Marshall Scholarship

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The official logo of the Marshall Scholarship is a blended image of the UK and US flags.
George C. Marshall, former Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense, for whom the scholarships are named

The Marshall Scholarship is a postgraduate scholarship for "intellectually distinguished young Americans [and] their country's future leaders" to study at any university in the United Kingdom.[1] Created by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in 1953 as a living gift to the United States in recognition of the generosity of Secretary of State George C. Marshall and the Marshall Plan in the wake of World War II, the goal of the scholarship was to strengthen the Special Relationship between the two countries for "the good of mankind in this turbulent world."[2] The scholarships are awarded by the Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission and are largely funded by the British government.[3]

With nearly 1,000 applicants in recent years, it is among the most selective graduate scholarship for Americans, with an acceptance rate around 4 percent, and as low as 3.2 percent in 2015.[4] It is widely considered one of the most prestigious scholarships for U.S. citizens,[5][6][7] and along with the Fulbright Scholarship, it is the only broadly available scholarship available to Americans to study at any university in the United Kingdom. The program was also the first major co-educational British graduate scholarship; one-third of the inaugural cohort in 1954 were women.

There are over 1,900 Marshall Scholar alumni,[8] including two of the nine current Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States (Neil Gorsuch and Stephen Breyer). Other alumni have been members of Congress and the presidential cabinet; state governors; CEOs of companies such as LinkedIn and Dolby Labs; deans of Yale Law School, Stanford Law School, the Harvard Kennedy School and Harvard College; and presidents of Duke University, Wellesley College, the Cooper Union, and Caltech. They also include one Nobel Laureate, one winner of the Kluge Prize, four Pulitzer Prize–winning authors, two winners of the John Bates Clark Medal, twelve MacArthur Genius Grant awardees, the president of the National Bureau of Economic Research, the managing editors of Time magazine and CNN, the international news editor of The New York Times, NASA's youngest astronaut, two Oscar nominees, one winner of the National Medal of Technology and Innovation, and one awardee of the Distinguished Flying Cross for service during the Iraq War.

Objectives[edit]

In a letter[9] to the first class of Marshall Scholars, George Marshall echoed his own words in initially presenting his ideas for European recovery by saying,

A close accord between our two countries is essential to the good of mankind in this turbulent world of today, and that is not possible without an intimate understanding of each other. These scholarships point the way to the continuation and growth of the understanding which found its necessity in the terrible struggle of the war years.

The published objectives of the Marshall Scholarships are outlined as follows:

  1. To enable intellectually distinguished young Americans, their country's future leaders, to study in the UK.
  2. To help scholars gain an understanding and appreciation of contemporary Britain.
  3. To contribute to the advancement of knowledge in science, technology, the humanities and social sciences and the creative arts at Britain's centres of academic excellence.
  4. To motivate scholars to act as ambassadors from the US to the UK and vice versa throughout their lives thus strengthening British American understanding.
  5. To promote the personal and academic fulfilment of each scholar.

History[edit]

Plans to establish "Marshall Scholarships" as a living memorial to Secretary of State George Marshall were announced by British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden on July 31, 1952,[10] and were enacted by the Parliament of the United Kingdom when the Marshall Aid Commemoration Act was passed in 1953. The act's passage was backed by "leaders of all political hues," with British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin describing the scholarship's establishment as "a great opportunity for Europe."

While the authors of the proposal initially considered partnering with the Rhodes Scholarship, and even considered using the same selection committees, this idea was eventually disregarded because its proponents strongly believed the scholarships should be available to women, and to married men under the age of 28 (at the time, the Rhodes Scholarship was limited to single men under the age of 25). The creation of a separate scholarship was a cause of great concern to Lord Godfrey Elton, the head of the Rhodes Trust at the time, who worried that the ability to study at other universities would draw potential applicants. He urged the Foreign Office to create a ‘reverse exchange’ for British students in the United States instead.[11] The Rhodes Scholarship became open to women beginning in 1977 following the passage of the British Sex Discrimination Act in 1975.[5]

