Three World Trade Center
|Three World Trade Center|
Rendering of 3 World Trade Center from ground level
|Location||175 Greenwich Street
New York City
|Owner||World Trade Center Properties, LLC|
|Height||1,079 ft (329 m)|
|Floor area||2,232,984 sq ft (207,451.0 m2)|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners|
|Structural engineer||WSP Cantor Seinuk|
|Main contractor||Tishman Construction|
Three World Trade Center (also known as 175 Greenwich Street) is a skyscraper under construction as part of the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The project lies on the east side of Greenwich Street, across the street from the previous location of the Twin Towers, which were destroyed during the September 11 attacks in 2001. Pritzker Prize-winning architect Richard Rogers, of Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners, was awarded the contract to design the building, which is planned to be 329 m (1,079 ft) tall with 80 stories. As of October 2013[update], its below-grade foundations are complete, and several floors have been built above street level. The building is slated to be completed in 2018.
Original building (1979–2001)
The Marriott World Trade Center was a 22-story steel-framed hotel building with 825 rooms. It had a roof height of 73.7 m (242 ft) and was designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. Its structural engineer was Leslie E. Robertson Associates with Tishman Construction serving as the main contractor. Construction began in 1979. It opened in July 1981 as the Vista International Hotel and was located at 3 World Trade Center in New York City.
The Vista International Hotel was the first hotel to open in Lower Manhattan since 1836. The hotel was originally owned by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and KUO Hotels of Korea with Hilton International acting as management agent. It was sold in 1995 to Host Marriott Corporation.
The hotel was connected to the North and South Towers, and many went through the hotel to get to the Twin Towers. The hotel had a few establishments including The American Harvest Restaurant, The Greenhouse Cafe, Tall Ships Bar & Grill, a store called Times Square Gifts, The Russia House Restaurant and a Grayline New York Tours Bus ticket counter, a gym that was the largest of any hotel in New York at the time, and a hair salon named Olga's. The hotel also had 26,000 square feet (2,400 m2) of meeting space on the entire 3rd floor along with The New Amsterdam Ballroom on the main floor, and was considered a four-diamond hotel by AAA.
1993 World Trade Center bombing
On February 26, 1993, the hotel was seriously damaged as a result of the World Trade Center bombing. Terrorists took a Ryder truck loaded with 1,500 pounds (682 kilograms) of explosives and parked it in the One World Trade Center parking garage, below the hotel's ballroom. At 12:18pm (Eastern Time), an explosion destroyed or seriously damaged the lower and sub levels of the World Trade Center complex. After extensive repairs, the hotel reopened in November 1994.
September 11, 2001 attacks
On September 11, 2001, the hotel was at full capacity, and had over 1,000 registered guests. In addition, the National Association for Business Economics (NABE) was holding its yearly conference at the hotel.
When American Airlines Flight 11 crashed into the North Tower (1 WTC), the landing gear fell into the roof of the Marriott hotel. There were many eyewitness accounts from firefighters who went up the stairs in the Marriott hotel to the second floor. Firefighters used the lobby as the staging area, and were also in the hotel to evacuate rooms with guests who were believed to be still inside the hotel. Firefighters also reported bodies on the roof from the people who had jumped or fallen from the burning towers.
The collapse of the South Tower (2 WTC) destroyed the center of the hotel (such damage can briefly be seen in the documentary film, 9/11), and the collapse of the North Tower destroyed the rest of the hotel aside from a small section (as seen on the picture) that was farthest from the North Tower. Fourteen people who had been trying to evacuate the partially destroyed hotel after the first collapse managed to survive the second collapse in this small section. The section of the hotel that had managed to survive the collapse of the Twin Towers had been upgraded after the 1993 bombing.
As a result of the collapse of the Twin Towers, the hotel was destroyed. Only the south part of three stories of the building were still standing, all of which were gutted. In the remnants of the lobby, picture frames with the pictures were still hanging on the walls. Approximately 40 people died in the hotel, including two hotel employees and many firefighters who were using the hotel as a staging ground. In January 2002, the remnants of the hotel were completely dismantled.
