List of people executed for witchcraft
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This is a list of people executed for witchcraft, many of whom were executed during organised witch-hunts, particularly from the 15th–18th centuries. Large numbers of people were prosecuted for witchcraft in Europe between 1560 and 1630. Until around 1420, witchcraft-related prosecutions in Europe centred on maleficium, the concept of using supernatural powers specifically to harm others. Cases came about from accusations of the use of ritual magic to damage rivals. Up until the early 15th century, there was little association of witchcraft with Satan. From that time organised witch-hunts increased, as did individual accusations of sorcery. The nature of the charges brought changed as more cases were linked to diabolism. Throughout the century, a number of treatises were published that helped to establish a stereotype of the witch, particularly the Satanic connection. During the 16th century, witchcraft prosecutions stabilised and even declined in some areas. Witch-hunts increased again in the 17th century. The witch trials in Early Modern Europe included the Basque witch trials in Spain, the Fulda witch trials in Germany, the North Berwick witch trials in Scotland and the Torsåker witch trials in Sweden.
Witch-hunts also took place during the 17th century in the American colonies. These were particularly common in the colonies of Massachusetts, Connecticut and New Haven. The myth of the witch had a strong cultural presence in 17th century New England and, as in Europe, witchcraft was strongly associated with devil-worship. About eighty people were accused of practicing witchcraft in a witch-hunt that lasted throughout New England from 1648-1663. Thirteen women and two men were executed. The Salem witch trials followed in 1692–93, culminating in the executions of 20 people. 5 others died in jail.
It has been estimated that tens of thousands of people were executed for witchcraft in Europe and the American colonies over several hundred years. Although it is not possible to ascertain the exact number, modern scholars estimate around 40–50,000.[A] Common methods of execution for convicted witches were hanging, drowning and burning. Burning was often favoured, particularly in Europe, as it was considered a more painful way to die. Prosecutors in the American colonies generally preferred hanging in cases of witchcraft.
List and images of those executed for witchcraft
|Adelgrief, Johann AlbrechtJohann Albrecht Adelgrief||d. 1636||German||Executed after claiming to be a prophet.|
|Arriens, MarigjeMarigje Arriens||ca. 1520–1591||Dutch||Burned to death for sorcery|
|Barthe, AngeleAngéle de la Barthe||ca. 1230–1275||French||Found guilty of sexual relations with the devil and burned to death.|
|Bassett, GoodwifeGoodwife Bassett||d. 1651||Colonial American colonist||Hanged at Fairfield, Connecticut|
|Balfour, AllisonAllison Balfour||d. 1594||Scottish||Executed in Kirkwall|
|Bernauer, AgnesAgnes Bernauer||ca. 1410–1435||German||Convicted of witchcraft and thrown in the Danube to drown, following accusations by her father-in-law Ernest, Duke of Bavaria.|
|Bien, MergaMerga Bien||1560s–1603||German||Convicted as part of the Fulda witch trials and burned to death.|
|Birgitta, LassesLasses Birgitta||d. 1550||Swedish||The first woman executed for witchcraft in Sweden; beheaded.|
|Bishop, BridgetBridget Bishop||ca. 1632–1692||English (emigrated to British America)||The first person to be tried and executed during the Salem witch trials.|
|Bonanno, GiovannaGiovanna Bonanno||d. 1789||Italian||A widow and beggar accused of selling potions and spells intended to kill people to her neighbours. Accused of sorcery and hanged.|