In 1959, when Parliament doubled the number of scholars from 12 to 24, British politician Philip Noel-Baker argued that "Marshall, more than perhaps any other man, destroyed isolation in the United States and built up the conception that only collective security through international institutions can save the world...I think the world has never seen an act of greater national generosity than Marshall aid and the other aid which the United States has given to other continents throughout the last 15 years." By 1960, six years after their establishment, the scholarship was "on its way to becoming as well-known and respected as the fellow phrase, "Rhodes [Scholarship]," and both scholarships attracted roughly 500 to 600 applicants.[12]

As part of the celebrations for the 50th Anniversary of the Marshall Scholarships in 2003,[13] Marshall Medals were awarded to a group of distinguished Americans in recognition of their contributions to US-UK relations, including Justice Stephen Breyer (1959 Marshall Scholar), Dr. Ray Dolby (1957 Marshall Scholar), Thomas L. Friedman (1975 Marshall Scholar), and former President of Duke University Nannerl Keohane (1961 Marshall Scholar).

The number of scholars was increased to 30 in 1973, 40 in 1991, and between 2004-2007 "up to 44". In 2010, the Commission decided to offer a limited number of one year awards.[14] In 2016, the Foreign Office announced that 40 scholars had been selected, a 25 percent increase over the originally planned 32, with Foreign Office Minister Alok Sharma calling it a demonstration of how "resolute Britain is in its commitment to the special relationship."[15]

In the early years of the Marshall Scholarship, it was common for new Scholars to travel together to the UK on an ocean liner, but now Scholars are usually flown together to London from Washington, D.C. following a welcome program with top US and UK government and diplomatic officials.

Selection, selectivity, and academic destinations[edit]

Prospective applicants must first be endorsed by their universities to apply. The selection process is then coordinated through the eight major British embassy/consulate regions in the United States (Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, and Washington, D.C.). Selection committees in each region, consisting of former Scholars and other distinguished individuals, receive university-endorsed applications (including personal statements and essays) which are used to select a short list of candidates for interviews. Each committee then interviews each of the regional finalists prior to making the final decisions on the year's awards. In 2014, 16 percent of university-endorsed applicants received an interview.[16]

Although most of the responsibility for selecting the recipients is in the hands of the committees, a few formal guidelines have been outlined in the official selection criteria, most notably:[17]

As future leaders, with a lasting understanding of British society, Marshall Scholars will strengthen the enduring relationship between the British and American peoples, their governments and their institutions. Marshall Scholars are talented, independent and wide-ranging in their interests, and their time as Scholars will enhance their intellectual and personal growth. Their direct engagement with Britain through its best academic programmes will contribute to their ultimate personal success. In appointing Scholars the selectors will look for distinction of intellect and character as evidenced both by their scholastic attainments and by their other activities and achievements. Preference will be given to candidates who display a potential to make a significant contribution to their own society. Selectors will also look for strong motivation and seriousness of purpose, including the presentation of a specific and realistic academic programme.

Selectivity[edit]

Between 900 and 1000 students are typically endorsed to apply for the Marshall Scholarship annually, with 979 applying in 2014[16] (compared to 857 for the U.S. Rhodes Scholarship,[18] and 924 for the UK Fulbright Program[19]), of whom 3.4 percent were ultimately selected. In 2015 and 2016, 3.2 and 3.5 percent of university-endorsed applicants to the Marshall Scholarship were elected.[4][20]

The Marshall selection committees place a strong emphasis on academic achievement and potential, and as such the application requires a minimum GPA of 3.7. Successful applicants, however, typically have much higher GPAs: more than half of applicants have perfect academic records.[21] Winners from Harvard University have had average GPAs of 3.92,[22] and Stanford University recommends that applicants have a GPA of 3.8 or above.[23] In comparison, winners of the Rhodes Scholarship from Harvard have had an average GPA of 3.8.[22]

Between 1954 and 2013, 239 of 1818 scholars received their undergraduate degrees from Harvard University (13 percent), 126 from Princeton, 108 from Yale, 83 from Stanford, and 60 from MIT. The most successful public university is the US Military Academy at West Point, with 34 scholars, followed by the University of California at Berkeley, with 28 scholars. Of the 548 scholars elected between 2000 and 2013, 30 were from Harvard and Stanford (5 percent), 26 from Princeton, 21 from Yale, and 17 from MIT, the US Military Academy at West Point, and the US Naval Academy.[8]

Academic destinations[edit]

University of Oxford, University of Cambridge, London School of Economics, University College London, Edinburgh, King's College London and Imperial College London have always dominated the list of preferred universities selected by both the endorsed and the actually interviewed Marshall Scholarship applicants from 2005 to 2016. SOAS and the LSHTM have also sometimes been highly preferred.

