The Marshall Scholarship is a postgraduate scholarship available to American students for study at any university in the United Kingdom. It is the most selective graduate Fellowship available to American undergraduates, with 3.2% of 970 university-endorsed applicants ultimately securing the scholarship in 2015, and along with the Fulbright Scholarship it is the only broadly available scholarship available to Americans to study at any University in the United Kingdom. It is widely considered one of the most prestigious scholarships for U.S. citizens.
Up to 40 scholars are selected each year (32 in 2016 ), out of a pool of approximately 1,000 applicants who have been endorsed by their Universities to apply. Currently, there are over 1,900 Marshall Scholar alumni. To date, alumni are or have been prominent CEOs (LinkedIn, Dolby Labs); Supreme Court justices; members of the United States Congress; members of the Presidential Cabinet of the United States; state Governors; the Deans of Yale Law School, Stanford Law School and the Harvard Kennedy School; presidents of seven universities or colleges, including Duke University, Wellesley College, the Cooper Union, and CalTech; and leaders in many academic and professional disciplines, including one Nobel Laureate, four Pulitzer Prize–winning authors, two winners of the John Bates Clark Medal for the best American economist under the age of 40 and the President of the National Bureau of Economic Research, the Managing Editors of TIME and CNN, one Astronaut, two Oscar nominees (for Apollo 13 and The Act of Killing), one winner of the National Medal of Technology and Innovation, and one awardee of the Distinguished Flying Cross for service during the Iraq War.
The scholarship was created by the Parliament of the United Kingdom when the Marshall Aid Commemoration Act was passed in 1953, serving as a living gift to the United States of America in recognition of the post-World War II European Recovery Plan, commonly known as the Marshall Plan, and inspired by the Rhodes Scholarship. The first class of Marshall Scholars, who began academic study in the fall of 1954, consisted of eight men and four women selected from a pool of 700 applicants. In addition to pure academic pursuits, the program aims to provide future leaders of America with insight into the "British ideals and way of life" and to strengthen the "Special Relationship" that exists between the United States and the United Kingdom.
A close accord between our two countries is essential to the good of mankind in this turbulent world of today, and that is not possible without an intimate understanding of each other. These scholarships point the way to the continuation and growth of the understanding which found its necessity in the terrible struggle of the war years.
The published objectives of the Marshall Scholarships are outlined as follows:
- To enable intellectually distinguished young Americans, their country's future leaders, to study in the UK.
- To help scholars gain an understanding and appreciation of contemporary Britain.
- To contribute to the advancement of knowledge in science, technology, the humanities and social sciences and the creative arts at Britain's centres of academic excellence.
- To motivate scholars to act as ambassadors from the USA to the UK and vice versa throughout their lives thus strengthening British American understanding.
- To promote the personal and academic fulfilment of each scholar.
Plans to establish "Marshall Scholarships" as a living memorial to George Marshall were announced by British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden on July 31, 1952, and were enacted by the Parliament of the United Kingdom when the Marshall Aid Commemoration Act was passed in 1953. The act's passage was backed by "leaders of all political hues," with British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin describing the scholarship's establishment as "a great opportunity for Europe." From its establishment, the Marshall Scholarship has been open to both men and women, while the Rhodes Scholarship which inspired it only became open to women beginning in 1977 following the passage of the British Sex Discrimination Act in 1975.
In 1959, when Parliament doubled the number of scholars from 12 to 24, British politician Philip Noel-Baker argued that "Marshall, more than perhaps any other man, destroyed isolation in the United States and built up the conception that only collective security through international institutions can save the world...I think the world has never seen an act of greater national generosity than Marshall aid and the other aid which the United States has given to other continents throughout the last 15 years." By 1960, six years after their establishment, the scholarship was "on its way to becoming as well-known and respected as the fellow phrase, "Rhodes [Scholarship]," and both scholarships attracted roughly 500 to 600 applicants.
The number of scholars was increased to 30 in 1973, 40 in 1991, and between 2004-2007 "up to 44". In 2010, the Commission decided to offer a limited number of one year awards. In the early years of the Marshall Scholarship, it was common for new Scholars to travel together to the UK via cruise ship, but now Scholars are usually flown together to London from Washington, D.C. following a welcome program with top US and UK government and diplomatic officials.