|Borcke, SidoniaSidonia von Borcke||1548–1620||Pomeranian||Confessed to murder and witchcraft under torture; beheaded, corpse burned.|
|Burroughs, GeorgeGeorge Burroughs||ca. 1650–1692||Colonial American colonist||Congregational pastor, executed as part of the Salem witch trials.|
|Carrier, MarthaMartha Carrier||d. 19 Aug 1692||Colonial American colonist||Hanged during the Salem witch trials; her children had claimed she was a witch.|
|Chantraine, AnneAnne de Chantraine||1605–1622||French||Burned to death.|
|Chauderon, MichéeMichée Chauderon||d. 1652||Swiss||Confessed under torture to summoning demons and was the last person executed for sorcery in Geneva.|
|Cheveron, NyzetteNyzette Cheveron||d. 1605||Belgian||Confessed to being a witch; was strangled and burned to death.|
|Clarke, ElizabethElizabeth Clarke||ca. 1565–1645||English||The first woman persecuted by the Witchfinder General, Matthew Hopkins; hanged.|
|Cleary, BridgetBridget Cleary||ca. 1870-1895||County Tipperary, Ireland||Unclear; body immolated, possible posthumously.|
|Corey, GilesGiles Corey||ca. 1611–1692||English (emigrated to British America)||Crushed to death for refusing to plea during the Salem witch trials.|
|Corey, MarthaMartha Corey||1620s–1692||English (emigrated to British America)||Hanged during the Salem witch trials|
|Curtens, HelenaHelena Curtens||1722–1738||German||One of the last people to be executed for witchcraft in Germany.|
|Delvaux, JeanJean Delvaux||d. 1595||Belgian||Roman Catholic monk; beheaded|
|Deshayes, CatherineCatherine Deshayes||ca. 1640–1680||French||AKA La Voisin; burned to death following the Affair of the Poisons|
|Doughty, ThomasThomas Doughty||d. 1578||English||Nobleman and explorer accused by Sir Francis Drake of witchcraft, mutiny and treason; beheaded|
|Eastey, MaryMary Eastey||1634–1692||English (emigrated to British America)||Hanged during the Salem witch trials|
|Eriksdotter, AnnaAnna Eriksdotter||1624–1704||Swedish||The last person executed for sorcery in Sweden.|
|Francesco, MatteucciaMatteuccia de Francesco||d. 1428||Italian||Confessed to having flown on the back of a demon; burned to death.|
|Gardiner, JeaneJeane Gardiner||d. 1651||British||Executed in Bermuda.|
|Garnier, GillesGilles Garnier||d. 1573||French||Serial child murderer; convicted of witchcraft and lycanthropy, and burned to death.|
|Glamis, JanetJanet, Lady Glamis||d. 1537||Scottish||Accused of witchcraft by King James V; burned to death.|
|Glover, AnnAnn Glover||d. 1688||Irish-born emigrant to Colonial America||Last person hanged for witchcraft in Boston.|
|Goguillon, PeronnePeronne Goguillon||d. 1679||French||Burned to death; one of the last women to be executed for witchcraft in France.|
|Göldi, AnnaAnna Göldi||d. 1782||Swiss||Beheaded; known as "the last witch in Switzerland".|
|Good, SarahSarah Good||1655–1692||Colonial American colonist||One of the first to be convicted in the Salem witch trials.|
|Grandier, UrbainUrbain Grandier||1590–1634||French||Convicted following the Loudun possessions and burned to death.|
|Greensmith, GoodwifeGoodwife Greensmith||d. 1663||Colonial American colonist||Hanged at Hartford, Connecticut|
|Guilladot, BertrandBertrand Guilladot||d. 1742||French||Priest who confessed to having made a pact with the devil|
|Ham, MechteldMechteld ten Ham||d. 1605||Dutch||Confessed under torture and was burned to death.|
|Hausmannin, WalpurgaWalpurga Hausmannin||d. 1587||German||Midwife who confessed to child murder, witchcraft and vampirism; burned to death.|
|Henot, KatharinaKatharina Henot||1570–1627||German||Postmistress; burned to death.|
|Heur, AdrienneAdrienne d'Heur||1585–1646||French||Burned to death.|
|Hibbins, AnnAnn Hibbins||1656||Colonial American colonist||The fourth person executed for witchcraft in Massachusetts Bay Colony; hanged on Boston Common|