These nine institutions almost always form the dominant block of the destinations of eventually selected Scholars.[24] That said, Scholars have attended a wide range of universities throughout the UK, many of which are ranked[25][26] among the best in the world.

In 2015, there were 69 Marshall Scholars in residence at British universities[27] including those who were selected for the classes of 2012, 2013, and 2014. During this time, there were 27 scholars at the University of Oxford, 17 at the University of London (including 5 each at the London School of Economics and King's College London, and 1 at University College London), 13 at the University of Cambridge, and 4 at Imperial College London. Of these scholars, 46 were studying arts and social sciences while 23 were studying science, engineering or mathematics.[28]

Comparison to other post-graduate scholarships[edit]

The Marshall Scholarship is more selective than the Churchill Scholarship, the Harry S. Truman Scholarship, or the UK Fulbright Program, approximately as selective as the American Rhodes Scholarship and the Mitchell Scholarship, and less selective than the Gates Cambridge Scholarship.

In structure and selection criteria, the Scholarship is most similar to the American Rhodes Scholarship and the Fulbright Program. Like the Fulbright available for study in the United Kingdom, Marshall Scholars can study at any university in the UK. However, under the Fulbright, applicants compete in separate pools for 43 specified universities of varying selectivity, except for two awards tenable at any university.[29]

In structure, the Marshall Scholarship is more flexible than the Rhodes Scholarship, in that Marshall Scholars can study at any British university,[5] and can also attend a different university each year during a Scholar's tenure. In addition, a limited number of one-year Marshall scholarships are available. Unlike Rhodes Scholars, Marshall Scholars must be American citizens (in comparison, approximately 80 Rhodes Scholarships are given annually to citizens of over a dozen countries). In process, the Marshall Scholarship is approximately as selective as the Rhodes and Mitchell Scholarships: the Marshall was awarded to 3.4 percent of university-endorsed applicants in 2014,[16] compared to 3.7 percent for the Rhodes in 2014[18] and 3.2 percent for the Mitchell Scholarship in 2017.[30] Also, because the selection processes of the scholarships discussed above differ, the likelihood that an applicant will be granted a final round interview is different for each scholarship. In 2014, 15.9 percent of university-endorsed applicants for the Marshall Scholarship received a finalist interview,[16] compared to 24 percent of Rhodes applicants[18] and 5.4 percent of Mitchell applicants.[30]

While the selection committees continue to emphasize academic potential, over time "the Marshall program has become more Rhodes-like, stating that it is seeking persons who also demonstrate leadership potential." In general, "nearly all Rhodes Scholars are willing to admit that, by and large, the Marshalls are superior if one looks just at grade point averages and other signs of academic achievement," but this is a point of both "admiration" and "disdain."[31]:293 Walter Isaacson, describing Rhodes Scholars as "fairly intelligent, well-rounded, honest people who could be counted on to be upstanding citizens," has said that "the real geniuses...were the Marshall Scholars," perhaps because of the expectation that Rhodes Scholars be "all-rounders." In practice, the Marshall and Rhodes have engaged an "informal rivalry," but in career trajectory after the completion of their fellowships, "the line between [the fellowships] is not so evident," with scholars pursuing similar fields with similar success. In general, a higher percentage of Marshall Scholars "go on to careers in academe and research, whereas Rhodes Scholars are more evenly scattered through the full range of professional occupations."[31]:357

Association of Marshall Scholars[edit]

The Association of Marshall Scholars (AMS) was formed in 1988[32] as a charitable organization to

  • publicize the Marshall Scholarship Program in the United States and to provide information on British educational institutions in general
  • aid in the selection of future Marshall Scholars
  • maintain contact among Marshall Scholars and Marshall Scholar Alumni
  • sponsor programs that would further the charitable and educational aims of the Marshall Scholarship Program.