Selection, Selectivity, and Academic Destinations
Prospective applicants must first be endorsed by their universities to apply. The selection process is then coordinated through the eight major British embassy/consulate regions in the United States (Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, and Washington, D.C.). Selection committees in each region, consisting of former Scholars and other distinguished individuals, receive university-endorsed applications (including personal statements and essays) which are used to select a short list of candidates for interviews. Each committee then interviews each of the regional finalists prior to making the final decisions on the year's awards. In 2014, 16% of university-endorsed applicants received an interview.
Although most of the responsibility for selecting the recipients is in the hands of the committees, a few formal guidelines have been outlined in the official selection criteria, most notably:
As future leaders, with a lasting understanding of British society, Marshall Scholars will strengthen the enduring relationship between the British and American peoples, their governments and their institutions. Marshall Scholars are talented, independent and wide-ranging in their interests, and their time as Scholars will enhance their intellectual and personal growth. Their direct engagement with Britain through its best academic programmes will contribute to their ultimate personal success. In appointing Scholars the selectors will look for distinction of intellect and character as evidenced both by their scholastic attainments and by their other activities and achievements. Preference will be given to candidates who display a potential to make a significant contribution to their own society. Selectors will also look for strong motivation and seriousness of purpose, including the presentation of a specific and realistic academic programme.
Between 900 and 1000 students typically apply for the Marshall Scholarship annually, with 979 applying in 2014 (compared to 857 for the Rhodes Scholarship), of whom 3.4% were ultimately selected. In 2015, 3.2% of university-endorsed applicants to the Marshall Scholarship were elected.
The Marshall selection committees place a strong emphasis on academic achievement and potential, and as such the application requires a minimum GPA of 3.7. Successful applicants, however, typically have much higher GPAs: more than half of applicants have perfect academic records. Winners from the University of Chicago and Harvard University have had average GPAs of 3.92, and Stanford University recommends that applicants have a GPA of 3.8 or above. In comparison, winners of the Rhodes Scholarship from Harvard have had an average GPA of 3.8.
Between 1954 and 2013, 239 of 1818 scholars received their undergraduate degrees from Harvard University (13%), 126 from Princeton, 108 from Yale, 83 from Stanford, and 60 from MIT. The most successful public university is the US Military Academy at West Point, with 34 scholars, followed by the University of California at Berkeley, with 28 scholars. Of the 548 scholars elected between 2000 and 2013, 30 were from Harvard and Stanford (5%), 26 from Princeton, 21 from Yale, and 17 from MIT, the US Military Academy at West Point, and the US Naval Academy.
The majority of Scholars choose to attend either Oxford, Cambridge, University College London (UCL), Imperial College London, London School of Economics, King's College London, or one of the other major London institutions, but Scholars have attended a wide range of universities throughout the UK, many of which are ranked among the best in the world. In 2013, there were 73 Marshall Scholars in residence at British universities including those who were selected for the classes of 2010, 2011, and 2012. During this time, there were 24 Scholars at University of Oxford, 23 at the University of London (including 7 at the London School of Economics and 6 at University College London), 12 at the University of Cambridge, and 6 at Imperial College London. Of these scholars, 53 were studying Arts and Social Sciences while 20 were studying Science, Engineering or Mathematics.
Comparison to other American Post-Graduate Scholarships
In structure and selection criteria, the Scholarship is most similar to the American Rhodes Scholarship and Fulbright Program. Like the Fulbright available for study in the United Kingdom, Marshall Scholars can study at any university in the UK. However, under the Fulbright, applicants compete in separate pools for 43 specified universities, except for two awards tenable at any university.
In structure, the Marshall Scholarship is more flexible than the American Rhodes Scholarship, in that Marshall Scholars can study at any British university, and can also attend a different university each year during a Scholar's tenure. In addition, a limited number of one-year Marshall scholarships are available. Unlike Rhodes Scholars, Marshall Scholars must be American citizens (in comparison, approximately 80 Rhodes Scholarships are given annually to citizens of over a dozen countries). In process, the Marshall Scholarship is marginally more selective than the American Rhodes Scholarship, electing 3.4% of university-endorsed applicants in 2014, compared to 3.7% for the Rhodes. In addition, the selection processes differ in the difficulty with which it is to secure a final round interview: in 2014, 15.9% of university-endorsed applicants for the Marshall Scholarship received a finalist interview, compared to 24% of Rhodes applicants.