|Horne, JanetJanet Horne||d. 1727||Scottish||Last British person to be executed for sorcery; burned to death.|
|Horsnas, ElinElin i Horsnäs||d. 1611||Swedish||Beheaded after her second trial for witchcraft.|
|Howe, ElizabethElizabeth Howe||1635–1692||English (emigrated to English America)||Hanged during the Salem witch trials.|
|Hypatia||370–415||Alexandrian||Stripped and torn to pieces by a Christian mob.|
|Jacobs, GeorgeGeorge Jacobs||1620–1692||Colonial American colonist||Hanged during the Salem witch trials.|
|Johnson, MaryMary Johnson||ca.1648||Colonial American colonist||Hanged at Hartford, Connecticut|
|Jones, MargaretMargaret Jones||1648||Colonial American colonist||The first person to be executed for witchcraft in Massachusetts Bay Colony; hanged.|
|Jonesdochter, KatherineKatherine Jonesdochter||d. 1616||Scottish||Strangled; burned to death at Scalloway|
|Jonsdotter, MäretMäret Jonsdotter||1644–1672||Swedish||Beheaded|
|Junius, JohannesJohannes Junius||1573–1628||German||Tortured, burned to death during the Bamberg witch trials|
|Kemp, UrsulaUrsula Kemp||ca. 1525–1582||English||Confessed to witchcraft and hanged.|
|Kendall, Mrs.Mrs. Kendall||ca.1650||Colonial American colonist||Hanged at Cambridge, Massachusetts.|
|Knapp, GoodwifeGoodwife Knapp||d. 1653||Colonial American colonist||Hanged at Fairfield, Connecticut.|
|Koldings, AnnaAnna Koldings||d. 1590||Danish||Burned to death.|
|KolgrimKolgrim||ca. d. 1407||Colonial Norwegian (Greenlandic Norse)||Burned to death.|
|Kruckow, ChristenzeChristenze Kruckow||1558–1621||Danish||Noblewoman who confessed to cursing the marital bed of a rival; beheaded.|
|Lake, AliceAlice Lake||1620 - ca. 1650||Colonial American colonist||Wife of Henry Lake; hanged in Massachusetts.|
|LeatherlipsLeatherlips||1732–1810||Native American||Native American leader who was sentenced to death for witchcraft and executed with a tomahawk.|
|Lemp, RebeccaRebecca Lemp||d. 1590||German||One of 32 women convicted of witchcraft in a witch hunt in Nördlingen, burnt at the stake.|
|Løset, AnneAnne Løset||d. 1679||Norwegian||Burned to death.|
|Magee, LaurienLaurien Magee||1689-1710||Irish||Burnt at the stake as part of the Islandmagee witch trial.|
|Martin, SusannahSusannah Martin||1621–1692||English (emigrated to British America)||Executed during the Salem witch trials.|
|Matsdotter, MalinMalin Matsdotter||1613–1676||Swedish||Burned to death.|
|Meath, PetronillaPetronilla de Meath||ca. 1300–1324||Irish||Burned to death.|
|Nurse, RebeccaRebecca Nurse||1621–1692||English (emigrated to British America)||Hanged during the Salem witch trials|
|Nypan, LisbethLisbeth Nypan||ca. 1610–1670||Norwegian||Cunning woman accused of making people sick to earn money; burned to death.|
|Osborne, RuthRuth Osborne||1680–1751||English||Murdered by an unruly mob during a "trial by ducking".|
|Paisley witchesPaisley witches||d. 1697||Scottish||Also known as the Bargarran witches, the last mass execution for witchcraft in western Europe.|
|Palles, AnneAnne Palles||1619–1693||Danish||The last person officially executed for witchcraft in Denmark; beheaded.|
|Pappenheimer familyPappenheimer Family||d. 1600||German||Tortured and burned to death.|
|Parker, AliceAlice Parker||d. 1692||Colonial American colonist||Hanged during the Salem witch trials.|
|Parker, MaryMary Parker||d. 1692||Colonial American colonist||Hanged during the Salem witch trials.|
|Pauer, MariaMaria Pauer||1730s–1750||Austrian||Last person executed for witchcraft in Austria; beheaded.|
|Pedersdotter, AnneAnne Pedersdotter||d. 1590||Norwegian||Burned to death.|
|Pendle witchesPendle witches||d. 1612||English|
|Plainacher, ElisabethElisabeth Plainacher||1513–1583||Austrian||Only person to be executed for witchcraft in Vienna; burned to death.|
|PolissenaPolissena of San Macario||d. 1571||Italian||Burned to death.|
