 1959 has barred the formation of polygamous unions in Israel.
Violence against women within marriage is a major issue facing women in Palestine. According to a 2005 survey by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, 23.3% of women who had ever been married reported that they had been subjected to physical violence, 61.7% to psychological violence, and 10% to sexual violence. It's estimated that 30% of married women in the West Bank and 50% in Gaza will be subjected to domestic violence, and less than 1% will seek the help of a social worker, a shelter, a civil-society organisation or the police.
In 2008 the Palestinian Police established the Family Protection Unit and the Juvenile Unit (FJPU), tasked with investigating complaints of domestic violence and sexual assault. Since the introduction of the FJPU, the number of cases of domestic violence reported to police have increased dramatically, with 3,660 reported in 2013.
Violence against women is especially problematic in Gaza, with the number of incidences being generally higher. Police in Gaza reportedly refrain from publishing statistics on the number of complaints women make against their husbands, to deter more women from speaking up. One move to address marriage issue in Gaza has been the adoption of "Mukhtaras", female community leaders able to mediate between families and communities on issues involving women, such as marriage, divorce, custody and alimony. The Aisha Association for Woman and Child Protection works to empower vulnerable women and children who are victims of violence.
- Penal Law Amendment (Bigamy) Law, 5719-1959.
- Jordanian Personal Status Law No 61/1976, promulgated 5 September 1976, and replaced the 1951 Jordanian Law of Family Rights.
- The Islamic law of personal status (1986), by Jamal J. Nasir. ISBN 1-85333-280-1. p 34.
- Law of Family Rights 1954 (Gaza Strip)
- The English Law of Bigamy in a Multi-Confessional Society: The Israel Experience by P Shifman.
- Administrative decision no. 78/1995 of the Qadi al-Quda (on the age of marriage—Gaza Strip)
- A Review of Palestinian Legislation from a Woman's Rights Perspective p.22
- Palestinian Marriage Laws
- Laws of Jordan
- "Palestinian National Authority Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics Press Conference on the Preliminary Results: Domestic Violence Survey -2005" (PDF). Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
- Lukatela, Ana (March 2016). "The Path to Justice for Palestinian Women". This Week In Palestine (215): 27. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
- "Family Protection Unit and Juvenile Unit". Retrieved 15 March 2016.
- Abdallah, Said (March 2016). "Mukhtaras: Female Leaders in Tribal Justice". This Week In Palestine (215): 13. Retrieved 14 March 2016.