The organization has been led by several notable board and advisory members, including Kathleen Sullivan, Reid Hoffman, Nannerl Keohane, Peter Orszag, Harold Koh, Roger Tsien, and Daniel Yergin.[33]

In 2017 the Association of Marshall Scholars, in partnership with the German Marshall Fund and the British Embassy, Washington, hosted the Harvard Marshall Forum at Harvard University to mark the 70th anniversary of the Marshall Plan and focused on its legacy and impact today. The event featured 30 distinguished speakers including Madeleine Albright as well as Supreme Court Justices Stephen Breyer and Neil Gorsuch - both Marshall Scholars.[34]

In 2018, the AMS partnered with the British Consulate General, San Francisco and the Bechtel International Center at Stanford University to host a Marshall Forum on Innovation. The Forum focused on the pipeline of scientific invention in fields such as biomedicine and genetics that are of particular interest to the United States and the United Kingdom. Distinguished speakers included Reid Hoffman, a Marshall Scholar, and David Reitze, Director of LIGO Laboratory. The Forum highlighted societal challenges and opportunities raised by explosive innovations in these fields as they interact with advances in machine learning, artificial intelligence, and data science.

In 2019, the AMS hosted the Marshall Forum with the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, focusing on peace and prosperity. The Forum featured 17 distinguished speakers including the Governor of the Bank of England Mark Carney, the Director of US National Security Agency General Paul Nakasone, former U.S. Ambassadors Michael Froman, Carla Hills, and Bill Burns, and former British Ambassador to the United States Kim Darroch.[35]

The Association of Marshall Scholars releases an annual public opinion poll in partnership with Emerson College in Boston, MA. The poll measures the American public's perceptions of the United Kingdom.

Notable Marshall Scholars[edit]