3 World Trade Center was originally planned for a podium of seven stories for trading floors, with a 73-floor office tower rising from it. The diamond braces initially planned for the front and rear faces of the building have been dropped from the design and the tower is to be built without them. However, the diagonal bracing on the sides will remain. The four spires in the design originally gave the tower a pinnacle height of 1,240 feet (378 m), meaning it would have become the third-tallest building in New York City by pinnacle height. The total floor space of the building is planned to include 2,000,000 sq ft (190,000 m2) of office and retail space. The building's groundbreaking took place in January 2008, and at that time it was scheduled to be completed by 2014. The structural engineer for the building is WSP. In November 2010, three PureCell fuel cells were delivered at the World Trade Center site which together will provide about 30% of the tower’s power.
On May 11, 2009, it was announced that the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was seeking to reduce 175 Greenwich Street to a "stump" building of approximately four stories. The overall plan, which also called for a similar reduction in height for 2 World Trade Center and the cancellation of 5 World Trade Center, would halve the amount of office space available in the fully reconstructed World Trade Center to 5,000,000 sq ft (460,000 m2). The agency cited the recession and disagreements with developer Larry Silverstein as reasons for the proposed reduction. Silverstein opposed the plan, filing a notice of dispute on July 7, 2009. By doing so, the development firm began a two-week period during which renegotiated settlements and a binding arbitration regarding the construction of the four World Trade Center towers could be made. Silverstein Properties, which has paid the Port Authority over US$2.75 billion in financing, noted the organization’s inability to meet construction obligations in its official complaint.
On October 2, 2012, the large advertising and media company GroupM was confirmed by several sources to be in the preliminary negotiations to anchor 3 World Trade Center in a deal that would allow construction to begin on the planned 80-story office tower. The lease would be about 550,000 square feet in size, a large enough commitment to qualify the project for up to $600 million in public benefits in the form of a mix of equity and loan guarantees from the city, state and Port Authority.
By the beginning of 2012, Silverstein Properties and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey reached an agreement to only build 3 World Trade Center to seven stories, unless tenants can be found to fund the building. According to a March 2010 agreement between Silverstein Properties and the Port Authority, Silverstein Properties must find tenants to lease 400,000 square feet of the building and it must raise US$300 million in private financing in order to receive additional funding. If Silverstein Properties meets those triggers, then the Port Authority, City of New York, and New York State will provide an additional US$390 million towards the tower's completion. Silverstein Properties also needs to provide financing for the remaining cost of the tower before it can be completed. The existing foundation of the tower was built entirely with insurance proceeds, and until Silverstein Properties meets the requirements. The agreement also implemented a "cash trap" to make sure that public investments are paid off before Silverstein Properties makes any profits from the tower.
The tower portion of 3 World Trade Center will be fully built after meeting the requirements. Silverstein Properties is optimistic that leases will be signed. A spokesperson speaking on the issue of rebuilding the site commented: "Three WTC should be up by 2015; although; we do have one milestone to hit: We need to get a 400,000-square-foot tenant in order to get a financing backstop that makes sure we will complete that building. So, that’s a question mark, and it’s a major priority of Silverstein Properties". The Port Authority believes that the 2010 agreement will allow market demand to drive the construction of the towers and help to limit public investment since the Port Authority has other projects that need attention in the region. In late June 2012, David Zalesne, president of Owen Steel, confirmed that construction of the tower will continue and that Owen Steel has been selected to provide the structural steel for the building. In July 2013 it was reported that GroupM had signed on with Silverstein Properties as the building's anchor tenant, which would allow the tower to resume construction in late 2013. It is currently unknown if Marriott plans to reopen its hotel in the new tower.
By February 2012, the ground floor concrete was almost done and the lower podium had reached the 5th floor. On May 18, 2012 a construction update was released which stated that the superstructure work was continuing, and that forms, rebar, and concrete placement work was also continuing. Additionally, utilities for the site were being installed. The construction agency expected the lower podium to reach a capped height of 7 stories by September 2012. As of August 2013, construction on the podium is nearly complete, and work on the rest of the podium and the tower will continue in January 2014, when the tower crane is returned to the site.
On June 25, 2014, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey reached an agreement with Larry Silverstein to finance the completion of 3 World Trade Center, and construction of the tower resumed. The tower crane has been returned and the new anticipated completion is late 2017.