While the selection committees continues to emphasize academic potential, over time "the Marshall program has become more Rhodes-like, stating that it is seeking persons who also demonstrate leadership potential." In general, "nearly all Rhodes Scholars are willing to admit that, by and large, the Marshalls are superior if one looks just at grade point averages and other signs of academic achievement," but this is a point of both "admiration" and "disdain.":293 Walter Isaacson, describing Rhodes Scholars as "fairly intelligent, well-rounded, honest people who could be counted on to be upstanding citizens," has said that "the real geniuses...were the Marshall Scholars," perhaps because of the expectation that Rhodes Scholars be "all-rounders." In practice, the Marshall and Rhodes have engaged an "informal rivalry," but in career trajectory after the completion of their fellowships, "the line between [the fellowships] is not so evident," with scholars pursuing similar fields with similar success. In general, a higher percentage of Marshall Scholars "go on to careers in academe and research, whereas Rhodes Scholars are more evenly scattered through the full range of professional occupations.":357
Notable Marshall Scholars
To date, Marshall Scholar alumni are or have been prominent CEOs (LinkedIn, Dolby Labs); Supreme Court justices; members of the United States Congress; members of the Presidential Cabinet of the United States; state Governors; the Deans of Yale Law School and Stanford Law School; presidents of six universities or colleges, including Duke University, Wellesley College, the Cooper Union, and CalTech; and leaders in many academic and professional disciplines, including four Pulitzer Prize–winning authors, two winners of the John Bates Clark Medal for the best American economist under the age of 40 and the President of the National Bureau of Economic Research, one Nobel Laureate, the Managing Editors of TIME and CNN, one Astronaut, one Oscar nominee, and one winner of the National Medal of Technology and Innovation.
As part of the celebrations for the 50th Anniversary of the Marshall Scholarships, Marshall Medals were awarded to a group of distinguished Americans in recognition of their contributions to US-UK relations, including Justice Stephen Breyer (1959 Marshall Scholar), Dr. Ray Dolby (1957 Marshall Scholar), Thomas L. Friedman (1975 Marshall Scholar), and former President of Duke University Nannerl Keohane (1961 Marshall Scholar).
|Name||US University||UK University||Year Awarded||Notability|
|A. Benjamin Spencer||Morehouse College||London School of Economics||1996||Professor at University of Virginia School Of Law|
|Adam Cohen||Harvard University||Cambridge University||2001||Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Physics at Harvard University|
|Alfred Guzzetti||Harvard University||University of London||1964||Experimental and Documentary Filmmaker, and Harvard University Professor|
|Amy Finkelstein||Harvard University||Oxford University||1995||Professor at MIT, Winner of the Clark Medal For Economics in 2012|
|Anne Applebaum||Yale University||London School of Economics||1986||Pulitzer Prize. Columnist for the Washington Post and Slate, former member of the Washington Post Editorial Board.|
|Anne McClain||U.S. Military Academy at West Point||University of Bath and University of Bristol||2002||Major, U.S. Army. NASA Astronaut.|
|Anthony C. E. Quainton||Princeton University||Oxford University||1955||Former Ambassador To Nicaragua, Kuwait, Peru, And Central African Empire, Director General of the Foreign Service|
|Arthur Jaffe||Princeton University||Cambridge University||1959||L.T. Clay Professor of Mathematics and Theoretical Science, Harvard University|
|Benjamin M. Friedman||Harvard University||Cambridge University||1966||American Political Economist|
|Bill Buford||University of California at Berkeley||Cambridge University||Founding Editor Of Granta, European Correspondent for the New Yorker|
|Bruce Babbitt||University of Notre Dame||Newcastle University||1960||Former Governor Of Arizona And U.S. Secretary Of The Interior For President Bill Clinton|
|Byron Auguste||Yale University||Oxford University||1989||Deputy Director, National Economic Council and Director of McKinsey’s Global Social Sector Office|
|Charles King||University of Arkansas||Oxford University||Georgetown University Professor and Author|
|Cindy Sughrue||Boston University||University of Sheffield||1985||CEO of Scottish Ballet|
|Collin O'Mara||Dartmouth College||Oxford University||2003||President of National Wildlife Federation; Former Delaware Secretary Of Natural Resources And Environmental Control|