Name US university UK university Year
awarded
Notability
Anthony C. E. Quainton Princeton University Oxford University 1955 Former Ambassador To Nicaragua, Kuwait, Peru, And Central African Empire, Director General of the Foreign Service
Thomas Eugene Everhart Harvard University Cambridge University 1955 Physicist. Former President of the California Institute of Technology. Former Chancellor of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Inventor of the Everhart-Thornley Detector.
Ray Dolby Stanford University Cambridge University 1957 Inventor Of Dolby Sound And Chairman Of Dolby Laboratories
Arthur Jaffe Princeton University Cambridge University 1959 L.T. Clay Professor of Mathematics and Theoretical Science, Harvard University
John Jay Iselin Harvard University Cambridge University 1959 Former President Of Cooper Union, Former President Of Wnet
Stephen Breyer Stanford University Oxford University 1959 Associate Justice Of The U.S. Supreme Court Since 1994
Bruce Babbitt University of Notre Dame Newcastle University 1960 Former Governor Of Arizona And U.S. Secretary Of The Interior For President Bill Clinton
Keith Griffin Williams College Oxford University 1960 Former President of Magdalen College, Oxford.
Nannerl Keohane Wellesley College Oxford University 1961 Former President Of Both Duke University (1993–2004) and Wellesley College (1981–1993)
Ed Victor Dartmouth College Cambridge University 1961 Journalist and Literary Agent
Graham Allison Harvard University Oxford University 1962 Foreign Policy Expert And Founding Dean Of Harvard University's Kennedy School Of Government; Former Undersecretary Of Defense
Thomas C. Grey Stanford University Oxford University 1963 Professor of Law, Stanford University
Thomas Babe Harvard University Cambridge University 1963 Playwright
Stuart Kauffman Dartmouth College Oxford University 1963 Founder of the Elizabeth Kauffman Institute for Transforming Medicine, Complex Systems Researcher, Medical Doctor, and Author. MacArthur Genius Grant
Alfred Guzzetti Harvard University University of London 1964 Experimental and Documentary Filmmaker, and Harvard University Professor
John Spratt Davidson College Oxford University 1964 Congressman for South Carolina's 5th Congressional District (1983-2011), Chairman of the United States House Committee on the Budget (2007-2011)
William H. Janeway Princeton University Cambridge University 1965 Venture capitalist (former Vice Chairman of Warburg Pincus) and Economist
Lewis Sargentich Occidental College Sussex University 1965 Professor At Harvard Law School
Benjamin M. Friedman Harvard University Cambridge University 1966 American Political Economist
Linn Hobbs Northwestern University Oxford University 1966 Professor Emeritus of Materials Science and Nuclear Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
William Broyles, Jr. Rice University Oxford University 1966 American Screenwriter known for work on Apollo 13 (film), Cast Away, and The Polar Express (film).
Daniel Yergin Yale University Cambridge University 1968 Pulitzer Prize-Winning American Author, Speaker. Co-Founder And Chairman Of Cambridge Energy Research Associates.
Jerry A. Hausman Brown University Oxford University 1968 Professor of Economics, MIT. Frisch Medal (1980). John Bates Clark Medal (1985)
Robert Oden Harvard University Cambridge University 1969 Former President of Carleton College, former President of Kenyon College
Peter Kramer Harvard University University College, London 1970 Author of Listening To Prozac (1993)
Nancy Cox Iowa State University Cambridge University 1970 Virologist. Director of the Influenza Division at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and director of CDC's World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology and Control of Influenza
Jonathan Galassi Harvard College Cambridge University 1971 President of Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Honorary Chairman of Academy of American Poets
Marty Kaplan Harvard University Cambridge University 1971 Associate Dean For Programs And Planning Of The Usc Annenberg School For Communication And Director Of The Norman Lear Center For The Study Of Entertainment
Jonathan Erichsen Harvard University Oxford University 1972 Professor of Visual Neuroscience, Cardiff University
Odaline de la Martinez Tulane University Royal Academy of Music 1972 Cuban-American Composer And First Woman To Ever Direct A Bbc Prom
Roger Tsien Harvard University Cambridge University 1972 Winner Of Nobel Prize In Chemistry, 2008
Benedict Gross Harvard University Oxford University 1973 Professor of Mathematics known for the Gross–Zagier theorem, former dean of Harvard College
James K. Galbraith Harvard University Cambridge University 1974 Economist and Journalist
James F. Gilliam University of North Carolina University of Wales (Bangor) 1974 Biologist and ISI Highly Cited Researcher
William A. Darity Jr. Brown University London School of Economics 1974 Economist, Samuel DuBois Cook Professor of Public Policy at Duke University
Douglas A. Melton University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Cambridge University 1975 Professor and Chair Of The Harvard University Department Of Stem Cell And Regenerative Biology
Thomas Friedman Brandeis University Oxford University 1975 Journalist, author, and three time Pulitzer Prize winner. New York Times Columnist.
Harold Koh Harvard University Oxford University 1975 Legal Adviser Of The Department Of State; Former Dean Of The Yale Law School