As of June 2015, 3 World Trade Center's core has risen to the 19th floor and steel to the 14th floor. As of June 28, 2015, one more tower crane has been built on the site, bringing the total to 3 cranes. Another crane arrived in July.
- Buildings and architecture of New York City
- List of tallest buildings in New York City
- List of former hotels in Manhattan
- Tallest buildings in the United States
- World Trade Center (1973–2001)
- Steve Cuozzo (March 17, 2015). "3 World Trade Center construction nearing an end date". New York Post. Retrieved June 16, 2015.
- Three World Trade Center at CTBUH Skyscraper Database
- Three World Trade Center at Emporis
- Three World Trade Center at SkyscraperPage
- Three World Trade Center at Structurae
- "3 World Trade Center || Construction || Images || World Trade Center ||". Wtc.com. Retrieved 2014-04-24.
- Geiger, Daniel (2012-10-03). "GroupM Considers Huge Lease to Anchor 3 WTC". Commercial Observer. Retrieved 2013-11-03.
- Lew, H. S., Richard W. Bukowski, and Nicholas J. Carino. "Design, Construction, and Maintenance of Structural and Life Safety Systems (pdf)" (PDF). National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
- Eisner, Harvey (April 2002). "Terrorist Attack At New York World Trade Center". Firehouse Magazine.
- "New York Marriott World Trade Center (archived website)". Archived from the original on 2001-03-02. Retrieved 2001-03-02.
- Dwyer, Jim; Fessenden, Ford (September 11, 2002). "One Hotel's Fight to the Finish; At the Marriott, a Portal to Safety as the Towers Fell". The New York Times.
- "Designs for three World Trade Center Towers Unveiled" (Press release). Lower Manhattan Development Corporation. September 7, 2006. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
- "Tower 3 Schedule". Silverstein Properties, Inc. Archived from the original on 2009-06-14. Retrieved 2009-04-18.
- Pogrebin, Robin (May 3, 2006). "Richard Rogers to Design Tower at Ground Zero". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
- "Ground Zero Office Designs Hailed as Hopeful Symbols" Engineering News-Record, September 18, 2006, pg. 12
- Troianovski, Anton (November 1, 2010). "WTC Taps Fuel Cells". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Port Authority wants to dump three of five proposed skyscrapers for WTC site". NY Daily News. 2009-05-10. Retrieved 2014-04-24.
- "Journalists comments on: GroupM Considers Huge Lease to Anchor 3 WTC from commercialobserver.com". Muck Rack. Retrieved 2014-04-24.
- "Press Release Article - Port Authority of NY & NJ". Panynj.gov. Retrieved 2014-04-24.
- "Silverstein to call a halt at 3 WTC | Crain's New York Business". Crainsnewyork.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03.
- "Silverstein still hopes to land 3 WTC tenant | Crain's New York Business". Crainsnewyork.com. 2012-01-23. Retrieved 2013-11-03.
- "The Newspaper of Lower Manhattan". Downtown Express. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
- "Business Notebook - Business". TheState.com. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
- "The Real Deal - Major tenant deal will allow Silverstein’s 3 WTC to rise". New York City Real Estate News. Retrieved 2013-07-09.
- Hutchins, Ryan. "Future of 3 W.T.C. up in the air as P.A. debates subsidy". Capital New York. Retrieved 2014-04-24.
- "Port Authority Board Puts Off Vote On Loan For 3 World Trade Center « CBS New York". Newyork.cbslocal.com. 2014-04-11. Retrieved 2014-04-24.
- "Lower Manhattan : 3 World Trade Center (175 Greenwich Street)". Lowermanhattan.info. 2006-09-08. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
- Porter, Dave (2014-06-25). "Deal Reached to Finish 3 World Trade Center Tower". Associated Press. Retrieved 2014-08-02.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Three World Trade Center.|
- 175 Greenwich Street Official site
- 175 Greenwich Street Design Update (video)
- Marriott World Trade Center Survivors
- Stories by NABE members about the attack
- The 9/11 Hotel, a five-part documentary video on YouTube including interviews with surviving guests and workers at the Marriott World Trade Center
- Marriott World Trade Center Website - Archived on Internet Archive