December 27, 1930 |
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
|Institutions||University of Chicago|
|Alma mater||University of Michigan
|Doctoral students||David Graeber|
|Part of a series on|
|Economic, applied and development
|Social and cultural anthropology|
Marshall David Sahlins (// SAH-linz; born December 27, 1930) is an American anthropologist best known for his ethnographic work in the Pacific and for his contributions to anthropological theory. He is currently Charles F. Grey Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus of Anthropology and of Social Sciences at the University of Chicago.
Sahlins received his bachelor of arts and master of arts degrees at the University of Michigan where he studied with evolutionary anthropologist Leslie White. He earned his PhD at Columbia University in 1954. There his intellectual influences included Eric Wolf, Morton Fried, Sydney Mintz, and the economic historian Karl Polanyi. After receiving his PhD, he returned to teach at the University of Michigan. In the 1960s he became politically active, and while protesting against the Vietnam War, Sahlins invented the imaginative form of protest called the "teach-in," which drew inspiration from the sit-in pioneered during the civil rights movement. In 1968, Sahlins signed the "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest" pledge, vowing to refuse tax payments in protest against the Vietnam War. In the late 1960s, he also spent two years in Paris, where he was exposed to French intellectual life (and particularly the work of Claude Lévi-Strauss) and the student protests of May 1968. In 1973, he took a position in the anthropology department at the University of Chicago, where he is currently the Charles F. Grey Distinguished Service Professor of Anthropology Emeritus. His commitment to activism has continued throughout his time at Chicago, most recently leading to his protest over the opening of the University's Confucius Institute (which later closed in the fall of 2014). On February 23, 2013, Sahlins resigned from the National Academy of Sciences to protest the call for military research for improving the effectiveness of small combat groups and also the election of Napoleon Chagnon. The resignation followed the publication in that month of Chagnon's memoir and widespread coverage of the memoir, including a profile of Chagnon in the New York Times magazine.
Alongside his research and activism, Sahlins trained a host students who went on to become prominent in the field. One such student, Gayle Rubin, said: "Sahlins is a mesmerizing speaker and a brilliant thinker. By the time he finished the first lecture, I was hooked.".
In 2001, Sahlins became publisher of Prickly Pear Pamphlets, which was started in 1993 by anthropologists Keith Hart and Anna Grimshaw, and was renamed Prickly Paradigm Press. The imprint specializes in small pamphlets on unconventional subjects in anthropology, critical theory, philosophy, and current events.
His brother was the writer and comedian Bernard Sahlins (1922–2013).
Sahlins' work has focused on demonstrating the power that culture has to shape people's perceptions and actions. He has been particularly concerned to demonstrate that culture has a unique power to motivate people that is not derived from biology. His early work focused on criticizing the idea of "economically rational man" and to demonstrate that economic systems adapted to particular circumstances in culturally specific ways. After the publication of Culture and Practical Reason in 1976, his focus shifted to the relation between history and anthropology, and the way different cultures understand and make history. Although his focus has been the entire Pacific, Sahlins has done most of his research in Fiji and Hawaii.
In his Evolution and Culture (1960), he touched the areas of cultural evolution and neoevolutionism. He divided the evolution of societies into "general" and "specific". General evolution is the tendency of cultural and social systems to increase in complexity, organization and adaptiveness to environment. However, as the various cultures are not isolated, there is interaction and a diffusion of their qualities (like technological inventions). This leads cultures to develop in different ways (specific evolution), as various elements are introduced to them in different combinations and on different stages of evolution.
In the late 1990s, Sahlins became embroiled in a heated debate with Gananath Obeyesekere over the details of Captain James Cook's death in the Hawaiian Islands in 1779. At the heart of the debate was how to understand the rationality of indigenous people. Obeyesekere insisted that indigenous people thought in essentially the same way as Westerners and was concerned that any argument otherwise would paint them as "irrational" and "uncivilized". In contrast Sahlins argued that each culture may have different types of rationality that make sense of the world by focusing on different patterns and explain them within specific cultural narratives, and that assuming that all cultures lead to a single rational view is a form of eurocentrism.
In 2011, a conference dedicated to the work of Marshall Sahlins was held at the Sorbonne in Paris.
- Social Stratification in Polynesia. Monographs of the American Ethnological Society, 29. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1958. (ISBN 978-0-295-74082-9)
- Evolution and Culture, edited with Elman R Service. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1960. (ISBN 978-0-472-08775-4)
- Moala: Culture and Nature on a Fijian Island. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1962.
- Tribesman. Foundations of American Anthropology Series. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1968.