Sandra E. Shumway Southampton College, Long Island University University of Wales (Bangor) 1976 Research Professor, University Of Connecticut; Marine Scientist
Amy Wax Yale University Oxford University 1976 the Robert Mundheim Professor of Law at the University of Pennsylvania Law School
Jane M. Hawkins College of the Holy Cross University of Warwick 1976 Mathematician and Professor, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Kathleen Sullivan Cornell University Oxford University 1976 Professor and Former Dean of Stanford Law School
Paul Tash Indiana University University of Edinburgh 1976 CEO of Times Publishing Company, Editor in Chief of Tampa Bay Times, Chair of the Pulitzer Prize Board 2013-2014
Mary E Edgerton UT MD Anderson Cancer Center University of East Anglia 1976 Breast Cancer Researcher, Breast Pathologist, and Pathology Informatician.
Jef McAllister Yale University Oxford University 1977 Former London Bureau Chief of TIME
Bill Buford University of California at Berkeley Cambridge University 1977 Founding Editor Of Granta, European Correspondent for the New Yorker
Edward Hundert Yale University Oxford University 1978 Educator, Psychiatrist, and Medical Ethicist
William Joseph Burns La Salle University Oxford University 1978 U.S. Deputy Secretary Of State; Former Undersecretary Of State; Former United States Ambassador To Russia
Jeff Modisett University of California, Los Angeles Oxford University 1978 Former Attorney General of Indiana
Thomas Carothers Harvard University London School of Economics 1978 Vice President For Studies At The Carnegie Endowment For International Peace
Mark Whitaker Harvard University Oxford University 1979 Managing Editor of CNN Worldwide, Former Senior Vice President Of NBC News, Editor Of Newsweek
Arthur L. Haywood III Morehouse College London School of Economics 1979 Pennsylvania State Senator for the 4th District.
Jeffrey Rosensweig Yale University Oxford University 1979 Author, Director Of Global Perspectives at the Goizueta School Of Business Of Emory University
E. Sterl Phinney California Institute of Technology Cambridge University 1980 Professor of Theoretical Physics at the California Institute of Technology
Bruce Allen Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge University 1980 Director of the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics
Kurt M. Campbell University of California, San Diego Oxford University 1980 Assistant Secretary Of State For East Asian And Pacific Affairs
Steven Strogatz Princeton University Cambridge University 1980 Applied Mathematician (Complex Networks)
James M. Poterba Harvard University Oxford University 1980 Professor of Economics at MIT, President and CEO of NBER
Richard Cordray Michigan State University Oxford University 1981 Director Of The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau
D. Cameron Findlay Northwestern University Oxford University 1982 White House aide to George H.W. Bush, Deputy Secretary of Labor, General Counsel at Aon, Medtronic, ADM, Partner at Sidley Austin
Nancy Gibbs Yale University Oxford University 1982 Managing Editor Of Time
Seth Lloyd Harvard University Cambridge University 1982 Quantum Information Scientist
Ted Conover Amherst College Cambridge University 1982 Author, Essayist And Journalist
Daniel Benjamin Harvard University Oxford University 1983 Coordinator For Counterterrorism and Ambassador at Large, State Department
Stephen Jennings Dartmouth College University of Oxford 1983 Co-CEO, Monitor Group (now Monitor Deloitte)
Matthew Adler Yale University Oxford University 1984 Professor at Duke Law School and the founding director of the Duke Center for Law, Economics and Public Policy
Michael Klarman University of Pennsylvania Oxford University 1984 Bancroft Prize Winner and Constitutional Law Scholar at Harvard Law School
Sheryll D. Cashin Vanderbilt University Oxford University 1984 Law Professor, Georgetown University
Cindy Sughrue Boston University University of Sheffield 1985 CEO of Scottish Ballet, Director of the Charles Dickens Museum, London[36]
Michael Otsuka Yale University Oxford University 1986 Professor Of Philosophy, London School of Economics and Political Science
Anne Applebaum Yale University London School of Economics 1986 Pulitzer Prize. Columnist for the Washington Post and Slate, former member of the Washington Post Editorial Board.
Jeffrey Rosen Harvard University Oxford University 1986 Author, Law Professor, and Legal Affairs Editor At The New Republic
Terri Sewell Princeton University Oxford University 1987 Congresswoman for Alabama's 7th Congressional District (2010–present)[37]
David Laibson Harvard University London School of Economics 1988 Professor Of Economics, Harvard University
Melissa Lane Harvard University Cambridge University 1988 Professor of Political Theory At Princeton University
Kris Kobach Harvard University Oxford University 1988 Secretary of State of Kansas (2011), Chairman of the Kansas Republican Party, National Rowing Champion
Mark Filip University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Oxford University 1988 United States Deputy Attorney General
Patrick M. Byrne Dartmouth College Cambridge University 1988 Chairman Of The Board And President Of Overstock.Com
Byron Auguste Yale University Oxford University 1989 Deputy Director, National Economic Council and Director of McKinsey's Global Social Sector Office
Heather J. Sharkey Yale University Durham University 1990 Professor of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations at the University of Pennsylvania, Carnegie Scholar, Fulbright-Hays Scholar
