A planet symbol (or planetary symbol) is a graphical symbol used in astrology and astronomy to represent a classical planet (including the Sun and the Moon) or one of the eight modern planets. The symbols are also used in alchemy to represent the metals that are associated with the planets. The use of these symbols is based in ancient Greco-Roman astronomy, although their current shapes are a development of the 16th century.
The classical planets with their symbols and associated metals are:
The International Astronomical Union (IAU) discourages the use of these symbols in modern journal articles, and their style manual proposes one- and two-letter abbreviations for the names of the planets for cases where planetary symbols might be used, such as in the headings of tables. The modern planets with their traditional symbols and IAU abbreviations are:
The written symbols for Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, and Saturn have been traced to forms found in late Greek papyri. Early forms are also found in medieval Byzantine codices which preserve ancient horoscopes. Antecedents of the planetary symbols are attested in the attributes given to classical deities, represented in simplified pictographic form in the Roman era. Bianchini's planisphere (2nd century, Louvre inv. Ma 540) shows the seven planets represented by portraits of the seven corresponding gods, each with a simple representation of an attribute, as follows: Mercury has a caduceus; Venus has a cord attached to her necklace which is connected to another necklace; Mars has a spear; Jupiter has a staff; Saturn has a scythe; the Sun has a circlet with rays emanating from it; and the Moon has a headdress with a crescent attached to it.
A diagram in the astronomical compendium by Johannes Kamateros (12th century) shows the Sun represented by the circle with a ray, Jupiter by the letter zeta (the initial of Zeus, Jupiter's counterpart in Greek mythology), Mars by a shield crossed by a spear, and the remaining classical planets by symbols resembling the modern ones, without the cross-mark seen in modern versions of the symbols. These cross-marks first appear in the late 15th or early 16th century. According to Maunder, the addition of crosses appears to be "an attempt to give a savour of Christianity to the symbols of the old pagan gods."
The modern symbols for the seven classical planets are found in a woodcut of the seven planets in a Latin translation of Abu Ma'shar's De Magnis Coniunctionibus printed at Venice in 1506, represented as the corresponding gods riding chariots.
Early modern depiction of the planet symbols in an alchemical context (Musaeum Hermeticum, 1678)
Depiction of the planets in a 15th-century Arabic manuscript of Abu Ma'shar's "Book of nativities"
U+1F728 🜨 ALCHEMICAL SYMBOL FOR VERDIGRIS (HTML
U+2641 ♁ EARTH (HTML
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Earth symbols.|
Earth is not one of the classical planets (the word "planet" by definition describing "wandering stars" as seen from Earth's surface). Its status as planet is a consequence of the development of heliocentrism. Nevertheless, there is an ancient symbol for the world, now used as planetary symbols for the Earth. This is a circle crossed with an equator and meridian, representing the four cardinal directions: 🜨. A medieval symbol for the world – the globus cruciger, ♁ (the globe surmounted by a Christian cross) – is also used as a planetary symbol.
The planetary symbols for Earth are encoded in Unicode at U+1F728 🜨 ALCHEMICAL SYMBOL FOR VERDIGRIS and U+2641 ♁ EARTH.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Luna symbols.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Crescent moon symbols.|
The crescent shape has been used to represent the Moon since earliest times. In classical antiquity, it is worn by lunar deities (Selene/Luna, Artemis/Diana, Men, etc.) either on the head or behind the shoulders, with its horns pointing upward. Its representation with the horns pointing sideways (as a heraldic crescent increscent or crescent decrescent) is early modern.
The same symbol can be used in a different context not for the Moon itself but for a lunar phase, as part of a sequence of four symbols for "new moon" (U+1F311 🌑), "waxing" (U+263D ☽), "full moon" (U+1F315 🌕) and "waning" (U+263E ☾).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mercury symbols.|
The symbol for Mercury is a caduceus (a staff intertwined with two serpents), a symbol Mercury/Hermes throughout antiquity. Some time after the 11th century, a cross was added to the bottom of the staff to make it seem more Christian.