|Proctor, JohnJohn Proctor||ca. 1632–1692||Colonial American colonist||Hanged during the Salem witch trials.|
|Pudeator, AnnAnn Pudeator||d. 1692||Colonial American colonist||Hanged during the Salem witch trials.|
|Punasuomalainen, MarkettaMarketta Punasuomalainen||1600s–1658||Finnish||Cunning woman, burned to death.|
|Redd, WilmotWilmot Redd||1600s–1692||Colonial American colonist||Hanged during the Salem witch trials.|
|Reoch, ElspethElspeth Reoch||d. 1616||Scottish||Executed in Kirkwall|
|Repond, CatherineCatherine Repond||1662–1731||Swiss||Strangled and burned to death.|
|Rigby, IsabellaIsabella Rigby||d. 1666||English||Believed to be the last person hanged for witchcraft in Lancashire.|
|Rognvaldsson, JonJòn Rögnvaldsson||d. 1625||Icelandic||Burned to death.|
|Saenger von Mossau, Maria RenataMaria Renata Saenger von Mossau||1680–1749||German||One of the last to be executed for witchcraft in Germany.|
|Sampson, AgnesAgnes Sampson||d. 1591||Scottish||Midwife, garrotted and burned to death during the North Berwick witch trials.|
|SoulmotherSoulmother of Küssnacht||d. 1577||Swiss||Burned to death.|
|Spandemager, GydeGyde Spandemager||d. 1543||Danish||Burned to death.|
|Spliid, MarenMaren Spliid||ca. 1600–1641||Danish||Burned to death.|
|StedelenStedelen||d. ca. 1400||Swiss||Confessed under torture to summoning demons; burned to death.|
|Waterhouse, AgnesAgnes Waterhouse||ca. 1503–1566||English||The first woman executed for witchcraft in England; hanged.|
|Weir, ThomasThomas Weir||1599–1670||Scottish||Strangled and burned to death.|
|Wildes, SarahSarah Wildes||1627–1692||English (emigrated to British America)||Hanged during the Salem witch trials.|
|Willard, JohnJohn Willard||ca. 1672–1692||Colonial American colonist||Hanged during the Salem witch trials.|
|Witches of BelvoirWitches of Belvoir||d. 1618||English||A mother and two daughters, the daughters were hanged.|
|Witches of WarboysWitches of Warboys||d. 1593||English||Alice Samuel and her family; hanged.|
|Young, AlseAlse Young||ca. 1600–1647||Colonial American colonist||The first person recorded to have been executed for witchcraft in the American colonies; hanged.|
|Zdunk, BarbaraBarbara Zdunk||1769–1811||Polish||Burned to death.|
|Zippel, AnnaAnna Zippel||d. 1676||Swedish||Beheaded for abducting children.|
|Tokoi, AnttiAntti Tokoi||d.1682||Finnish||Accused and convicted of witchcraft, blasphemy, disgracing priests and healing. Most likely he was first executed, then left for ravens to eat. Tokoi's father is known to have been a witch, too.|
|Zippel, BritaBrita Zippel||d. 1676||Swedish||Beheaded for sorcery.|
|Renard, MimaMima Renard||d. 1692||French Brazilian||Prostitute, was accused by popular belief to bewitch men; burned to death.|
|da Conceição, MariaMaria da Conceição||d. 1798||Brazilian||Accused and convicted of witchcraft to produce medicines and potions to attract men.|
|de Jesus, UrsulinaUrsulina de Jesus||d. 1754||Brazilian||Accused of removing her husband's virility to avoid having children; burned to death.|
|Liang, ZhangZhang Liang||d. 646||Chinese||Accused of witchcraft and treason; executed.|
|Soder, FranziskaFranziska Soder||d. 1606, 8 October||Rheinfelden, Swiss||Burned as a witch. Her husband paid 320 Gulden as "confiscation" to the Gentlemen' Chamber in Rheinfelden.|
- ^ According to Kors & Peters, modern scholars place the number of executions for witchcraft at no greater than 50,000. According to Merriman, some estimates are higher. Levack multiplied the number of known European witch trials by the average rate of conviction and execution, to arrive at a figure of around 60,000 deaths. Barstow adjusted Levack's estimate to account for lost records, estimating 100,000 deaths. Hutton argues that Levack's estimate had already been adjusted for these, and revises the figure to approximately 40,000.