- Stone Age Economics. New York: de Gruyter, 1972. (ISBN 978-0-415-33007-7)
- The Use and Abuse of Biology: An Anthropological Critique of Sociobiology. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1976. (ISBN 978-0-472-76600-0)
- Culture and Practical Reason. Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1976. (ISBN 978-0-226-73361-6)
- Historical Metaphors and Mythical Realities: Structure in the Early History of the Sandwich Islands Kingdom. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1981. (ISBN 978-0-472-02721-7)
- Islands of History . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. (ISBN 978-0-226-73358-6)
- Anahulu: The Anthropology of History in the Kingdom of Hawaii, with Patrick Vinton Kirch. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992. (ISBN 978-0-226-73365-4)
- How "Natives" Think: About Captain Cook, for Example. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. (ISBN 978-0-226-73368-5)
- Culture in Practice: Selected Essays. New York: Zone Books, 2000. (ISBN 978-0-942299-38-0)
- Waiting for Foucault, Still. Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press, 2002. (ISBN 978-0-971-75750-9)
- Apologies to Thucydides: Understanding History as Culture and Vice Versa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004. (ISBN 978-0-226-73400-2)
- The Western Illusion of Human Nature. Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press, 2008. (ISBN 978-0-9794057-2-3)
- What Kinship Is–and Is Not. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012. (ISBN 978-0-226-92512-7)
- Confucius Institute: Academic Malware. Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press, 2015. (ISBN 978-0-984-20108-2)
- Chevalier des Arts et des Lettres (Knight in the Order of Arts and Letters), awarded by the French Ministry of Culture
- honorary doctorates from the Sorbonne and the London School of Economics
- Gordon J. Laing Prize for Culture and Practical Reason, awarded by the University of Chicago Press
- Gordon J. Laing Prize for How "Natives" Think, awarded by the University of Chicago Press
- J. I. Staley Prize for Anahulu, awarded by the School of American Research
- Moore, Jerry D. 2009. "Marshall Sahlins: Culture Matters" in Visions of Culture: an Introduction to Anthropological Theories and Theorists, Walnut Creek, California: Altamira, pp. 365-385.
- Golub, Alex. "Marshall Sahlins". Oxford Bibliographies Online. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- Sahlins, Marshall (February 2009). "The Teach-Ins: Anti-War Protest in the Old Stoned Age". Anthropology Today 25 (1): 3–5. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8322.2009.00639.x. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest" January 30, 1968, New York Post
- Sahlins, Marshall (November 18, 2013). "China U". The Nation. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- Redden, Elizabeth (April 29, 2014). "Rejecting Confucius Funding". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- Redden, Elizabeth (September 26, 2014). "Chicago to Close Confucius Institute". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- Serena Golden, "A Protest Resignation", Inside Higher Ed, February 25, 2013.
- David Price, "The Destruction of Conscience in the National Academy of Sciences: An Interview with Marshall Sahlins", CounterPunch, February 26, 2013.
- Rubin, Gayle. Deviations: Gayle Rubin Reader. Durham: Duke University Press, 2011, p. 24.
- "Home". Prickly Paradigm Press.
- Sahlins, Marshall (1972). The Original Affluent Society. A short essay at p. 129 in: Delaney, Carol Lowery, pp.110-133. Investigating culture: an experiential introduction to anthropology. Oxford: Blackwell, 2004. ISBN 0-631-22237-5.
- Proceedings of the conference: Dianteill, Erwan, ed., La culture et les sciences de l'homme - Un dialogue avec Marshall Sahlins, Paris, Archives Karéline, 2012, 264 pp.
- Faculty Page at the University of Chicago
- Annotated Bibliography, written by Alex Golub
- Sahlins 101 hour-long video interview conducted by Matti Bunzl (former director of the Chicago Humanities Festival), November 2014
- De la modernité du projet anthropologique: Marshall Sahlins, l’histoire dialectique et la raison culturelle in French with audio excerpts in English
- In the Absence of the Metaphysical Field: An Interview with Marshall Sahlins
- About the controversy with Obeyesekere (See also Death of Cook article):
- Articles available for free download:
- "The Original Affluent Society"
- "Poor Man, Rich Man, Big Man, Chief; Political Types in Melanesia and Polynesia", Comparative Studies in Society and History, 5 (3): 285–303, 1963.
- Waiting for Foucault, Still, a pocket-sized book by Sahlins published in 2002 by Prickly Paradigm, now available for free online (in pdf)
- On the Anthropology of Levi-Strauss
- "On the Anthropology of Modernity: Or, Some Triumphs of Culture Over Despondency Theory" In Culture and Sustainable Development in the Pacific, edited by Anthony Hooper. Canberra, Australia: ANU E Press, 2005.
- Twin-born with greatness: the dual kingship of Sparta HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory, 1 (1): 63-101, 2011.
- Alterity and autochthony: Austronesian cosmographies of the marvelous. The 2008 Raymond Firth Lecture HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory, 2 (1): 131-160, 2012.
- On the culture of material value and the cosmography of riches, a distillation of Sahlins's critique of economics from an anthropological perspective, HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory, 3 (2): 161-195, 2013.
- Dear colleagues—and other colleagues, Response to Symposium on What Kinship Is--And Is Not HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory, 3 (3): 337-347, 2013.