Its Unicode codepoint is U+263F ☿ MERCURY (HTML
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Venus symbols.|
The Venus symbol, cross below it. It has been understood to stand for the mirror of the goddess, though that may not be its true origin; the planetary metal associated with Venus was copper, and polished copper has been used for mirrors from antiquity. In the Greek Oxyrhynchus Papyri, the symbols for Venus and Mercury didn't have the cross-bar on the bottom stroke., consists of a circle with a small
In botany and biology, it is used to represent the female sex (alongside the equivalent symbol for Mars representing the male sex), following a convention introduced by Linnaeus in the 1750s. Arising from the biological convention, the symbol also came to be used in sociological contexts to represent women or femininity.
The symbol appears without the cross-mark (⚲) in Johannes Kamateros (12th century). In the Bianchini's planisphere (2nd century), Venus is represented by a necklace. The (mistaken) idea that the symbol represents the goddess's hand mirror was introduced by Joseph Justus Scaliger in the late 16th century. Claudius Salmasius, in the early 17th century, established that it derived from the Greek abbreviation for Phosphoros, the planet's name.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sun symbols.|
Bianchini's planisphere, produced in the 2nd century, has a circlet with rays radiating from it.
A diagram in Johannes Kamateros' 12th century Compendium of Astrology shows the Sun represented by a circle with a ray. This older symbol is encoded by Unicode as U+1F71A 🜚 ALCHEMICAL SYMBOL FOR GOLD (HTML
🜚). in the Alchemical Symbols block.
Medieval (Johannes Kamateros, 12th century) astronomical symbol for the Sun (and alchemical symbol for gold)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mars symbols.|
The Mars symbol, , is a depiction of a circle with an arrow emerging from it, pointing at an angle to the upper right. As astrological symbol it represents the planet Mars. It is also the old and obsolete symbol for iron in alchemy. In zoology and botany, it is used to represent the male sex (alongside the astrological symbol for Venus representing the female sex), following a convention introduced by Linnaeus in the 1750s.
The symbol dates from at latest the 11th century, at which time it was an arrow across or through a circle, thought to represent the shield and spear of the god Mars; in the medieval form, for example in the 12th-century Compendium of Astrology by Johannes Kamateros, the spear is drawn across the shield. The Greek Oxyrhynchus Papyri appear to show a different symbol, perhaps simply a spear.
The Mars symbol in the municipal coat of arms of Loppi in Finland
Its Unicode codepoint is U+2642 ♂ MALE SIGN (HTML
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jupiter symbols.|
The origin of the symbol for Jupiter is not entirely clear. Jupiter's attribute is a sceptre (as king of the gods), but Kamateros (12th century) represents Jupiter simply by the letter zeta ζ (for Zeus). The modern symbol as used from the 16th century is apparently based on a majuscule zeta with the addition of a vertical stroke to form the Christian cross. The less-than-intuitive symbol gave rise to various ad hoc interpretations by modern commentators; thus, the editors of the Penny cyclopedia (1842) thought might "supposed to be a symbol of the thunder (arm and hand holding thunder?)" and more recently the sign has been reported as based on the "Egyptian hieroglyph for the eagle".
Its Unicode codepoint is U+2643 ♃ JUPITER (HTML
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saturn symbols.|
Saturn is usually depicted with a scythe or sickle. In this case too, Salmasius shows that the symbol derives from the initial letters (Kappa, rho) of its ancient Greek name Κρόνος (Kronos). In Kamateros (12th century) the symbol is shown in a shape similar to the letter eta η, with the horizontal stroke added along with the "Christianization" of the other symbols in the early 16th century.
Its Unicode codepoint is U+2644 ♄ SATURN (HTML
The symbols for Uranus were created shortly after its discovery in 1781. One symbol, , invented by J. G. Köhler and refined by Bode, was intended to represent the newly discovered metal platinum; since platinum, commonly called white gold, was found by chemists mixed with iron, the symbol for platinum combines the alchemical symbols for iron, ♂, and gold, ☉. This symbol also combines the symbols of Mars (♂) and the Sun (☉) because in Greek Mythology, Uranus represented heaven, and represents the combined power of Mars' spear and the Sun. The same symbol was used in inverted form . Another symbol, , was suggested by Lalande in 1784. In a letter to Herschel, Lalande described it as "un globe surmonté par la première lettre de votre nom" ("a globe surmounted by the first letter of your name").