- Levack, p. 204
- Levack, p. 205
- Hall, P. 4
- Fradin, Judith Bloom, Dennis Brindell Fradin. The Salem Witch Trials. Marshall Cavendish. 2008, pg. 15
- Stack, p. 20
- K.M. Sheard (2011), "Hypatia", Llewellyn's Complete Book of Names for Pagans, Wiccans, Witches, Druids, Heathens, Mages, Shamans & Independent Thinkers of All Sorts who are Curious about Names from Every Place and Every Time, pp. 285–86, ISBN 9780738723686
- Ripley, George; Dana, Charles Anderson (1859). The New American Cyclopaedia. D. Appleton and Company. p. 122.
- Russell, Jeffrey Burton (1984). Witchcraft in the Middle Ages. Cornell University Press. p. 164. ISBN 0-8014-9289-0.
- Jewett, Clarence F. The memorial history of Boston: including Suffolk County, Massachusetts. 1630-1880. Ticknor and Company, 1881. pp. 138-141
- Upham, Caroline E. (2003). Salem Witchcraft in Outline. Kessinger Publishing. p. 88. ISBN 0-7661-3900-X.
- Fiume, Giovanna (2001). "The Old Vinegar Lady". In Levack, Brian P. New Perspectives on Witchcraft, Magic, and Demonology: Witchcraft in the Modern World. Taylor & Francis. pp. 261–283. ISBN 0-8153-3670-5.
- Burr, George Lincoln (2003). Narratives of the Witchcraft Cases 1648 to 1706. Kessinger Publishing. p. 215. ISBN 0-7661-5773-3.
- Lea, Henry Charles (2004). Materials Toward a History of Witchcraft. Kessinger Publishing. p. 1118. ISBN 0-7661-8359-9.
- Profile of Goodwife Knapp
- Carpenter, William Henry; Arthur, Timothy Shay (1854). The History of Ohio: From its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time. Lippincott, Grambo & Co. p. 209.
- Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (2008). "Lemp, Rebecca (d. 1590)". The Encyclopedia of Witches, Witchcraft and Wicca (3rd ed.). New York: Facts On File. p. 206. ISBN 978-1-4381-2684-5.
- Islandmagee witch trial
- Burns, William E. (2003), Witch hunts in Europe and America: an encyclopedia, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 3, ISBN 978-0-313-32142-9
- Schaeppi, Kathrin. (2000). Reunion: Schaeppi of Horgen: Family Chronicle. Basel: Gremper. Aus der Gemeindechronik Alte Bürgergeschlechter: Soder. p. 164.
- Kors, Alan Charles; Peters, Edward (2001). Witchcraft in Europe, 400-1700: a documentary history. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 17. ISBN 0-8122-1751-9.
- Merriman, Scott A. (2007). Religion and the law in America, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 527. ISBN 1-85109-863-1.
- Barstow, Anne Llewellyn (1994). Witchcraze: A New History of the European Witch Hunts. Pandora. ISBN 0-06-250049-X.
- Hall, David D. (2005). Witch-Hunting in Seventeenth-Century New England: A Documentary History 1638-1693. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3613-8.
- Hutton, Ronald (2001). The Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-285449-6.
- Levack, Brian P. (2006). The Witch-Hunt in Early Modern Europe. Pearson Education. ISBN 0-582-41901-8.
- Stack, Richard A. (2006). Dead wrong: violence, vengeance, and the victims of capital punishment. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-275-99221-7.