|Daniel Benjamin||Harvard University||Oxford University||1983||Coordinator For Counterterrorism and Ambassador at Large, State Department|
|Daniel Klein||Cornell University||Oxford University||1998||Professor of Computer Science, University of California at Berkeley|
|Daniel Yergin||Yale University||Cambridge University||1968||Pulitzer Prize-Winning American Author, Speaker. Co-Founder And Chairman Of Cambridge Energy Research Associates.|
|David Laibson||Harvard University||London School of Economics||1988||Professor Of Economics, Harvard University|
|Derek Kilmer||Princeton University||Oxford University||1996||U.S. Representative for Washington's 6th Congressional District|
|Douglas A. Melton||University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign||Cambridge University||1975||Professor and Chair Of The Harvard University Department Of Stem Cell And Regenerative Biology|
|Drew Daniel||University of California at Berkeley||Oxford University||1993||Member of Matmos And Professor at Johns Hopkins University|
|E. Sterl Phinney||California Institute of Technology||Cambridge University||1980||Professor of Theoretical Physics at the California Institute of Technology|
|Ed Victor||Dartmouth College||Cambridge University||1961||Journalist and Literary Agent|
|Edward Hundert||Yale University||Oxford University||1978||Educator, Psychiatrist, and Medical Ethicist|
|George Marcus||Yale University||1968||Anthropologist At The University Of California, Irvine And Rice University|
|Graham Allison||Harvard University||Oxford University||1962||Foreign Policy Expert And Founding Dean Of Harvard University's Kennedy School Of Government; Former Undersecretary Of Defense|
|Harold Koh||Harvard University||Oxford University||1975||Legal Adviser Of The Department Of State; Former Dean Of The Yale Law School|
|James F. Gilliam||Columbia University||Oxford University||Biologist and ISI Highly Cited Researcher|
|James K. Galbraith||Harvard University||Cambridge University||1974||Economist and Journalist|
|Jason Bordoff||Brown University||Oxford University||1995||Former Special Assistant To The President, National Security Council|
|Jeff Modisett||University of California, Los Angeles||Oxford University||1978||Former Attorney General of Indiana|
|Jeffrey Gettleman||Cornell University||Oxford University||1994||Pulitzer Prize Winning Author, East Africa Bureau Chief for the New York Times|
|Jeffrey Rosen||Harvard University||Oxford University||Author, Law Professor, and Legal Affairs Editor At The New Republic|
|Jeffrey Rosensweig||Yale University||Oxford University||Author, Director Of Global Perspectives at the Goizueta School Of Business Of Emory University|
|Jennifer Daskal||Brown University||Cambridge University||1994||Former Counsel, National Security Division, Department Of Justice|
|Jenny Harrison||University of Alabama||University of Warwick||1971||Mathematician And Professor, University Of California, Berkeley|
|John Jay Iselin||Harvard University||Cambridge University||1959||Former President Of Cooper Union, Former President Of Wnet|
|John Spratt||Davidson College||Oxford University||1964||Congressman for South Carolina's 5th Congressional District (1983-2011), Chairman of the United States House Committee on the Budget (2007-2011)|
|Jonathan Orszag||Princeton University||Oxford University||1996||Senior Managing Director of Compass Lexecon, Senior Fellow at the Center for American Progress, former Clinton Administration Economic Advisor|
|Joshua Oppenheimer||Harvard University||University of the Arts London||1997||Award-Winning Documentary Film Director, Director of The Act of Killing, MacArthur "Genius" Award 2014|
|Kannon Shanmugam||Harvard University||Oxford University||1993||Supreme Court Litigator|
|Kathleen Sullivan||Cornell University||Oxford University||1976||Professor and Former Dean of Stanford Law School|
|Katie Beirne Fallon||University of Notre Dame||Queens University Belfast; London School of Economics||1998||Legislative Affairs Director, White House|
|Kelly Grovier||University of California, Los Angeles||Oxford University||1992||Poet and Literary Critic for the Observer and the Times Literary Supplement|
|Kim Campbell||United States Air Force Academy||Imperial College, London||1997||USAF Pilot, awarded Distinguished Flying Cross for service during the Iraq War|
|Kris Kobach||Harvard University||Oxford University||1988||Secretary of State of Kansas (2011), Chairman of the Kansas Republican Party, National Rowing Champion|
|Kurt M. Campbell||University of California, San Diego||Oxford University||1980||Assistant Secretary Of State For East Asian And Pacific Affairs|