For use in computer systems, the symbols are encoded U+26E2 ⛢ ASTRONOMICAL SYMBOL FOR URANUS and U+2645 ♅ URANUS , a globe surmounted by the letter H for Herschel):
Several symbols were proposed for Neptune to accompany the suggested names for the planet. Claiming the right to name his discovery, Urbain Le Verrier originally proposed the name the planet for the Greek God Neptune and the symbol of a trident, while falsely stating that this had been officially approved by the French Bureau des Longitudes. In October, he sought to name the planet Leverrier, after himself, and he had loyal support in this from the observatory director, François Arago, who in turn proposed a new symbol for the planet (). However, this suggestion met with stiff resistance outside France. French almanacs quickly reintroduced the name Herschel for Uranus, after that planet's discoverer Sir William Herschel, and Leverrier for the new planet. Professor James Pillans of the University of Edinburgh defended the name Janus for the new planet, and proposed a key for its symbol. Meanwhile, Struve presented the name Neptune on December 29, 1846, to the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences. In August 1847, the Bureau des Longitudes announced its decision to follow prevailing astronomical practice and adopt the choice of Neptune, with Arago refraining from participating in this decision.
For use in computer systems, the accepted symbol is encoded U+2646 ♆ NEPTUNE.
Pluto was also considered a planet from its discovery in 1930 until its re-classification as a "dwarf planet" in 2006. The symbol used for Pluto was a ligature of the letters P and L. For use with computer systems, it is encoded as U+2647 ♇ PLUTO.
In the 19th century, symbols for the major asteroids were also in use, including 4 Vesta (an altar with fire on it, encoded U+26B6 ⚶ VESTA); 3 Juno (a sceptre, encoded U+26B5 ⚵ JUNO); the dwarf planet Ceres (a reaper's scythe, encoded U+26B3 ⚳ CERES); 2 Pallas (U+26B4 ⚴ PALLAS). Unicode furthermore has a symbol (U+26B7 ⚷ CHIRON) for 2060 Chiron (discovered 1977).
|(♇) PLUTO at U+2647.|
|(⚳) CERES at U+26B3.|
|(⚴) PALLAS at U+26B4.|
|(⚵) JUNO at U+26B5.|
|(⚶) VESTA at U+26B6.|
|(⚷) CHIRON at U+26B7.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Planet symbols.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alchemical symbols.|
- The IAU Style Manual (PDF). 1989. p. 27.
- Or 'H', with 'M' for 'Mars'. In a provision for the unlikely event a satellite were ever discovered around Mercury, it would be abbreviated 'H1'.
- Jones, Alexander (1999). Astronomical papyri from Oxyrhynchus. pp. 62–63. ISBN 0-87169-233-3. Cite error: The named reference "jones-1999" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: The named reference "jones-1999" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: The named reference "jones-1999" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- Neugebauer, Otto (1975). A history of ancient mathematical astronomy. pp. 788–789. ISBN 0-387-06995-X.
- "Bianchini's planisphere". Florence, Italy: Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza (Institute and Museum of the History of Science). Retrieved 2010-03-17.
- Maunder (1934)
- Maunder (1934:239)
- BNF Arabe 2583 fol. 15v. Saturn is shown as a black bearded man, kneeling and holding a scythe or axe; Mercury is shown as a scribe holding an open codex; Jupiter as a man of the law wearing a turban; Venus as a lute-player; Mars as a helmeted warrior holding a sword and the head of an enemy.
- The Penny cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 22. C. Knight. 1842. p. 197.
- The Encyclopedia Americana: a library of universal knowledge. 26. Encyclopedia Americana Corp. 1920. pp. 162–163. Retrieved 2011-03-24.
- Cox, Arthur (2001). Allen's astrophysical quantities. Springer. p. 2. ISBN 0-387-95189-X.
- Stearn, William T. (May 1968). "The Origin of the Male and Female Symbols of Biology". Taxon. 11 (4): 109–113. doi:10.2307/1217734. JSTOR 1217734. S2CID 87030547.
- Schott, GD (December 2005). "Sex symbols ancient and modern: their origins and iconography on the pedigree". The BMJ. 331 (7531): 1509–10. doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7531.1509. ISSN 0959-8138. PMC 1322246. PMID 16373733.