Charles King University of Arkansas Oxford University 1990 Georgetown University Professor and Author
Peter R. Orszag Princeton University London School of Economics 1991 Director, Office of Management and Budget. Former Director, Congressional Budget Office
Stephen Quake Stanford University Oxford University 1991 Professor of Bioengineering at Stanford University, Inventor, and Entrepreneur
Jeffrey Glueck Harvard University Oxford University 1991 COO and CEO of Foursquare
Rosa Brooks Harvard University Oxford University 1991 Counselor To The Under Secretary For Policy, U.S. Department Of Defense; Los Angeles Times Columnist And Georgetown Law Professor
Jeremy Heyl Princeton University Durham and Cambridge Universities 1992 Professor of Physics and Astronomy at the University of British Columbia
Angela Duckworth Harvard College Oxford University 1992 2013 MacArthur Genius Grant, Head of Duckworth Lab at the University of Pennsylvania
Kelly Grovier University of California, Los Angeles Oxford University 1992 Poet and Literary Critic for the Observer and the Times Literary Supplement
Neil Gorsuch Columbia University Oxford University 1992 Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States since 2017
Annabel Park Boston University Oxford University 1992 Documentary filmmaker (9500 Liberty, Story of America)
Drew Daniel University of California at Berkeley Oxford University 1993 Member of Matmos And Professor at Johns Hopkins University
Nancy Lublin Brown University Oxford University 1993 Creator And Founder, Dress For Success, and CEO, Do Something
Danielle Allen Princeton University Cambridge University 1993 Director of the Harvard Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics, Harvard University Professor, MacArthur Genius Grant 2001, Chair of Pulitzer Prize Board 2014-2015
Kannon Shanmugam Harvard University Oxford University 1993 Supreme Court Litigator
Ahilan Arulanantham Georgetown University Oxford University 1994 2016 MacArthur "Genius" Award (2014)
Jeffrey Gettleman Cornell University Oxford University 1994 Pulitzer Prize Winning Author, East Africa Bureau Chief for the New York Times
Jennifer Daskal Brown University Cambridge University 1994 Former Counsel, National Security Division, Department Of Justice
Amy Finkelstein Harvard University Oxford University 1995 Professor at MIT, Winner of the Clark Medal For Economics in 2012
Jason Bordoff Brown University Oxford University 1995 Former Special Assistant to the President, National Security Council[38]
Nicole Krauss Stanford University Oxford University 1996 Novelist, History Of Love
Mark Hersam University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Cambridge University 1996 Professor of Chemistry, Northwestern University. MacArthur "Genius" Award (2014)
Jonathan Orszag Princeton University Oxford University 1996 Senior Managing Director of Compass Lexecon, former Clinton Administration Economic Advisor
A. Benjamin Spencer Morehouse College London School of Economics 1996 Justice Thurgood Marshall Distinguished Professor of Law at University of Virginia School of Law; Captain, U.S. Army Reserve (JAG)[39]
Derek Kilmer Princeton University Oxford University 1996 U.S. Representative for Washington's 6th Congressional District
Samuel Rascoff Harvard University Oxford University 1996 Professor at New York University School of Law
Joshua Oppenheimer Harvard University University of the Arts London 1997 Award-Winning Documentary Film Director, Director of The Act of Killing, MacArthur "Genius" Award 2014
Robert Lane Greene Tulane University Oxford University 1997 Journalist for the Economist, the New Republic, the New York Times, Slate
Kim Campbell United States Air Force Academy Imperial College, London 1997 USAF Pilot, awarded Distinguished Flying Cross for service during the Iraq War
Katie Beirne Fallon University of Notre Dame Queens University Belfast; London School of Economics 1998 Legislative Affairs Director, White House
Sewell Chan Harvard University Oxford University 1998 American Journalist; Deputy Opinion Page Editor of the New York Times
Warwick Sabin University of Arkansas Oxford University 1998 Member of the Arkansas House of Representatives
Daniel Klein Cornell University Oxford University 1998 Professor of Computer Science, University of California at Berkeley
Josh West Yale University Cambridge University 1999 Professor of Earth Sciences, University of Southern California. Rower medalist in the 2008 Beijing Olympics for Great Britain.
Matthew Spence Stanford University Oxford University 2000 Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense For Middle East Policy, Department Of Defense
Zachary D. Kaufman Yale University Oxford University 2000 Legal Academic And Social Entrepreneur
Adam Cohen Harvard University Cambridge University 2001 Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Physics at Harvard University
Krish Vignarajah Yale University Oxford University 2001 President & CEO of the Lutheran Immigration and Refugee Service
Anne McClain U.S. Military Academy at West Point University of Bath and University of Bristol 2002 Major, U.S. Army. NASA Astronaut.
Collin O'Mara Dartmouth College Oxford University 2003 President of National Wildlife Federation; Former Delaware Secretary Of Natural Resources And Environmental Control
Scott MacIntyre Arizona State University Royal Holloway, University of London and the Royal College of Music 2005 Musician and American Idol Season 8 Contestant
Andrew Klaber Yale University