|Lael Brainard||Wesleyan University||N/A||1983||Federal Reserve Board of Governors, Under Secretary of the Treasury for International Affairs|
|Lewis Sargentich||Occidental College||Sussex University||Professor At Harvard Law School|
|Linn Hobbs||Northwestern University||Oxford University||1966||Professor Emeritus of Materials Science and Nuclear Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology|
|Mark Filip||University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign||Oxford University||1988||United States Deputy Attorney General|
|Mark R Bell||Senior Fellow at Emory University's Center For Alternative Investments And Investor|
|Mark Whitaker||Harvard University||Oxford University||1979||Managing Editor of CNN Worldwide, Former Senior Vice President Of NBC News, Editor Of Newsweek|
|Marty Kaplan||Harvard University||Cambridge University||Associate Dean For Programs And Planning Of The Usc Annenberg School For Communication And Director Of The Norman Lear Center For The Study Of Entertainment|
|Mary E. Edgerton||Surgical Pathologist And Director Of Biorepository Informatics at The University Of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center|
|Matthew Palamountain||Cambridge RUFC, USA Rugby, Acre Education|
|Matthew Spence||Stanford University||Oxford University||2000||Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense For Middle East Policy, Department Of Defense|
|Melissa Lane||Harvard University||Cambridge University||1988||Professor of Political Theory At Princeton University|
|Michael Klarman||University of Pennsylvania||Oxford University||Bancroft Prize Winner and Constitutional Law Scholar at Harvard Law School|
|Michael Otsuka||Yale University||Oxford University||1986||Professor Of Philosophy, London School of Economics and Political Science|
|Nancy Gibbs||Yale University||Oxford University||1982||Managing Editor Of Time|
|Nancy Lublin||Brown University||Oxford University||1993||Creator And Founder, Dress For Success, and CEO, Do Something|
|Nannerl Keohane||Wellesley College||Oxford University||1961||Former President Of Both Duke University (1993–2004) and Wellesley College (1981–1993)|
|Neil Gorsuch||University of California, Los Angeles||Oxford University||1992||Federal Judge on The United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit.|
|Nicole Krauss||Stanford University||Oxford University||1996||Novelist, History Of Love|
|Odaline de la Martinez||Tulane University||Royal Academy of Music||1972||Cuban-American Composer And First Woman To Ever Direct A Bbc Prom|
|Patrick M. Byrne||Dartmouth College||Cambridge University||1988||Chairman Of The Board And President Of Overstock.Com|
|Peter Kramer||Harvard University||University College, London||1970||Author of Listening To Prozac (1993)|
|Peter Orszag||Princeton University||London School of Economics||1991||Director, Office of Management and Budget. Former Director, Congressional Budget Office|
|Ray Dolby||Stanford University||Cambridge University||1957||Inventor Of Dolby Sound And Chairman Of Dolby Laboratories|
|Reid Hoffman||Stanford University||Oxford University||1990||Founder Of Linkedin|
|Richard Cordray||Michigan State University||Oxford University||1981||Directory Of The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau|
|Robert Oden||Harvard University||Cambridge University||Former President of Carleton College, former President of Kenyon College|
|Roger Tsien||Harvard University||Cambridge University||Winner Of Nobel Prize In Chemistry, 2008|
|Rosa Brooks||Harvard University||Oxford University||1991||Counselor To The Under Secretary For Policy, U.S. Department Of Defense; Los Angeles Times Columnist And Georgetown Law Professor|
|Samuel Rascoff||Professor At NYU School Of Law|
|Sandra E. Shumway||Research Professor, University Of Connecticut; Marine Scientist|
|Sanjoy Mahajan||Stanford University||Oxford University||1990||Associate Professor of Applied Science and Engineering at Olin College of Engineering; Author of Street-Fighting Mathematics|
|Scott MacIntyre||Arizona State University||Royal Holloway, University of London and the Royal College of Music||2005||Musician and American Idol Season 8 Contestant|
|Seth Lloyd||Harvard University||Cambridge University||1982||Quantum Information Scientist|
|Stephen Breyer||Stanford University||Oxford University||1959||Associate Justice Of The U.S. Supreme Court Since 1994|
|Stephen Brusatte||University of Chicago||University of Bristol||2006||Paleontologist, Co-Creator Of Taxonsearch And Discoverer Of Carcharodontosaurus Iguidensis|