- Stearn, William T. (May 1962). "The Origin of the Male and Female Symbols of Biology" (PDF). Taxon. 11 (4): 109–113. doi:10.2307/1217734. ISSN 0040-0262. JSTOR 1217734. "In his Systema Naturae (Leyden, 1735) he Linnaeus used them with their traditional associations for metals. Their first biological use is in the Linnaean dissertation Plantae hybridae xxx sistit J. J. Haartman (1751) where in discussing hybrid plants Linnaeus denoted the supposed female parent species by the sign ♀, the male parent by the sign ♂, the hybrid by ☿ ("matrem signo ♀, patrem ♂ & plantam hybridam ☿ designavero"). In subsequent publications he retained the signs ♀ and ♂ for male and female individuals but discarded ☿ for hybrids; the last are now indicated by the multiplication sign ×. Linnaeus's first general use of the signs of ♀ and ♂ was in his Species Plantarum (1753) written between 1746 and 1752 and surveying concisely the whole plant kingdom as then known." (p. 110)
- Stearn, William T. (17 August 1961). "The Male and Female Symbols of Biology". New Scientist. 11 (248): 412–413. LCCN 59030638.
- see Hiram Mattison, A high-school astronomy (1857), p. 32.
- In the official code chart glossed " = Venus = alchemical symbol for copper → 1F469 👩 woman → 1F6BA 🚺 womens symbol".
- Maunder (1934), p. 245.
- Falun was the site of a copper mine from at least the 13th century. A coat of arms including a copper sign is recorded for 1642; the current design dates to the early 20th century, and was given official recognition in 1932. It was slightly simplified upon the formation of the modern municipality in 1971 (registered with the Swedish Patent and Registration Office. in 1988).
- Claimed to have been designed by Robin Morgan in the 1960s. "Morgan designed the universal logo of the women's movement, the woman's symbol centered with a raised fist" (robinmorgan.net)
- Neugebauer, Otto; Van Hoesen, H. B. (1987). Greek Horoscopes. pp. 1, 159, 163.
- Maunder (1934), p. 244.
- Pat Ward, Barbara Ward, Space Frontiers, Grades 4 - 8: EXPLORING Astronomy, Carson-Dellosa Publishing, 22 Oct 2012 p. 42 (without further reference).
- Johann Franz Encke, Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch für 1853, Berlin 1850, p. VIII
- Bode, J.E. (1784). Von dem neu entdeckten Planeten. Beim Verfaszer. pp. 95–96. Bibcode:1784vdne.book.....B.
- Gould, B.A. (1850). Report on the history of the discovery of Neptune. Smithsonian Institution. p. 5.
- Cain, Fraser (26 July 2009). "Symbol for Uranus". Universe Today. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- Neilson, W.A.; Knott, T.A.; Carhart, P.W., eds. (January 1934). "(Appendix) Arbitrary signs and symbols". Webster's New International Unabridged Dictionary (2nd ed.). Springfield, MA: G. & C. Merriam. pp. 3001–3011.
- Francisca Herschel (August 1917). "The meaning of the symbol H+o for the planet Uranus". The Observatory. 40: 306. Bibcode:1917Obs....40..306H.
- Littmann, Mark; Standish, E. M. (2004). Planets Beyond: Discovering the Outer Solar System. Courier Dover Publications. p. 50. ISBN 0-486-43602-0.
- Pillans, James (1847). "Ueber den Namen des neuen Planeten". Astronomische Nachrichten. 25 (26): 389–392. Bibcode:1847AN.....25..389.. doi:10.1002/asna.18470252602.
- Baum, Richard; Sheehan, William (2003). In Search of Planet Vulcan: The Ghost in Newton's Clockwork Universe. Basic Books. pp. 109–110. ISBN 0-7382-0889-2.
- Schumacher, H. C. (1846). "Name des Neuen Planeten". Astronomische Nachrichten. 25: 81–82. Bibcode:1846AN.....25...81L. doi:10.1002/asna.18470250603.
- Gingerich, Owen (October 1958). "The Naming of Uranus and Neptune". Astronomical Society of the Pacific Leaflets. 8 (352): 9–15. Bibcode:1958ASPL....8....9G.
- Hind, J. R. (1847). "Second report of proceedings in the Cambridge Observatory relating to the new Planet (Neptune)". Astronomische Nachrichten. 25 (21): 309–314. Bibcode:1847AN.....25..309.. doi:10.1002/asna.18470252102.
- Bureau Des Longitudes, France (1847). Connaissance des temps: ou des mouvementes célestes, à l'usage des astronomes. p. unnumbered front matter.
- In the official code chart.