Harvard University

Oxford University 2004 Partner at Paulson & Company
Tianhui Michael Li Princeton University Cambridge University 2007 Hertz Foundation Fellow, first Data Scientist in residence at Andreessen Horowitz, founder of The Data Incubator

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Marshall Scholarships 2012 Competition Statistical Report" (PDF). Marshall Scholarships. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 27, 2012.
  2. ^ "Message from General George Marshall". www.marshallscholarship.org.
  3. ^ Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission / Year ending 30 September 2016 / 63rd Annual Report. Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission. March 2017. ISBN 978-1-4741-4013-3. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
  4. ^ a b "Statistics". www.marshallscholarship.org. 2015. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  5. ^ a b c "Other Roads". The New York Times. January 12, 2003.
  6. ^ "10 Most Prestigious Scholarships In America". January 26, 2011.
  7. ^ "Ambassador Names Marshall Scholars". The New York Times. December 15, 1996.
  8. ^ a b "Statistics".
  9. ^ "Message from General George Marshall".
  10. ^ Britain to Set Up 12 Scholarships for U.S. Students. The Washington Post, August 1, 1952
  11. ^ Mukherji, Aroop. Diplomas and Diplomacy: The History of the Marshall Scholarship. pp. 31-32
  12. ^ Stanford, Neal. Marshall Scholars: Terms Compared. The Christian Science Monitor, January 18, 1960.
  13. ^ "HRH presents Marshall Medals at Senate House, London".
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 22, 2015. Retrieved January 22, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  15. ^ "UK announces more scholarships for US students to strengthen links with USA". www.gov.uk.
  16. ^ a b c d "Statistics". www.marshallscholarship.org. 2014. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  17. ^ "Who is eligible".
  18. ^ a b c Johnson, Jenna (November 26, 2013). "Meet the 2014 Rhodes Scholars". Washington Post.
  19. ^ "Countries". us.fulbrightonline.org.
  20. ^ "Statistics". www.marshallscholarship.org. Retrieved April 8, 2017.
  21. ^ "The Marshall Scholarship | Writing Personal Statements Online". www.e-education.psu.edu. Retrieved December 26, 2015.
  22. ^ a b "Harvard Post-Graduate". Harvard. Archived from the original on December 24, 2014.
  23. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 5, 2016. Retrieved December 26, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  24. ^ Statistics 2005 - 2016. Retrieved on April 18, 2016.
  25. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved December 14, 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  26. ^ http://www.arwu.org/rank2008/ARWU2008_A(EN).htm Archived August 22, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ "Annual Reports".
  28. ^ "Annual report". www.marshallscholarship.org. 2015. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  29. ^ "Countries". us.fulbrightonline.org. Retrieved December 26, 2015.
  30. ^ a b "Announcements | The Mitchell Scholarship | US-Ireland Alliance". www.us-irelandalliance.org. Retrieved November 18, 2018.
  31. ^ a b Schaeper, Thomas and Kathleen Schaeper. "Rhodes Scholars: Oxford, and the Creation of an American Elite," 2010. Berghahn Books: New York
  32. ^ "History and Mission of the Association of Marshall Scholars".
  33. ^ "Leadership for the Association of Marshall Scholars".
  34. '^ Liptak, Adam (June 3, 2017). "New York Times June 03, 2017, Gorsuch Rejects Doubts Over 'Rule of Law Today". The New York Times.
  35. ^ "Financial Times April 25, 2018, Even US anglophiles warn the UK over trade talks".
  36. ^ "Dr Cindy Sughrue to join NYJO Board". National Youth Jazz Orchestra. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
  37. ^ Thompson, Krissah (March 1, 2015). "Rep. Terri Sewell, a daughter of Selma, rues her city's lost promise" – via www.washingtonpost.com.
  38. ^ "Jason Bordoff". Columbia University. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
  39. ^ "A. Benjamin Spencer". University of Virginia School of Law. Retrieved June 14, 2018.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]