|Stephen Jennings||Dartmouth College||University of Oxford||1983||Co-CEO, Monitor Group (now Monitor Deloitte)|
|Stephen Quake||Stanford University||Oxford University||1991||Professor of Bioengineering at Stanford University, Inventor, and Entrepreneur|
|Steven Strogatz||Princeton University||Cambridge University||1980||Applied Mathematician (Complex Networks)|
|Stuart Kauffman||Dartmouth College||Oxford University||1963||Founder of the Elizabeth Kauffman Institute for Transforming Medicine, Complex Systems Researcher, Medical Doctor, And Author|
|Ted Conover||Amherst College||Cambridge University||Author, Essayist And Journalist|
|Thomas Babe||Harvard University||Cambridge University||1963||Playwright|
|Thomas Carothers||Harvard University||London School of Economics||Vice President For Studies At The Carnegie Endowment For International Peace|
|Thomas Eugene Everhart||Harvard University||Cambridge University||1955||Physicist. Former President of the California Institute of Technology. Former Chancellor of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Inventor of the Everhart-Thornley Detector.|
|Thomas Friedman||Brandeis University||Oxford University||1975||Multiple Pulitzer Prize|
|Warwick Sabin||University of Arkansas||Oxford University||1998||Member of the Arkansas House of Representatives|
|William Broyles, Jr.||Rice University||Oxford University||1966||American Screenwriter known for work on Apollo 13 (film), Cast Away, and The Polar Express (film).|
|William Joseph Burns||La Salle University||Oxford University||1978||U.S. Deputy Secretary Of State; Former Undersecretary Of State; Former United States Ambassador To Russia|
|Zachary D. Kaufman||Yale University||Oxford University||2000||Legal Academic And Social Entrepreneur|
|Sewell Chan||Harvard University||Oxford University||1998||American Journalist; Deputy Opinion Page Editor of the New York Times|
|Sheryll D. Cashin||Vanderbilt University||Oxford University||1984||Law Professor, Georgetown University|
|Jerry A. Hausman||Brown University||Oxford University||1968||Professor of Economics, MIT. Frisch Medal (1980). John Bates Clark Medal (1985)|
|Mark Hersam||University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign||Cambridge University||1996||Professor of Chemistry, Northwestern University. MacArthur "Genius" Award (2014)|
|Nancy Cox||Iowa State University||Cambridge University||1970||Virologist. Director of the Influenza Division at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and director of CDC’s World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology and Control of Influenza|
|Bruce Allen||Massachusetts Institute of Technology||Cambridge University||1980||Director of the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics|
|Robert Lane Greene||Tulane University||Oxford University||1997||Journalist for the Economist, the New Republic, the New York Times, Slate|
|William H. Janeway||Princeton University||Cambridge University||1965||Venture capitalist (former Vice Chairman of Warburg Pincus) and Economist|
|Jef McAllister||Yale University||Oxford University||1977||Former London Bureau Chief of TIME|
|James M. Poterba||Harvard University||Oxford University||1980||Professor of Economics at MIT, President and CEO of NBER|
|Josh West||Yale University||Cambridge University||1999||Professor of Earth Sciences, University of Southern California. Rower in the 2008 Beijing Olympics for Great Britain.|
|Arthur L. Haywood III||Morehouse College||London School of Economics||1979||Pennsylvania State Senator for the 4th District.|
|Jonathan Galassi||Harvard College||Cambridge University||1971||President of Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Honorary Chairman of Academy of American Poets|
- Rhodes Scholarship at Oxford University
- Gates Scholarship at Cambridge University
- Truman Scholarship
- "Marshall Scholarships 2012 Competition Statistical Report" (PDF). Marshall Scholarships.
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- Britain to Set Up 12 Scholarships for U.S. Students. The Washington Post, August 1, 1952
- Stanford, Neal. Marshall Scholars: Terms Compared. The Christian Science Monitor, January 18, 1960.
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- Jenna Johnson (26 November 2013). "Meet the 2014 Rhodes Scholars". Washington Post.
- "The Marshall Scholarship | Writing Personal Statements Online". www.e-education.psu.edu. Retrieved 2015-12-26.
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- Schaeper, Thomas and Kathleen Schaeper. "Rhodes Scholars: Oxford, and the Creation of an American Elite," 2010. Berghahn Books: New York
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